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Registros recuperados: 40
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A Pro-Market Agenda for El Salvador AgEcon
Engel, Eduardo M.R.A..
This paper argues that, despite important productivity gains, reforms have benefited consumers much less than expected in El Salvador. Antitrust legislation, consumer protection and an adequate regulation of privatized utilities are central ingredients of a successful market economy. Major reforms that are needed in each one of these areas in El Salvador are described.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market reform; Antitrust legislation; Consumer protection; Privatization; Regulation of utilities; Political Economy; D18; L40; L51; L94; L96; O12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28438
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A Robust Multivariate Long Run Analysis of European Electricity Prices AgEcon
Bosco, Bruno; Parisio, Lucia; Pelagatti, Matteo; Baldi, Fabio.
This paper analyses the interdependencies existing in wholesale European electricity prices. The results of a multivariate long run dynamic analysis of weekly median prices reveal the presence of a strong although not perfect integration among some neighboring markets considered in the sample and the existence of common long-term dynamics of electricity prices and gas prices but not oil prices. The existence of long-term dynamics among gas prices and electricity prices may prove to be important for long-term hedging operations to be conducted even in markets where there are no electricity derivatives.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: European Electricity Prices; Cointegration; Interdependencies; Equilibrium Correction Model; Oil Prices; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C15; C32; D44; L94; Q40.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7438
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Alleged Transmission Undersupply: Is Restructuring the Cure or the Cause? AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
Widespread concern over transmission capacity requires theoretical support to infer inadequacy from observed trends indicating reductions in the ratio of transmission to generation capacity over time. If integrated utilities had been regulated with allowed returns exceeding capital costs, transmission generation ratios would have been excessive, and observed trends might be a correction. However, numerous commentators claim that post-restructuring transmission rates have been too low, with NIMBY also discouraging investment. We model the possibility that inadequate separation between generation and transmission may result in reduced investment, in order to preserve incumbent market power in generation. However, consideration of transmission price caps and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity transmission; Regulation; Deregulation; Vertical integration; Environmental Economics and Policy; L94; L51; L22.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10723
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Allocation of CO2 Emissions Allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Kahn, Danny.
Cap-and-trade programs for air emissions have become the widely accepted, preferred approach to cost-effective pollution reduction. One of the important design questions in a trading program is how to initially distribute the emissions allowances. Under the Acid Rain program created by Title IV of the Clean Air Act, most emissions allowances were distributed to current emitters on the basis of a historic measure of electricity generation in an approach known as grandfathering. Recent proposals have suggested two alternative approaches: allocation according to a formula that is updated over time according to some performance metric in a recent year (the share of electricity generation or something else) and auctioning allowances to the highest bidders....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Mercury; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10650
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An Assessment of the EPA's SO2 Emission Allowance Tracking System AgEcon
Lile, Ronald D.; Bohi, Douglas R.; Burtraw, Dallas.
On November 8, 1996, various Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials, scholars and industry representatives gathered at Resources for the Future (RFF) to examine the EPA's method for classifying private SO2 allowance transactions by the Allowance Tracking System (ATS). The one-day workshop at RFF was designed to evaluate how well the EPA's classification scheme within the ATS currently meets the needs of constituencies with a vested interest in the allowance trading system, and to determine if other classifications would be more beneficial. The EPA has limited its collection of information to that which is necessary to ensure compliance with environmental goals. In particular, the EPA has interpreted its mission to be one of minimal interference in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transaction costs; Regulated industries; Electric utilities; Emissions; Environmental Economics and Policy; D23; D49; H70; K23; L94; Q25.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10890
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China’s Electricity Market Reform and Power Plants Efficiency AgEcon
Ma, Chunbo; Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yue.
In the past three decades, Chinese electricity industry has experienced a series of regulatory reforms serving different purposes at different stages. In 2002, the former vertically integrated electricity utility - the State Power Corporation (SPC) – was divested and the generation sector was separated from the transmission and distribution networks in an effort to improve production efficiency. In this paper we study the impact of the reform on efficiency of fossil-fired power plants using plant-level data during 2000-2008. Our results from the data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel regressions show that: 1) the total factor productivity (TFP) growth mainly comes from technological change; 2) the technical efficiency of previously SPC-managed power...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Efficiency; DEA; Malmquist Index; China; Electricity; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D24; L11; L51; L94; L98.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117811
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Civil Liability, Safety and Nuclear Parks: Is Concentrated Management Better? AgEcon
Mondello, Gerard.
Ultra-hazardous risky activities as nuclear industry cannot be considered as “normal industries” i.e. industries without abnormal environmental and health risks. Consequently, the industrial organization of these specific sectors is of the utmost importance. This paper aims at studying this question. We focus on the associated costs of prevention and civil liability. We analyze how civil liability rules may contribute to extend or to discourage the expansion of nuclear parks to new operators. The paper compares the consequences of extending the management of nuclear stations to several independent operators. This question can apply to the unification process of the European electricity market in which several public and private nuclear power operators are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strict Liability; Electric Energy; Nuclear Plants; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q5; Q58; Q53; K23; L13; L52; L94.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102571
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CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Kahn, Danny; Palmer, Karen L..
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the initial allocation of carbon dioxide allowances, the composition of generating assets owned by the firm, and the locations of those assets. Changes in asset values inside the RGGI region may be positive or negative, whereas changes outside of the RGGI region are almost...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation-performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Asset value; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10495
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Consumer Preference Not to Choose: Methodological and Policy Implications AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
Residential consumers remain reluctant to choose new electricity suppliers. Even the most successful jurisdictions, four U.S. states and other countries, have had to adopt extensive consumer education procedures that serve largely to confirm that choosing electricity suppliers is daunting. Electricity is not unique in this respect; numerous studies find that consumers are generally reluctant to switch brands, even when they are well-informed about product characteristics. If consumers prefer not to choose, opening regulated markets can reduce welfare, even for some consumers who do switch, as the incumbent can exploit this preference by raising price above the formerly regulated level. Policies to open markets might be successful even if limited to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity markets; Deregulation; Consumer choice; Residential markets; Consumer/Household Economics; L94; L51; D11; B40.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10573
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Demand-Side Management Programs Under Retail Electricity Competition AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
Demand-side management programs comprise subsidies from franchised electric utilities for the purchase of high-efficiency appliances; e.g., air conditioners. Competition in power generation threatens the viability of these programs. However, it should also reduce the warrant for them. Under regulation, the justification for such programs depends, somewhat paradoxically, on below marginal-cost pricing. Eliminating regulation should permit pricing flexibility to discourage excessive on-peak energy use. It should also eliminate the assurance of returns that may have encouraged overbuilding of generation capacity. Entrants and incumbent utilities should find it easier to offer "energy services," i.e., to bundle electricity with appliances, if consumers are too...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity restructuring; Energy conservation; Regulatory policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L51; L94; Q48.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10615
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Do Lower Prices For Polluting Goods Make Environmental Externalities Worse? AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
Lower prices for polluting goods will increase their sales and the pollution that results from their production or use. Conventional intuition suggests that this relationship implies a greater need for environmental policy when prices of "dirty" goods fall. But the economic inefficiency resulting overproduction of polluting goods may fall, not rise, as the cost of producing those goods falls. While lower costs exacerbate overproduction, they also reduce the difference between private benefit and the total social cost--the sum of private and external costs--associated with that overproduction. We derive a test, based on readily observed or estimated parameters for conditions in which the latter effect outweighs the former. In such cases, making a dirty good...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Regulatory policy; Externalities; Electricity restructuring; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; L51; L94.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10776
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Electricity Capacity Requirements: Who Pays? AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
Reserve requirements in electricity markets may get each producer to internalize the cost of grid-wide blackouts it might cause if unable to meet consumer demand. Markets for how such capacity might be procured have been studied. Less examined is how the costs of reserve capacity are covered. "Who pays" depends on how requirements are designed. If each producer has to provide peak capacity available to a grid operator at a below-spot price, requirements will increase volatility-that is, the gap between baseload and marginal peak prices. Requirements based on energy sales act as a tax on baseload to subsidize peak, reducing volatility. Finally, if requirements are designed to ensure that extreme-peak energy is available without scarcity rents, baseload...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capacity requirements; Reserve requirements; Electricity generation; Utility regulation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94; L51; H22.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10569
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Electricity Restructuring and Regional Air Pollution AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas.
This paper investigates the regional air pollution effects that could result from new opportunities for inter-regional power transmission in the wake of more competitive electricity markets. The regional focus is important because of great regional variation in the vintage, efficiency and plant utilization rates of existing generating capacity, as well as differences in emission rates, cost of generation and electricity price. Increased competition in generation could open the door to changes in the regional profile of generation and emissions. We characterize the key determinant of changes in electricity generation and transmission as the relative cost of electricity among neighboring regions. In general, low cost regions are expected to export power...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Electricity restructuring; Transmission; Environmental Economics and Policy; L94; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10766
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Electricity Restructuring: Consequences and Opportunities for the Environment AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Heintzelman, Martin.
The universal theme of deregulation of the electricity industry is the dismantling of the exclusive franchise, opening up some segments of the industry to competition. Technological changes in generation have helped eliminate the perception that generation is a natural monopoly, but this change has not occurred in transmission and distribution services. Marketing functions have also been opened up to competition in many places. This paper includes a brief overview of the different approaches to restructuring that have been adopted in selected countries around the world. It also surveys the existing literature that explores various aspects of how electricity restructuring is likely to affect the environment. The effect of restructuring on the environment...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity restructuring; Air quality; Incentive-based regulation; Technological change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; L51; L94.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10854
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Fiscal Interactions and the Costs of Controlling Pollution from Electricity AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper quantifies the costs of controlling SO2, carbon, and NOx emissions from power generation, accounting for interactions between environmental policies and the broader fiscal system. We distinguish a dirty technology (coal) that satisfies baseload demand and a clean technology (gas) that is used during peak periods, and we distinguish sectors with and without regulated prices. Estimated emissions control costs are substantially lower than in previous models of fiscal interactions that assume a single, constant returns technology and competitive pricing. The results are reasonably robust to alternative scenarios, such as full price deregulation and market power in the deregulated sector.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity generation; Pollution control; Fiscal interventions; Price regulation; Multiple technology; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; H21; H23; L94.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10785
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Forecasting Weekly Electricity Prices at Nord Pool AgEcon
Torro, Hipolit.
Paper replaced with revised version 02/06/09.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity markets; Power derivatives; Forecasting electricity prices; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; G13; L94.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7437
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Getting on the Map: The Political Economy of State-Level Electricity Restructuring AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour; Palmer, Karen L..
Retail competition in electricity markets is expected to lead to more efficient electricity supply, lower electricity prices, more innovation by suppliers and a greater variety of electric power service packages. However, only a handful of states have currently gone so far as to pass legislation and/or make regulatory decisions to establish retail wheeling. This paper analyzes a variety of factors that may influence the rate at which legislators and regulators move towards establishing retail competition. In general, we find that where one interest group dominates others in the struggle for influence over the decision makers, the net effect seems to push a state forward more quickly when retail wheeling is expected to yield large efficiency gains.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity restructuring; Deregulation; Political economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D78; L51; L94.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10643
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Implementing Electricity Restructuring: Policies, Potholes, and Prospects AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Martinez, Salvador A..
Electricity is one of the last U.S. industries in which competition is replacing regulation. We briefly review the technology for producing and delivering power, the history of electricity policy, and recent state and international experience. We then outline the major questions facing policymakers as they decide whether, when, and how to implement restructuring. We conclude with some thoughts on the California electricity crisis and other political controversies. Although the California experience has come to define what it means for electricity markets to fail, most of the problems it raised are among those we know how to solve or prevent. The still unresolved make-or-break issue remains whether the cooperation necessary to maintain reliability is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity restructuring; Regulation; Deregulation; Public Economics; L51; L94; D4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10508
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Interaction of European Carbon Trading and Energy Prices AgEcon
Bunn, Derek W.; Fezzi, Carlo.
This paper addresses the economic impact of the EU Emission Trading Scheme for carbon on wholesale electricity and gas prices. Specifically, we analyse the mutual relationships between electricity, gas and carbon prices in the daily spot markets in the United Kingdom. Using a structural co-integrated VAR model, we show how the prices of carbon and gas jointly influence the equilibrium price of electricity. Furthermore, we derive the dynamic pass-trough of carbon into electricity price and the response of electricity and carbon prices to shocks in the gas price.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon Emission Trading; Energy Markets; Structural VECM; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q48; L94; C32.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9092
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Investment in Electricity Transmission and Ancillary Environmental Benefits AgEcon
Bloyd, Cary; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Burtraw, Dallas.
Planning of the electricity transmission system generally focuses on the pros and cons of providing generation close to the source of the power demand versus remote generation linked via the transmission system. Recent electricity supply problems in the western United States have renewed interest in the role of transmission in assuring the reliability of electricity supply. Recently, the Western Governors' Association led the development of a planning exercise that examined the tradeoffs over the next 10 years between locating new natural gas powered generation close to the load centers versus new coal, wind, hydro, and geothermal generation in remote areas. Although the analysis concentrated on the direct system costs, the choice of new generation will...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Transmission; Air pollution; Ancillary benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94; Q25; Q41.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10519
Registros recuperados: 40
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