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Approaches to the indirect evaluation of germination and vigour Scientia Agricola
Matthews,S..
In comparisons of six seed lots of different F1 hybrid cultivars of cauliflower with similarly high laboratory germinations (above 90%) separation in germination was achieved after controlled deterioration (C.D.) at 24% moisture content (m.c.) and 45 0C for 24 hours. This measure of vigour was related to the position of the lots on the seed survival curve and was highly predictive of the longevity of the lots when stored at 15% m.c. and 20 0C for 12 and 16 weeks. When each seed lot was deteriorated at 24% m.c. for increasing times (from 0 to 36 hours) a reduction in the subsequent percentage germination was seen, which, using probit transformed percentages, was significantly and linearly related to the leakage of electrolytes into seed soak water over 24...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cauliflower; Controlled deterioration; Leakage; Electrical conductivity; Storage.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90161998000500011
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Changing the Allocation Rules in the EU ETS: Impact on Competitiveness and Economic Efficiency AgEcon
Demailly, Damien; Quirion, Philippe.
We assess five proposals for the future of the EU greenhouse gas Emission Trading Scheme (ETS): pure grandfathering allocation of emission allowances (GF), output-based allocation (OB), auctioning (AU), auctioning with border adjustments (AU-BA), and finally output-based allocation in sectors exposed to international competition combined with auctioning in electricity generation (OB-AU). We look at the impact on production, trade, CO2 leakage and welfare. We use a partial equilibrium model of the EU 27 featuring three sectors covered by the EU ETS – cement, steel and electricity – plus the aluminium sector, which is indirectly impacted through a rise in electricity price. The leakage ratio, i.e. the increase in emissions abroad over the decrease in EU...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission Trading; Allowance Allocation; Leakage; Spillover; Climate Policy; Kyoto Protocol; Border Adjustment; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46623
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ECONOMICS OF SEQUESTERING CARBON IN THE U.S. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AgEcon
Lewandrowski, Jan; Peters, Mark; Jones, Carol Adaire; House, Robert M.; Sperow, Mark; Eve, Marlen; Paustian, Keith H..
Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases can be reduced by withdrawing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in soils and biomass. This report analyzes the performance of alternative incentive designs and payment levels if farmers were paid to adopt land uses and management practices that raise soil carbon levels. At payment levels below $10 per metric ton for permanently sequestered carbon, analysis suggests landowners would find it more cost effective to adopt changes in rotations and tillage practices. At higher payment levels, afforestation dominates sequestration activities, mostly through conversion of pastureland. Across payment levels, the economic potential to sequester carbon is much lower than the technical potential reported in...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Greenhouse gas mitigation; Afforestation; Conservation tillage; No-till; Incentive design; Leakage; Carbon stock; Permanence; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33569
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Efeito do período de envelhecimento acelerado no teste de condutividade elétrica e na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão Agronomy
Binotti, Flávio Ferreira da Silva; UNESP; Haga, Kuniko Iwamoto; UNESP; Cardoso, Eliana Duarte; UNESP; Alves, Charline Zaratin; UNESP; Sá, Marco Eustáquio de; UNESP; Arf, Orivaldo; UNESP.
A qualidade das sementes colocadas à disposição do produtor é de grande importância para obtenção de altas produtividades. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos causados por diferentes períodos de envelhecimento artificial na lixiviação de açúcares, proteínas, aminoácidos e íons no exsudato do teste de condutividade elétrica, e suas relações com a germinação e vigor de sementes de feijão da cultivar Pérola. O trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório da FE de análises de sementes - Unesp Campus de Ilha Solteira. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizados, sendo que as sementes foram submetidas a oito períodos de envelhecimento acelerado (zero, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 e 168 horas). A germinação e vigor de sementes de feijão cultivar...
Palavras-chave: 5.01.03.05-9 Melhoramento Vegetal Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Lixiviados; Proteínas; Íons; Germinação; Vigor 5.01.03.05-9 Melhoramento Vegetal Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Leakage; Protein; Ions; Seed germination; Vigor.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/1736
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Effects of Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Policies: The Role of International Trade AgEcon
Schneider, Uwe A.; Lee, Heng-Chi; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung.
The Kyoto Protocol represents the first international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed mitigation efforts may involve the agricultural sector through such options as planting trees, crop and livestock management changes, and biofuels production. The combined use of these strategies could substantially reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. However, countries where the Protocol imposes emissions caps have expressed concern about their competitiveness with countries that are not part of the Kyoto Protocol. In a free-trade arena, food production and exports in unregulated countries could increase and reduce market share for the producers in complying countries. We examine the effects of differential Protocol...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Sector Model; Crop exports; Food production; Greenhouse gas emission mitigation; International trade; Kyoto Protocol; Leakage; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18366
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Food aid distribution in Bangladesh: leakage and operational performance AgEcon
Ahmed, Akhter U.; Rashid, Shahidur; Sharma, Manohar P.; Zohir, Sajjad.
Donors support a number of targeted food-based programs in Bangladesh that are widely credited with providing poor people access to food and improving their food security. However, inefficiency in the food distribution system may be hindering the realization of the full benefits of these programs. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) conducted a comprehensive study of the efficiency of food distribution in food aid-supported programs in Bangladesh. The study has three components: (1) food discharge at harbors, (2) the public food distribution system, and (3) food distribution to program beneficiaries. The capacity and efficiency of the food distribution system was assessed from entry ports to targeted beneficiaries. The study identified...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food aid; Food distribution; Leakage; Bangladesh; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60392
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Forest Conservation and Slippage: Evidence from Mexico's National Payments for Ecosystem Services Program AgEcon
Alix-Garcia, Jennifer Marie; Shapiro, Elizabeth N.; Sims, Katharine R.E..
Incentive-based programs to reduce deforestation are expected to play an increasingly important role in global efforts to protect ecosystems and sequester carbon but their environmental effectiveness is not clear. We investigate program effectiveness and slippage in the context of Mexico's national payments for hydrological services program, which pays private and communal landowners to maintain forest cover on enrolled lands. To measure program impacts, we use matched controls drawn from the program applicant pool to establish counterfactual deforestation rates in the absence of payments. We find statistically significant but small to moderate avoided deforestation impacts. To examine slippage of deforestation to nonenrolled lands, we develop a model of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Payments for environmental services; Payments for ecosystem services; Program evaluation; Slippage; Leakage; Incentive-based mechanisms; Mexico; Land use; Deforestation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q12; Q24; Q57; R14; O13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93045
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How big is leakage from forestry carbon credits? Estimates from a Global Model AgEcon
Acosta, Montserrat; Sohngen, Brent.
There is widespread recognition that forestry carbon credits can reduce the net emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. Designing systems to sequester carbon, however, has proven difficult due to a number of efficiency issues, including leakage. Leakage occurs when policy makers develop carbon projects in specific places which protect some parcels of land, but leave other parcels of land unprotected. This analysis uses a newly developed model of global land use change from an established forestry and land use model, described in Sohngen et al. (1999); Sohngen and Mendelsohn (2003); and Kindermann et al. (2008). To assess leakage we estimate carbon under storage under one scenario where the world is awarded carbon credits and another where tropical...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Carbon Sequestration; Leakage; Carbon Credits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49468
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Membrane permeabilization of colistin toward pan-drug resistant Gram-negative isolates BJM
Mohamed,Yasmine Fathy; Abou-Shleib,Hamida Moustafa; Khalil,Amal Mohamed; El-Guink,Nadia Mohamed; El-Nakeeb,Moustafa Ahmed.
Abstract Pan-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, being resistant to most available antibiotics, represent a huge threat to the medical community. Colistin is considered the last therapeutic option for patients in hospital settings. Thus, we were concerned in this study to demonstrate the membrane permeabilizing activity of colistin focusing on investigating its efficiency toward those pan-drug resistant isolates which represent a critical situation. We determined the killing dynamics of colistin against pan-drug resistant isolates. The permeability alteration was confirmed by different techniques as: leakage, electron microscopy and construction of an artificial membrane model; liposomes. Moreover, selectivity of colistin against microbial cells was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pan-drug resistant; Leakage; Permeability alteration; Colistin; Ultrastructure.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822016000200381
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The Trees and the Bees: Using Enforcement and Income Projects to Protect Forests and Rural Livelihoods Through Spatial Joint Production AgEcon
Albers, Heidi J.; Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z..
Forest managers in developing countries enforce extraction restrictions to limit forest degradation. In response, villagers may displace some of their extraction to other forests, which generates “leakage” of degradation. Managers also implement poverty alleviation projects to compensate for lost resource access or to induce conservation. We develop a model of spatial joint production of bees and fuelwood that is based on forest-compatible projects such as beekeeping in Thailand, Tanzania, and Mexico. We demonstrate that managers can better determine the amount and pattern of degradation by choosing the location of both enforcement and the forest-based activity.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Leakage; Spatial; NTFPs; Forest conservation; Livelihoods; Forest degradation; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120271
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