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Altruism, Favoritism, and Guilt in the Allocation of Family Resources: Sophie's Choice in Mao's Mass Send Down Movement AgEcon
Li, Hongbin; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Zhang, Junsen.
In this paper, we use new survey data on twins born in urban China, among whom many experienced the consequences of the forced mass rustication movement of the Chinese “cultural revolution,” to identify the distinct roles of altruism and guilt in affecting behavior within families. Based on a model depicting the choices of the allocation of parental time and transfers to multiple children incorporating favoritism, altruism and guilt, we show the conditions under which guilt and altruism can be separately identified by experimental variation in parental time with children. Based on within-twins estimates of affected cohorts, we find that parents selected children with lower endowments to be sent down; that parents behaved altruistically, providing more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Guilt; Altruism; China; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; J12; J13; O12.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43524
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Family Structure, Fertility and Child Quality in Colombia AgEcon
Ribero, Rocio.
This paper analyzes how family structure and fertility alter children quality in Colombia. Reduced form models to determine marital status of women and number of children ever born are estimated considering factors that affect women's bargaining powers inside the marriage. Tentative estimates of structural interdependence between these variables and children outcomes are outlined, revealing that marriage has a positive link with child quality and fertility has a negative link with child quality. Colombian national household survey data at rural and urban levels are used for the estimations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Family structure; Fertility; Child quality; Consumer/Household Economics; J00; J12; J13.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28390
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Female Household-Headship in Rural Bangladesh: Incidence, Determinants and Impact on Children's Schooling AgEcon
Joshi, Shareen.
This paper uses data from Matlab, Bangladesh to examine the characteristics of female-headed households and estimate the impact of female-headship on children’'s schooling. Female householdheads in Matlab fall into two broad groups: widows and married women, most of whom are wives of migrants. These women differ from each other not only in their current socio-economic circumstances, but also in their backgrounds and circumstances prior to getting married. To identify the effects of female-headship on children’'s outcomes, I use a two-stage least squares strategy that controls for the possible endogeneity of both types of female-headship. Results indicate that children residing in households headed by married women have stronger schooling attainments than...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Female-headed Households; Widowhood; Migration; Schooling; Labor and Human Capital; J12; J13; J16; I21; O15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28424
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Fertility and Female Work Force Participation in Bangladesh: Causality and Cointegration AgEcon
Hossain, Mohammad; Tisdell, Clement A..
This paper examines the causal links between fertility and female labor force participation in Bangladesh over the period 1974-2000 by specifying a bivariate and several trivariate models in a vector error correction framework. The three trivariate models alternatively include average age at first marriage for females, per capita GDP and infant mortality rate, which control for the effects of other socio-economic factors on fertility and female labor force participation. All the specified models indicate an inverse long-run relationship between fertility and female labor force participation. While the bivariate model also indicates bidirectional causality, the multivariate models confirm only a unidirectional causality – from labor force participation...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility; Female Labor Force Participation; Causality; Labor and Human Capital; C32; J13; J22.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/106947
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Fertility and Income AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
There is an inverse association between income per adult and fertility among countries, and across households this inverse association is also often observed. Many studies find fertility is lower among better educated women and is often higher among women whose families own more land and assets. What do we know about the social consequences of events and policies that change fertility, if they are independent of parent preferences for children or the economic conditions which account for much of the variation in parent lifetime fertility? These effects of exogenous fertility change on the health and welfare of children can are assessed from Kenyan household survey data by analysis of the consequences of twins, and the effect of avoiding unanticipated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sources of fertility decline; Twins; Child health; Kenya; Labor and Human Capital; J13; I32; I12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28500
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Fertility, Child Work and Schooling Consequences of Family Planning Programs: Evidence from an Experiment in Rural Bangladesh AgEcon
Sinha, Nistha.
Despite the attractiveness of experiments from the perspective of program evaluation, there have been very few program experiments in the area of family planning. This paper evaluates an ongoing family planning program experiment in rural Bangladesh. The paper estimates the effect of mothers'’ program exposure on fertility and children’'s time allocation. The results show that while the program was effective in reducing fertility, it had no significant impact on children’'s school enrollment. However, the program appears to have significantly raised boys'’ participation in the labor force.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility; Child labor; School enrollment; Program evaluation; Labor and Human Capital; J13; J22; I21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28457
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Fertility in Developing Countries AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
The associations between fertility and outcomes in the family and society have been treated as causal, but this is inaccurate if fertility is a choice coordinated by families with other life-cycle decisions, including labour supply of mothers and children, child human capital, and savings. Estimating how exogenous changes in fertility that are uncorrelated with preferences or constraints affect others depends on our specifying a valid instrumental variable for fertility. Twins have served as such an instrument and confirm that the cross-effects of fertility estimated on the basis of this instrument are smaller in absolute value than their associations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility Determination; Malthus; Household Demands; Fertility Effects; Labor and Human Capital; D13; J13; N30; O15.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10119
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HEALTHY SCHOOL MEALS AND EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES AgEcon
Belot, Michele; James, Jonathan.
This paper provides field evidence on the effects of diet on educational outcomes, exploiting a campaign lead in the UK in 2004, which introduced drastic changes in the meals, offered in the schools of one Borough – Greenwich - shifting from low-budget processed meals towards healthier options. We evaluate the effect of the campaign on educational outcomes in primary schools using a difference in differences approach; comparing educational outcomes in primary schools (key stage 2 outcomes more specifically) before and after the reform, using the neighbouring Local Education Authorities as a control group. We find evidence that educational outcomes did improve significantly in English and Science. We also find that the campaign lead to a 15% fall in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child nutrition; Child health; School meals; Education; Natural Experiment; Placebo effect; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; J13; I18; I28; H51; H52.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56207
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Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
Rural elderly have 40% of the income of those in urban areas, spend a larger share of their income on food, are in worse health, work later into their lives, and depend more on their children, lacking pensions and public services. The birth quota since 1980 has particularly restricted the childbearing of rural less educated women, who now face retirement with fewer children for support. Inequality in China is also be traced to increasing returns to schooling , especially beyond secondary school. Government restrictions on rural-urban migration reduces national efficiency, adds to the urban-rural wage gap, and increases inequality.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human capital returns; Rural-urban migration; Elderly poverty; China; Labor and Human Capital; J13; J24; J14.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28437
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Job Instability and Family Planning: Insights from the Italian Puzzle AgEcon
Sabatini, Fabio.
This paper carries out an investigation into the socio-economic determinants of couples’ childbearing decisions in Italy. Since having children is in most cases a “couple matter”, the analysis accounts for the characteristics of both the possible parents. Our results do not support established theoretical predictions according to which the increase in the opportunity cost of motherhood connected to higher female labour participation is responsible for the fall in fertility. On the contrary, the instability of the women’s work status (i.e. their being occasional, precarious, and low-paid workers) reveals to be a significant dissuasive deterrent discouraging the decision to have children. Couples with unemployed women are less likely to plan childbearing as...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility; Family Planning; Parenthood; Childbearing; Participation; Job Instability; Labour Precariousness; Social Capital; Italy; Labor and Human Capital; C25; J13; Z1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92835
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Population and Health Policies AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
The literature evaluating population and health policies is in flux, with many disciplines exploring biological and behavioral linkages from fetal development to chronic disease, disability, and late life mortality. The focus here is on research methods, findings, and questions that economists can clarify regarding the causal relationships between economic development, health outcomes, and reproductive behavior, which operate in many directions. The connection between conditions under which people live and their expected life span and health status refer to “health production functions”. The relationships between an individual’s stock of health and productivity, well being, and life span encompasses the “returns to health human capital”. The control of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Health; Fertility and Family Planning; Biology of Health Human Capital; Economic Development; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics; D13; I18; J13; O12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52224
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Population Policies, Fertility, Women's Human Capital, and Child Quality AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
Population policies are defined here as voluntary programs which help people control their fertility and expect to improve their lives. There are few studies of the long-run effects of policy-induced changes in fertility on the welfare of women, such as policies that subsidize the diffusion and use of best practice birth control technologies. Evaluation of the consequences of such family planning programs almost never assess their long-run consequences, such as on labor supply, savings, or investment in the human capital of children, although they occasionally estimate the short-run association with the adoption of contraception or age-specific fertility. The dearth of long-run family planning experiments has led economists to consider instrumental...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consequences of Fertility Decline; Child Quality; Evaluation of Population Policies; Labor and Human Capital; J13; J24; O15.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10120
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Social Class and the Fertility Transition: A Critical Comment on the Statistical Results Reported in Simon Szreter's Fertility, Class and Gender in Britain, 1860-1940 AgEcon
Barnes, Geoffrey; Guinnane, Timothy W..
Simon Szreter’s book Fertility, Class, and Gender in Britain, 1860-1940 argues that social and economic class fails to explain the cross-sectional differences in marital fertility as reported in the 1911 census of England and Wales. Szreter’s conclusion made the book immediately influential, and it remains so. This finding matters a great deal for debates about the causes of the European fertility decline of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. For decades scholars have argued whether the main forces at work were ideational or social and economic. This note reports a simple re-analysis of Szreter’s own data, which suggests that social class does explain cross-sectional differences in English marital fertility in 1911.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility transition; 1911 Census of England and Wales; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital; J13; N33.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97338
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Testing for a Supply Constraint to Fertility: Interpreting the Up to God Response to the Survey Question on Desired Family Size AgEcon
Sinha, Nistha.
The paper outlines a methodology that allows us to determine whether couples’ fertility is supply constrained based on the response they give to the subjective desired family size question. The central idea of the paper is that, when faced with the desired family size question, both constrained and unconstrained couples compare their demand for children with knowledge of their biological supply and unconstrained couples respond with a number while constrained couples respond with a qualitative response such as, “It is Up to God” (UTG), that essentially conveys the notion of demanding as many children as the supply function can yield. I then test this interpretation using data from Bangladesh. I find that controlling for demand side characteristics,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility; Desired fertility; Survey nonresponse; Consumer/Household Economics; J13; C25.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28461
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The Fertility of the Irish in America in 1910 AgEcon
Guinnane, Timothy W.; Moehling, Carolyn M.; Grada, Cormac O.
In most western societies, marital fertility began to decline in the nineteenth century. But in Ireland, fertility in marriage remained stubbornly high into the twentieth century. Explanations of Ireland’s late entry to the fertility transition focus on the influence of the Roman Catholic Church in Irish society. These arguments are often backed up by claims that the Irish outside of Ireland behaved the same way. This paper investigates these claims by examining the marital fertility of Irish Americans in 1910 and produces three main findings. First, the Irish in America had smaller families than both the rural and urban Irish and their fertility patterns show clear evidence of fertility control. Second, despite the evidence of control, Irish-Americans...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Ireland; United States; Fertility; Demography; Immigration; Labor and Human Capital; J13; N3.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28386
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The Fertility Transition: Economic Explanations AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
Economic explanations for the fertility transition focus on the role of returns to schooling, especially for women, which have encouraged women to obtain more education and facilitated the rise in women’s wages relative to men’s. The private opportunity costs of children have therefore increased, and parents have been motivated to substitute child schooling for additional births Declines in fertility have proceeded unevenly, first across the high income countries, and more recently across the low income countries. The cross sectional differentials in fertility are also frequently analyzed in household surveys, suggesting parallels with the cross-country comparisons. At an aggregate level, states have simultaneously legislated socialized support for the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility transition; Women’s schooling; Women’s wages; Child mortality; Labor and Human Capital; D19; J10; J13; N30.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28471
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The Gender and Generational Consequences of the Demographic Transition and Population Policy: An Assessment of the Micro and Macro Linkages AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, affecting resource allocations at the household and aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, savings and investments were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might suggest how the demographic transition would affects inputs to growth. However, existing macro and micro simulations are estimated from unrepresentative samples of wage earners that do not distinguish sex, schooling, etc. The “demographic dividend” is better evaluated through case studies of household surveys and long-run social experiments. Matlab, Bangladesh, extended a family planning and maternal and child health program to half the villages in its district in 1977, and recorded...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility decline; Demographic transition; Intergenerational transfers; Gender; Consumer/Household Economics; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; J13; J21; J68; O15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54534
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The Impact of Income and Family Structure on Delinquency AgEcon
Comanor, William S.; Phillips, Llad.
There is no more important issue in the economics of the family than the impact of parents on the behavior of their children. By providing rewards and imposing constraints, parents seek to affect their children’s behavior. The explanation of these actions is that the child’s conduct directly enters into the parent’s utility function. In this paper, we use that framework to explore the role of parental control over his or her child’s delinquent behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate the impact of family income and various dimensions of family structure on a youth’s contact with the criminal justice system between the ages of 14 and 22. From this analysis, we conclude that the single most important factor affecting...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Family structure; Delinquency; Role of fathers; Role of mothers; Food Security and Poverty; J12; J13.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44078
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Two Statistical Problems in the Princeton Project on the European Fertility Transition AgEcon
Brown, John C.; Guinnane, Timothy W..
The Princeton Project on the Decline of Fertility in Europe (or European Fertility Project, hereafter EFP) was carried out at Princeton University's Office of Population Research in the 1960s and 1970s. This project aimed to characterize the decline of fertility that took place in Europe during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The project's summary statements argued that social and economic forces played little role in bringing about the fertility transition. The statement stresses instead a process of innovation and diffusion. A central feature of the EFP argument is a series of statistical exercises that purport to show that changes in economic and social conditions exerted little influence on fertility. Two recent papers on Germany for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility transition; Labor and Human Capital; J13; N33; O15.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28392
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Visitations and Transfers in Non Intact Households AgEcon
del Boca, Daniela; Ribero, Rocio.
Recent research reveals a negative impact of divorce on children's welfare as a consequence of the reduction in monetary and time contributions by the non-custodian parent. When the custody arrangement is sole custody, the variables that link the absent parent to the child are visitations and child support transfers. We explain visitations and child support transfers using a behavioral model of competitive equilibrium in which both variables are the results of competitive allocations realized in a decentralized noncooperative manner. In our framework the mother has control over visitations and the father has control over child support. Estimates of the model are used to simulate the effects of alternative endowment levels on the proportion of time spent...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Divorce; Visitations; Child support transfers; Consumer/Household Economics; J00; J12; J13.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28477
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