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Registros recuperados: 18
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Are litter, plastic and microplastic quantities increasing in the ocean? ArchiMer
Galgani, Francois; Brien, Aleke Stoefen-o; Weis, Judith; Ioakeimidis, Christos; Schuyler, Qamar; Makarenko, Iryna; Griffiths, Huw; Bondareff, Joan; Vethaak, Dick; Deidun, Alan; Sobral, Paula; Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Vlahos, Penny; Lana, Fernanda; Hassellov, Martin; Gerigny, Olivia; Arsonina, Bera; Ambulkar, Archis; Azzaro, Maurizio; Bebianno, Maria João.
Whilst both plastic production and inputs at sea have increased since the 1950s, several modelling studies predict a further increase in the coming years in these respective quantities. We compiled scientific literature on trends in marine litter, consisting largely of plastic and microplastics in the ocean, understanding that monitoring programs or assessments for these aspects are varied, frequently focusing on limited components of the marine environment in different locations, and covering a wide spectrum of marine litter types, with limited standardization. Here we discuss how trends in the amounts of litter in the marine environment can be compared with the information provided by models. Increasing amounts of plastic are found in some regions,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Plastic pollution; Marine litter; Microplastics; Trends; Monitoring.
Ano: 2021 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00677/78927/81297.pdf
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Automating the characterisation of beach microplastics through the application of image analyses ArchiMer
Gauci, Adam; Deidun, Alan; Montebello, John; Abela, John; Galgani, Francois.
Four sandy beaches on the island of Malta in the Central Mediterranean were regularly sampled for Large MicroPlastic (LMP) particles having a diameter between 1 mm and 5 mm, at stations located at the waterline and 10 m inshore. The 10975 extracted LMP particles were characterised (dimensions, surface roughness, colour) through unaided visual observation, microscopic analyses, and an algorithm developed within the current study. Two-thirds of the isolated particles were smooth and the majority of these belonged to the grey-white colour category, with a low degree of opaqueness and discolouration, and a high degree of transparency, suggesting that these were dominated by low-density polyethylene LMPs. Conflicting evidence concerning the relative residence...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Image processing; Microplastics; Parameterisation; Monitoring obligations; Marine litter.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00513/62471/69557.pdf
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Distribution des microplastiques dans les eaux de sub-surfaces, en Méditerranéenne nord-occidentale ArchiMer
Martinot, Pauline.
Between April and November 2018, 20 microplastic (MPs) samples were collected at 8 sampling stations in French Mediterranean coast from Port-Cros to Banyuls as well as upstream the Rhône River. MPs were found in every sample with variable concentrations, size range and colors. Concentrations ranged from 11 items (Port-Cros) to 15 178 items (Port-Saint-Louis low salinity, PS). The samples with the highest MPs count originate from PS and the Bay of Marseille. MPs count in Spring and Autumn results in 217 (± 12,3) and 351 (± 4,3) respectively for the Bay and particles >1 000 μm dominated sampling stations during both seasons, while PS samples showed greater variability in size distribution. The site PS, near the Rhône River, has the most fiber and the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Débris marins; Microplastiques; Mer Méditerrannée; Golfe du Lion; Fleuve du Rhône.; Marine litter; Microplastics; Mediterranean Sea; Gulf of Lion; Rhône River.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00632/74419/74137.pdf
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EMODnet marine litter data management at pan-European scale ArchiMer
Molina Jack, Maria Eugenia; Chaves Montero, Maria Del Mar; Galgani, Francois; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Vinci, Matteo; Le Moigne, Morgan; Brosich, Alberto.
Marine litter is a growing problem for environmental and human health and policies have included monitoring as an important tool to evaluate both trends and the efficiency of reduction measures. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the main driver in Europe for the monitoring of the marine environment; it has included the evaluation of marine litter in order to support policies and achieve good environmental status. This assessment depends on the availability of robust, homogeneous data-sets at the European scale. A data management plan for marine litter has been developed at European level within the existing EMODnet network to collect, homogenise and provide access to standardised data-sets and data products that may be used as a basis for marine...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine litter; Plastic; Beaches; Seafloor; Micro-litter; Micro-plastics; Floating litter.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00512/62343/66606.pdf
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First observation on neustonic plastics in waters off NW Spain (spring 2013 and 2014) ArchiMer
Gago, Jesus; Henry, Maryvonne; Galgani, Francois.
This paper examines the presence and distribution of plastic particles in waters off the NW Spanish Atlantic coast. A pilot sampling program was initiated in 2013 to study the presence of plastic particles in surface waters. A total of 41 neuston samples were collected using a manta trawl fitted with a 333 μm mesh (21 samples in 2013 and 20 samples in 2014). Several types of plastic particles were observed in 95% of the stations. A total of 1463 plastic microparticles (<5 mm; mps) and 208 mesoparticles (>5 mm and <20 mm; MPS) were counted. Average concentrations recorded were 0.034 ± 0.032 and 0.176 ± 0.278 mps m−2 and 0.005 ± 0.005 and 0.028 ± 0.043 MPS m−2, respectively for 2013 and 2014. Results on this emerging topic are discussed as a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine litter; Floating plastics; Microplastics; European MSFD; NW Spain.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00275/38605/37469.pdf
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Global Distribution, Composition and Abundance of Marine Litter ArchiMer
Galgani, Francois; Hanke, Georg; Maes, Thomas.
Marine debris is commonly observed everywhere in the oceans. Litter enters the seas from both land-based sources, from ships and other installations at sea, from point and diffuse sources, and can travel long distances before being stranded. Plastics typically constitute the most important part of marine litter sometimes accounting for up to 100 % of floating litter. On beaches, most studies have demonstrated densities in the 1 item m−2 range except for very high concentrations because of local conditions, after typhoons or flooding events. Floating marine debris ranges from 0 to beyond 600 items km−2. On the sea bed, the abundance of plastic debris is very dependent on location, with densities ranging from 0 to >7700 items km−2, mainly in coastal...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine litter; Plastic; Distribution; Beaches; Seafloor; Microplastics; Floating litter.
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00667/77914/80097.pdf
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Ingestion and contact with polyethylene microplastics does not cause acute toxicity on marine zooplankton ArchiMer
Beiras, R; Bellas, J.; Cachot, J; Cormier, B.; Cousin, Xavier; Engwall, M.; Gambardella, C.; Garaventa, F.; Keiter, S.; Le Bihanic, F.; Lopez-ibanez, S.; Piazza, V.; Rial, D.; Tato, T.; Vidal-linan, L..
Toxicity of polyethylene microplastics (PE-MP) of size ranges similar to their natural food to zooplanktonic organisms representative of the main taxa present in marine plankton, including rotifers, copepods, bivalves, echinoderms and fish, was evaluated. Early life stages (ELS) were prioritized as testing models in order to maximize sensitivity. Treatments included particles spiked with benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a hydrophobic organic chemical used in cosmetics with direct input in coastal areas. Despite documented ingestion of both virgin and BP-3 spiked microplastics no acute toxicity was found at loads orders of magnitude above environmentally relevant concentrations on any of the invertebrate models. In fish tests some effects, including premature or...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polyethylene; Marine litter; Marine zooplankton; Benzophenone-3; Embryo-larval bioassays.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00452/56369/57965.pdf
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Managing the analytical challenges related to micro- and nanoplastics in the environment and food: filling the knowledge gaps ArchiMer
Alexy, Pavol; Anklam, Elke; Emans, Ton; Furfari, Antonino; Galgani, Francois; Hanke, Georg; Koelmans, Albert; Pant, Rana; Saveyn, Hans; Sokull Kluettgen, Birgit.
This paper identifies knowledge gaps on the sustainability and impacts of plastics and presents some recommendations from an expert group that met at a special seminar organised by the European Commission at the end of 2018. The benefits of plastics in society are unquestionable, but there is an urgent need to better manage their value chain. The recently adopted European Strategy for Plastics stressed the need to tackle the challenges related to plastics with a focus on plastic litter including microplastics. Microplastics have been detected mainly in the marine environment, but also in freshwater, soil and air. Based on today’s knowledge they may also be present in food products. Although nanoplastics have not yet been detected, it can be assumed that...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Plastic; Microplastics; Nanoplastics; Marine litter; Recycling; Circular economy.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00588/70027/67935.pdf
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Marine animal forests as useful indicators of entanglement by marine litter ArchiMer
Galgani, Francois; Pham, Christopher K.; Claro, Francoise; Consoli, Pierpaolo.
Entanglement of marine fauna is one of the principal impacts of marine litter, with an incidence that can vary strongly according to regions, the type and the quantity of marine litter. On the seafloor, areas dominated by sessile suspension feeders, such as tropical coral reefs or deep-sea coral and sponge aggregations, have been termed “animal forests” and have a strong potential to monitor the temporal and spatial trends of entanglement by marine litter, especially fishing gears. Several characteristics of these organisms represent advantages while avoiding constraints and bias. Biological constraints and logistical aspects, including tools, are discussed to better define a strategy for supporting long-term evaluation of accumulation and entanglement of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine animal forests; Marine litter; Coral; Epibenthic communities; Entanglement; Deep sea.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00452/56368/57988.pdf
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Marine litter, future prospects for research ArchiMer
Galgani, Francois.
As far back as 1870, i.e., about 150 years ago, Jules Verne described the accumulation of debris in the convergence zone of the North Atlantic Ocean in his famous novel entitled “Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea.” Many scientific reports have addressed this topic since and our main concern today is the ever increasing volume of marine litter invading the oceans in various and complex ways. One of the current main challenges is assessing the final destination of this litter. To date, its adverse effects on marine life have only occasionally been investigated and many questions remain unanswered. In addition to efforts to monitor and reduce litter, recent literature has underlined the scientific community's focus on specific issues such as (i) the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine litter; Microplastics; Marine debris; Trophic chains; Chemicals; Rafting.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00358/46933/46837.pdf
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Marine litter within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive ArchiMer
Galgani, Francois; Hanke, Georg; Werner, S.; De Vrees, L..
There have been numerous anthropogenic-driven changes to our planet in the last half-century. One of the most evident changes is the ubiquity and abundance of litter in the marine environment. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) establishes a framework within which EU Member States shall take action to achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) of their marine waters by 2020. GES is based on 11 qualitative descriptors as listed in Annex I of the MSFD. Descriptor 10 (D 10) concerns marine litter. As a follow-up to the related Commission Decision on criteria and methodological standards (2010/477/EU) in which 56 indicators for the achievement of GES are proposed, the EC Directorate-General for the Environment, on the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Descriptor 10; Harm; Litter; Marine debris; Marine litter; Marine Strategy Framework Directive; Monitoring; MSFD; Research; Sources; Targets.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00155/26586/24792.pdf
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Microplastics baseline surveys at the water surface and in sediments of the North-East Atlantic ArchiMer
Maes, Thomas; Van Der Meulen, Myra D; Devriese, Lisa L.; Leslie, Heather A.; Huvet, Arnaud; Frere, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, Dick A..
Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of North West Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between zero and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between zero and 3146 particles/kg dry weight sediment. In sediments, mainly fibers and spheres were found, whereas at the sea surface fragments were dominant. At the sea surface, concentrations of microplastics are lower and more variable than in sediments, meaning that larger sample sizes and water volumes are required to find detectable concentrations. We have calculated the widths of the confidence intervals (CI) for different sample sizes, to give a first indication of the necessary sample size...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microplastics; Marine litter; Floating debris; Sediment; Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD); Baseline.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00384/49505/49999.pdf
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Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations ArchiMer
Galgani, Francois; Claro, F.; Depledge, M.; Fossi, C..
In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1 Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine litter; MSFD; Good Environmental Status; Monitoring; Sea turtles; Marine mammals; Seabirds; Fulmar.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00177/28822/27299.pdf
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Occurrence of microplastics in surface waters of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) ArchiMer
Schmidt, Natascha; Thibault, Delphine; Galgani, Francois; Paluselli, Andrea; Sempere, Richard.
Between 2014 and 2016 a total of 43 microplastic samples were collected at six sampling stations in the eastern section of the Gulf of Lion (located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea), as well as upstream of the Rhône River. Microplastics were found in every sample with highly variable concentrations and masses. Concentrations ranged from 6 · 103 items km−2 to 1 · 106 items km−2 (with an average of 112 · 103 items km−2), and mass ranged from 0.30 g km−2 to 1018 g km−2 DW (mean 61.92 ± 178.03 g km−2). The samples with the highest and lowest microplastic count originate both from the Bay of Marseille. For the Bay of Marseille, it is estimated that the total microplastic load consist of 519 · 103 –101 · 106 items weighing 0.07–118 kg. Estimations for...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine litter; Microplastic; Mediterranean Sea; Gulf of Lion; Marseille Bay.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00411/52202/53357.pdf
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Plastic litter in the Sea ArchiMer
Depledge, M. H.; Galgani, Francois; Panti, C.; Caliani, I.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M. C..
On June 2013 a workshop at the University of Siena (Italy) was organized to review current knowledge and to clarify what is known, and what remains to be investigated, concerning plastic litter in the sea. The content of the workshop was designed to contribute further to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) following an inaugural workshop in 2012. Here we report a number of statements relevant to policymakers and scientists that was overwhelming agreement from the participants. Many might view this as already providing sufficient grounds for policy action. At the very least, this early warning of the problems that lie ahead should be taken seriously, and serve as a stimulus for further research.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: European MSFD; Marine litter; Microplastics.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00159/27005/25158.pdf
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Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches. Repositório Alice
SUL, J. A. I. do; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G..
Tipo: Separatas Palavras-chave: Marine litter.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/901810
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Seafloor litter from the continental shelf and canyons in French Mediterranean Water: Distribution, typologies and trends ArchiMer
Gerigny, Olivia; Brun, Melanie; Fabri, Marie-claire; Tomasino, Corinne; Le Moigne, Morgan; Jadaud, Angelique; Galgani, Francois.
Seafloor litter has been studied both on the continental shelves (by trawling during 24 years) and in canyons (by ROV) of the French Mediterranean sea Water (FMW). On the continental shelf, mean densities range from 49.63 to 289.01 items/km2. The most abundant categories were plastic, glass/ceramics, metals and textiles. Trend analysis shows a significant increase in plastic quantities during the study period. Plastics accumulate at all depths, with heavier items being found in deeper areas, while the continental slope-break appears as a clean area. The spatial distribution of litter revealed the influence of geomorphologic factors, anthropic activities, shipping route, river inputs. All the canyons are affected by debris but coastal canyons (Ligurian Sea...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marine litter; Seafloor; Canyon; Mediterranean Sea; Gulf of Lion; Corsica.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00507/61868/66074.pdf
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The quest for seafloor macrolitter: a critical review of background knowledge, current methods and future prospects ArchiMer
Canals, Miquel; Pham, Christopher K.; Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Hanke, Georg; Van Sebille, Erik; Angiolillo, Michela; Buhl-mortensen, Lene; Cau, Alessando; Ioakeimidis, Christos; Kammann, Ulrike; Lundsten, Lonny; Papatheodorou, George; Purser, Autun; Sanchez-vidal, Anna; Schulz, Marcus; Vinci, Matteo; Chiba, Sanae; Galgani, Francois; Langenkämper, Daniel; Möller, Tiia; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Ruiz, Marta; Suikkanen, Sanna; Woodall, Lucy; Fakiris, Elias; Molina Jack, Maria Eugenia; Giorgetti, Alessandra.
The seafloor covers some 70% of the Earth's surface and has been recognized as a major sink for marine litter. Still, litter on the seafloor is the least investigated fraction of marine litter, which is not surprising as most of it lies in the deep sea, i.e. the least explored ecosystem. Although marine litter is considered a major threat for the oceans, monitoring frameworks are still being set up. This paper reviews current knowledge and methods, identifies existing needs, and points to future developments that are required to address the estimation of seafloor macrolitter. It provides background knowledge and conveys the views and thoughts of scientific experts on seafloor marine litter offering a review of monitoring and ocean modeling techniques....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Seafloor; Marine litter; Trawl surveys; Visual surveys; Deep sea; Modelling; Data harmonisation.
Ano: 2021 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00657/76947/78156.pdf
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