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Anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Brucella spp antibodies in humans from rural area of Monte Negro municipality, state of Rondônia, Brazilian Western Amazon BJM
Aguiar,Daniel M.; Cavalcante,Guacyara T.; Camargo,Luis M. A.; Labruna,Marcelo B.; Vasconcellos,Silvio A.; Souza,Gisele O.; Gennari,Solange M..
Sera from 276 humans living in 71 farms located in Monte Negro Municipality, RO., Western Amazon, Brazil were examined for anti-Leptospira spp antibodies by Microscopic Agglutination Test and for anti-Brucella spp antibodies by Tube Agglutination Test. Leptospira spp antibodies were detected in 28 (10.2%) of them with at least one positive case in 23 farms (32.4%). The most frequent leptospira serovars were Patoc (46.7%), Autumnalis (10.0%) and Shermani (10.0%). The proportion of positive males (14.5%) were higher than females (5.0%; P <0.05) and the contact with river water presented association with Leptospira spp infection (OR: 27; P=0.01). A total of 04 (1.4%) humans reacted against Brucella antigens; three farms (4.2%) presented at least one...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Human; Leptospirosis; Brucellosis; Amazon; Brazil.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822007000100019
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Anti-leptospirosis agglutinins in Brazilian capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Langoni,Helio; Kuribara,Ivone Yumi; Correa,Ana Paula Ferreira Lopes; Ullmann,Leila Sabrina; Sánchez,Gabriela Pacheco; Lucheis,Simone Baldini.
Abstract Background The interest in commercial use of wild animals is increasing, especially regarding raising of capybaras. Although this wild species is potentially lucrative for the production of meat, oil and leather, it is suggested as a probable reservoir of leptospires. Methods Due to the economic importance of this species and the lack of studies concerning leptospirosis, the presence of anti-leptospirosis agglutinins was assayed in 55 serum samples of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from commercial and experimental breeding flocks located in São Paulo state, Paraná state, and Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Samples were obtained through cephalic or femoral venipunction (5 to 10 mL). Microscopic agglutination test was used according to...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Capybaras; Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris; Serologic evaluation; Zoonosis.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992016000100304
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Bilateral facial palsy associated with leptospirosis BJID
Silva,Andressa Alves da; Ducroquet,Marcelo; Pedrozo Junior,Jeff Chandler.
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. It is an acute feverish disease with a broad clinical spectrum and follows a characteristic biphasic course. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical condition and the differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive. The objective of this exploratory study, presented as a case report, is to describe the occurrence of bilateral facial palsy as an unusual manifestation of leptospirosis. This suggestion should not be overlooked when analyzing the causes for bilateral facial palsy, and should be considered with other possible differential diagnoses, some of which are potentially fatal.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Bilateral facial palsy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702009000400017
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Characterization of a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain isolated from an abandoned swimming pool BJM
Forster,Karine M.; Hartwig,Daiane D.; Seixas,Fabiana K.; McBride,Alan J.A.; Monte,Leonardo G.; Recuero,Ana Lúcia C.; Brod,Claudiomar S.; Hartleben,Cláudia P.; Amaral,Marta; Dellagostin,Odir A..
Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the etiological agents of leptospirosis, an important disease of both humans and animals. In urban settings, L. interrogans serovars are the predominant cause of disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel Leptospira isolate recovered from an abandoned swimming pool. Molecular characterization through sequencing of the rpoB gene revealed 100% identity with L. interrogans and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis resulted in a banding pattern identical to L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, serovar Copenhageni or Icterohaemorrhagiae. The virulence of the strain was determined in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) was calculated to be two...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospira; Leptospirosis; Virulent; VNTR; RpoB.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822013000100024
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Characterization of Leptospira borgpetersenii isolates from field rats (Rattus norvegicus) by 16S rRNA and lipL32 gene sequencing BJM
Vedhagiri,Kumaresan; Natarajaseenivasan,Kalimuthusamy; Prabhakaran,Shanmugarajan G.; Selvin,Joseph; Narayanan,Ramasamy; Shouche,Yogesh S.; Vijayachari,Paluru; Ratnam,Sivalingam.
The main goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of leptospirosis among field rodents of Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India. In total 35 field rats were trapped and tested for seroprevalence by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Isolation of leptospires was performed from blood and kidney tissues and characterized to serovar level. Genomospecies identification was carried out using 16S rRNA and lipL32 gene sequencing. The molecular phylogeny was constructed to find out species segregation. Seroprevalence was about 51.4 %, and the predominant serovars were Autumnalis, Javanica, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona. Two isolates from the kidneys were identified as serovar Javanica of Serogroup Javanica, and sequence based molecular...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Leptospira borgpetersenii; LipL32; 16S rRNA.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822010000100022
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Chest radiograph abnormalities in patients hospitalized with leptospirosis in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil BJID
Matos,Eliana Dias; Costa,Everaldo; Sacramento,Edilson; Caymmi,Anna Luiza; Araújo Neto,César de; Lopes,Marcelo Barreto; Lopes,Antonio Alberto.
This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary radiograph abnormalities and describe the distribution of the patterns of radiographic alterations among patients hospitalized with leptospirosis. Chest radiographs of 139 patients hospitalized with leptospirosis in Couto Maia Hospital, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, between July, 1997, and July, 1999, were analyzed. The radiographs were requested soon after hospital admission, independent of the clinical manifestations of the patients. Only the first radiograph was considered. Pulmonary radiograph alterations were recorded in 35/139 patients (25.2%); 95% mid-point confidence interval = 18.5% to 32.9%. Among the patients with radiograph alterations, alveolar infiltrate was seen in 26/35 (74.3%)....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Chest radiography.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702001000200005
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Clinical presentation of leptospirosis: a retrospective study of 201 patients in a metropolitan city of Brazil BJID
Daher,Elizabeth F; Lima,Rafael SA; Silva Júnior,Geraldo B; Silva,Eveline C; Karbage,Nahme NN; Kataoka,Raquel S; Carvalho Júnior,Paulo C; Magalhães,Max M; Mota,Rosa MS; Libório,Alexandre B.
INTRODUCTION: leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide importance. The disease is endemic in Brazil. This study was conducted to describe the clinical and laboratory presentation of leptospirosis in a metropolitan city of Brazil. METHODS: this is a retrospective study including 201 consecutive patients with leptospirosis admitted to tertiary hospitals in Fortaleza, Brazil, between 1985 and 2006. All patients had clinical and epidemiological data suggestive of leptospirosis, and positive laboratorial test for leptospirosis (microscopic agglutination test, MAT, higher than 1:800). RESULTS: a total of 201 patients were included, with mean age of 38.9 ± 15.7 years; 79.1% were male. The mean length from onset of symptoms to admission was 7 ± 3 days. The main...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Clinical manifestations; Laboratory findings; Mortality.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702010000100002
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Comparison of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar hardjo in sows immunized with two commercial whole culture polivalent anti-leptospira bacterins BJM
Soto,Francisco Rafael Martins; Pinheiro,Sônia Regina; Morais,Zenaide Maria; Gonçales,Amane Paldês; Azevedo,Sérgio Santos de; Bernardi,Fernanda; Camargo,Sebastião Rodrigues; Vasconcellos,Silvio Arruda.
It was performed the comparison of the intensity and duration of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar Hardjo in swines vaccinated with two commercial anti-leptospira bacterins. Sows no reactive to 24 Leptospira sp serovars in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) were divided in three groups: Group A (n=08): received two vaccine A doses with 30 days interval, Group B (n=08) two vaccine B doses with 30 days interval and Group C (n=08): control no vaccinated against leptospirosis.Blood samples were collected each 30 days during six months following the first vaccination. The sera were tested by MAT and growth inhibition test (GIT) to serovar Hardjo in order to evaluate respectively agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies. It was found...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Swine; Leptospirosis; Immunity; Bacterines; Vaccination.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822008000300013
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Contribuição ao Conhecimento da Incidência de Leptospiras em Murídeos, Caninos e Suínos no Paraná BABT
Enrietti,Marcos Augusto.
This research carried out in the city of Curitiba took us to the following conclusions: 1) In the main zone of Curitiba city the leptospirosis index among the rats captured reached 78 percent. This index represent the greatest incidence verified till the present moment in Brazil. 2) The ‘Rattus norwegicus’ was the chief species among those rats (96 percent). 3) According to the results presented, the culturing methods are preferable to the inoculating one. 4) The combination of these two simple methods is more advantageous in the leptospira research.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Weil disease; Rattus norwegicus.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132001000500015
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Cytokine and antibody production during murine leptospirosis J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Marinho,M.; Silva,C.; Lima,V. M. F.; Peiró,J. R.; Perri,S. H. V..
The aim of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of humoral and cellular responses during leptospirosis. We observed that the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was associated with antibody production and bacterial recovery, and the compromising of both TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the immunopathogenesis of leptospirosis during an experimental infection of BALB/c mice inoculated with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola was verified. Results showed higher levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the initial phase of infection, in which the greatest bacterial clearance was observed. However, when the bacterial recovery was compared with the kinetics of the production of antibodies, the results revealed a kinetics...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cytokines; Cellular immune response; BALB/c mice; Leptospirosis.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992006000400006
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Detection of Leptospira spp. from pure cultures and from experimentally contaminated bovine semen by polymerase chain reaction Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci.
HEINEMANN,Marcos Bryan; GARCIA,José Fernando; NUNES,Cáris Maroni; HIGA,Zenaide Maria Moraes; VASCONCELLOS,Silvio Arruda; Richtzenhain,Leonardo José.
Due to the high importance of the venereal transmission of bovine leptospirosis, this study aimed to test the ability of PCR to detect Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo DNA in experimentally contaminated bovine semen. Employing primers directed to the 16S rRNA gene, 10 bacteria/ml of semen could be detected by PCR. Results achieved in this work show that PCR can have a great potential to detect Leptospira spp. in insemination centers.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Leptospira; Semen; Polimerase Chain Reaction; Bovine.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-95961999000100002
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Development and validation of a modified TaqMan based real-time PCR assay targeting the lipl32 gene for detection of pathogenic Leptospira in canine urine samples BJM
Miotto,Bruno Alonso; Hora,Aline Santana da; Taniwaki,Sueli Akemi; Brandão,Paulo Eduardo; Heinemann,Marcos Bryan; Hagiwara,Mitika Kuribayashi.
Abstract A modified TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting a 138 bp fragment within the lipl32 gene was developed to identify exclusively pathogenic Leptospira spp. in dog urine samples. Thirty-five samples from dogs with suspected clinical leptospirosis and 116 samples from apparently healthy dogs were tested for presence of leptospiral DNA using the TaqMan-based assay. The results were compared with those from a well-established conventional PCR targeting the 16S RNA encoding gene associated with nucleotide sequencing analysis. The overall agreement between the assays was 94.8% (confidence interval [CI] 95% 88-100%). The newly developed assay presented 91.6% (CI 95% 71.5-98.5%) relative sensitivity (22[+] lipl32 PCR/24[+] 16S RNA and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Dog; Urine; QPCR; Lipl32.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822018000300584
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Diagnóstico de leptospirosis en casos de abortamento em bovinos MV&Z
Silva, R.; Delpiazzo, R.; Schelotto, F.; Varela, G.; Meny, P.; Quintero, J.; Menéndez, C.; Romero, A.; Ríos, C.; Rodriguez, E..
La leptospirosis bovina es una enfermedad reproductiva muy importante en los bovinos ya que causa problemas de infertilidad en los rodeos de cría y considerables pérdidas económicas. Además es una zoonosis ocupacional de incidencia alta en personal de campo y veterinarios, por exposición directa o indirecta a la orina de vacas, abortamientos, fetos al momento del parto, cesáreas o durante el diagnóstico de gestación. El objetivo de este artículo es la descripción de casos de abortamientos producidos por leptospirosis. Los animales afectados fueron vacas y vaquillonas, produciéndose abortamientos en el 44% de los vientres preñados. Las vacas abortadas que se examinaron clínicamente presentaron retención de placenta y leve decaimiento. Los abortos se...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Abortos; Bovinos.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.revistamvez-crmvsp.com.br/index.php/recmvz/article/view/32162
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Efficacy of leptospiral commercial vaccines on the protection against an autochtonous strain recovered in Brazil BJM
Sonada,Rafael Bazaglia; Azevedo,Sérgio Santos de; Soto,Francisco Rafael Martins; Costa,Diego Figueiredo da; Morais,Zenaide Maria de; Souza,Gisele Oliveira de; Gonçales,Amane Paldês; Miraglia,Fabiana; Vasconcellos,Sílvio Arruda.
Abstract In swine and bovines, leptospirosis prevention and control is carried out via vaccination of susceptible animals using bacterins. However, the efficiency of leptospirosis vaccines has been questioned. This work aimed to investigate the potency of five leptospirosis vaccines sold commercially in Brazil, challenging the animals with one autochthonous strain of Leptospira, Canicola serovar, denoted LO4, isolated from swine. The standard protocol was followed, and renal carriers of Leptospira were identified among the surviving animals by culture and PCR. Of the five vaccines tested, only two proved effective. None of the surviving animals was positive by culture; however, one animal was positive by PCR. Three of the five vaccines sold commercially in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Vaccination; Production animals; Control.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822018000200347
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Estudio retrospectivo de agentes infecciosos que afectan la reproducción bovina en el departamento del Caquetá, Colombia Rev Salud Anim.
Motta Giraldo,J.L; Waltero García,Indira; Abeledo,Ma. Antonia; Fernández,O.
Se analizaron los resultados de las investigaciones serológicas para brucelosis, leptospirosis, herpesvirus bovino -1 (HVB-1), diarrea viral bovina (DVB) y Neospora caninum, de los casos enviados al laboratorio por los propietarios de los hatos bovinos en el departamento del Caquetá, Colombia, en los años 1999 - 2009. La información fue obtenida de la base de datos del ICA (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario), seccional Caquetá. Se consideraron las variables: agentes infecciosos, años, municipios, zonas y sexos. El porcentaje promedio de brucelosis fue de 6,4% y los mayores valores se obtuvieron para herpesvirus bovino-1 (HVB-1). En el caso de Neospora, las investigaciones comenzaron en 2007 y en los 3 años solo se trabajaron 36 muestras, de las cuales 12...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Brucellosis; Leptospirosis; Herpesvirus bovino-1; Diarrea viral bovina; Neospora caninum.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0253-570X2012000300004
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ESTUDIO RETROSPECTIVO DE LEPTOSPIROSIS EN LA POBLACIÓN HUMANA Y ANIMAL EN MUNICIPIOS HABANEROS ENTRE 1987 - 2006 Rev Salud Anim.
Fabré,Y; Suárez,Yolanda; Rodríguez,O; Martínez,Hilda; Feraud,Dania; Cruz,Miriam; López,María de los Ángeles.
Con el objetivo de caracterizar la situación de la leptospirosis en la población humana y animal se realizó un análisis retrospectivo a partir de los archivos Municipales y Provinciales del Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria Municipal , su red de diagnóstico y los Servicios de Salud Pública de idéntico nivel. Se determinaron los reportes de casos de leptospirosis en la población humana y animal desde el año1993 - 2006 en ocho municipios habaneros. Se calculó el valor porcentual, la frecuencia relativa y la prevalencia de la enfermedad, atendiendo a los números de reportes de casos por población (humana y animal), años, especies, zonas (rural y urbana) y el serovar de Leptospira involucrado. La mayor prevalencia de la enfermedad la presentó la población...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Prevalencia; Zoonosis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0253-570X2010000300007
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Evaluación clínica, bioquímica y hematológica de caninos seropositivos a distintos serovares de Leptospira interrogans InVet
Gualtieri,CAS; Carlín,C; Peralta,l; Peirone,C; Gattarello,V; Marc,L; Molteni,H; Arestegui,MB; François,S.
La leptospirosis es una zoonosis de distribución mundial que afecta a diferentes especies animales. La principal fuente de infección es la contaminación del medio ambiente con orina de los animales infectados. En caninos y en el hombre el diagnóstico es dificultoso debido a la variada signología clínica que presenta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las alteraciones clínicas, bioquímicas y hematológicas más frecuentes en caninos seropositivos a diferentes serovares de Leptospira interrogans. Se estudiaron 44 caninos con signos clínicos compatibles y serología positiva y 25 caninos clínicamente sanos y seronegativos. Se realizó una evaluación clínica completa y se obtuvieron muestras de sangre con y sin anticoagulante, para realizar diagnóstico...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospira interrogans; Leptospirosis; Canino; Diagnóstico; Bioquímica.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-34982012000200001
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First isolation of leptospires from dairy goats in Brazil BJM
Lilenbaum,Walter; Morais,Zenaide M.; Gonçales,Amane Paldês; Souza,Gisele O. de; Richtzenhain,Leonardo; Vasconcellos,Silvio A..
Leptospires have never been recovered from goats in Brazil. Serum samples were obtained from 248 goats from Rio de Janeiro and from the seroreactive animals, urine samples were collected and processed for Leptospira isolation. A total of 52 positive reactions were observed, corresponding to 20.9% of the samples. The most prevalent reactions were to serovars Hardjo (36.5%), Shermani (30.8%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (9.6%), Grippotyphosa (9.6%), Autumnalis (5.8%), Castellonis (3.8%) and Bratislava (3.8%). Two strains of Leptospira sp. were isolated, both in the same region, but from different flocks. Presumptive identification based on serologic methods suggests those strains to be from Grippotyphosa serogroup.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Goats; Leptospirosis; Leptospira sp.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822007000300023
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Frequency of and risk factors associated to Leptospira spp. Seropositivity in goats in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil Ciência Rural
Rizzo,Huber; Silva,Tatiane Rodrigues da; Carvalho,Jeferson Silva; Marinho,Felipe Apolônio; Santos,Hilderley de Almeida; Silva Júnior,Wellington Santos; Alemán,Mario Augusto Reyes; Pinheiro Júnior,José Wilton; Castro,Vanessa.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with the occurrence of seropositivity for Leptospira spp. in goat herds in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, on the basis of the analysis of 675 samples collected from 41 properties in 2013-2014. Analysis of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies revealed that 25.74% goats (194) were seropositive and that 90.24% (37) of the properties had at least one infected goat. The most prevalent serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae (85.57%); although, the study animals were reactive to other serogroups: Australis (5.15%), Pomona (3.61%), Sejroe (3.09%), and Pyrogenes (2.58%) had titers ≤400 in 96.91% of cases. The origin of the water source [still water source (OR=3.86)] was associated with...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Water source; Leptospirosis; Serogroup; Icterohaemorrhagiae; Test microscopic agglutination test.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782017000700452
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High levels of serum mannose-binding lectin are associated with the severity of clinical signs of leptospirosis BJMBR
Miranda,K.A.; Vasconcelos,L.R.S.; Coelho,L.C.B.B.; Lima Filho,J.L.; Cavalcanti,M.S.M.; Moura,P..
The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates were coated with monoclonal antibody to MBL and bound MBL or recombinant human MBL were detected by rabbit anti-human MBL serum. HRPO-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody was used for detection of the reaction. Two groups of patients seen at referral hospitals in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Mannose-binding lectin; Hemorrhage; Cardiac alteration; Renal complication.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000400007
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