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Registros recuperados: 43
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A graphical analysis of the functioning of tariff rate quotas: market access and welfare effects for exporting countries AgEcon
Laroche Dupraz, Catherine; Matthews, Alan.
This paper analyses the economics of tariff rate quotas assuming a large importing country and several different suppliers with differing levels of competitiveness. Eleven theoretical situations are distinguished according to the way the quota is allocated to exporters, the level of constraint imposed by the quota and the relative competitiveness of export suppliers. A graphical analysis is developed and the effects of tariff rate quotas on market access and welfare gains for exporters are discussed in the eleven cases.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tariff rate quotas; Quota rents; Market access; International Relations/Trade; F1.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7210
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Access of Eastern African Farmers to Domestic and International Markets: Opportunities and Constraints AgEcon
Bahiigwa, Godfrey.
This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges that Eastern African farmers face in accessing domestic, regional and international markets. With rising population and incomes, domestic markets offer great opportunities for farmers. However, because of structural, institutional and organizational constraints, small scale rural farmers may not benefit much from domestic urban markets unless they are organized and trained to meet the high quality product standards demanded by urban consumers and supermarkets. ECA countries stand to gain more by investing in commodities that are consumed within the region, than from traditional cash crops destined for international markets. Regional integration offers opportunities for larger markets and efficiency gains...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market access; Trade reforms; Regional integration; Economic growth; Eastern African farmers; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25270
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Access to Dynamic Markets for Small Commercial Farmers: The Case of Potato Production in the Peruvian Andes AgEcon
Escobal D'Angelo, Javier; Torero, Maximo.
The purpose of this study is twofold. On one hand, the objective is to assess the impact of new and more complex contracting schemes, as opposed to traditional marketing channels, on small farmers’ welfare. On the other hand, the study explores which may be the critical factors that determine the small farmers’ participation in these institutional arrangements. In this context, two critical factors are stressed. The first one has to do with access to credit and the second one is the size of the agricultural plot. In order to examine the decision of farmers to access the dynamic markets, the paper follows the study of Lapar et al (2003). The paper also follows impact evaluation techniques to identify the differences in the performance of farmers with access...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Potato production; Market access; Small farmers; Contract farming; Access to credit; Dynamic markets; Impact evaluation; Income growth; Transaction costs; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58570
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Aflatoxin Redux: Does European Aflatoxin Regulation Hurt Groundnut Exporters from Africa? AgEcon
Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/02/10.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Standards; Aflatoxin; Maximum Residues Limit; Groundnut; Gravity equation; Africa; Market access; EU; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Q17; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61314
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Agricultural Market Access: A Moving Target in the WTO Negotiations? AgEcon
Brockmeier, Martina; Pelikan, Janine.
This paper analyses the economic effects of different magnitudes of tariff cuts, different tariff cutting formulas, the implications of tariff capping as well as different numbers and width of tariff bands in the market access pillar of the Doha Round agricultural negotiations. The simulations are conducted with an extended version of the GTAP model and an extended version of the GTAP data base (6.0) including bound and applied rates. The results reveal that the EU-27 experiences a negative change of its trade balance in the highly protected beef and sugar sectors. The relative increase of EU beef and sugar imports is mainly evoked by the magnitude of tariff cuts and, to a lesser extent, by the kind of formula used to implement the tariff cuts. In...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market access; WTO negotiations; Bound and applied tariffs; CGE modeling; Agricultural trade policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25428
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Agricultural Trade Preferences and the Developing Countries AgEcon
Wainio, John; Shapouri, Shahla; Trueblood, Michael A.; Gibson, Paul R..
Nonreciprocal trade preference programs originated in the 1970s under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as an effort by high-income developed countries to provide tariff concessions for low-income countries. The goal of the programs was to increase export earnings, promote industrialization, and stimulate economic growth in the lower income countries. This study analyzes detailed trade and tariff data for the United States and the European Union (the two largest nonreciprocal preference donors) to determine the extent to which the programs have increased exports from beneficiary countries. For those products where the margins of preference are large and where beneficiaries have a comparative advantage and the capacity to expand production, these...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff; Agricultural trade; Preferences; Least developed countries; Market access; World Trade Organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7258
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Are poor, remote areas left behind in agricultural development: the case of Tanzania AgEcon
Minot, Nicholas.
In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, the conventional wisdom is that economic reforms may have stimulated economic growth, but that the benefits of this growth have been uneven, favoring urban households and farmers with good market access. This idea, although quite plausible, has rarely been tested empirically. In this paper, we develop a new approach to measuring trends in poverty and apply it to Tanzania in order to explore the distributional aspects of economic growth and the relationship between rural poverty and market access. We find that, between 1991 and 2003, a period of extensive economic reforms, the overall rate of poverty fell about 9 percentage points. The degree of poverty reduction was similar between rural and urban areas,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tanzania; Poverty; Market access; Agricultural development; Rural areas; Economic reform; Measurement; Rural poverty; International Development; I32; O18; O55; Q13; R11.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59829
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Beyond good wood: Exploring strategies for small-scale forest growers and enterprises to benefit from legal and sustainable certification in Indonesia JARTS
Maryudi, Ahmad; Nawir, Ani A.; Sumardamto, Purnomo; Sekartaji, Dewi Ayu; Soraya, Emma; Yuwono, Teguh; Siswoko, Bowo Dwi; Mulyana, Budi; Supriyatno, Nunuk.
There is a growing trend towards small-scale forest operators engaging in certification initiatives in response to growing demands for certified timber. We aimed to analyse whether certified smallholders gain better access to timber markets and better financial incentives. We used three smallholder forest enterprises from Gunungkidul and Kulon Progo districts, Java, Indonesia as case studies of different managerial operations. Two were farmer cooperatives and the other was an external trading company in partnership with village-level farmer groups. Different certification schemes and managerial approaches were analysed whether such factors influenced the ability of smallholders to access certified timber markets and obtain improved offers for their timber....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Forestry smallholder growers; Certification; Market access; Premium prices; Entrepreneurial skills; Market networks.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.jarts.info/index.php/jarts/article/view/2017010351816
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Collective Action for Small-Scale Producers of Agricultural Biodiversity Products AgEcon
Kruijssen, Froukje; Keizer, Menno; Giuliani, Alessandra.
The role of well-functioning markets for development is now widely recognized, however the challenge remains to make these markets benefit the poor and the environment. Increasing attention is being given to the potential role markets can play for agrobiodiversity conservation through product diversification and increasing competitiveness in niche and novelty markets. Bioversity International has undertaken several studies that explore the use of market-based approaches to on-farm agrobiodiversity management and livelihood improvement. Case studies have been developed on a range of species, varieties and derived products, including underutilized species and commodities in several regions of the world. This paper explores how the theory of collective action...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural biodiversity; Market chain; Market access; Livelihoods; Collective action; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50002
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Commodity-based Trade and Market Access for Developing Country Livestock Products: The Case of Beef Exports from Ethiopia AgEcon
Rich, Karl M.; Perry, Brian D.; Kaitibie, Simeon.
While Ethiopia is Africa’s largest livestock producer, sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) barriers and animal diseases have traditionally constrained market access. A system dynamics model examined the feasibility of a proposed SPS certification system under a number of scenarios. Model results indicate that the system may not be viable for beef exports to Middle Eastern markets. However, the binding constraint is high domestic input costs rather than the costs of SPS compliance. Sensitivity analyses reveal that while investments in feed efficiency and animal productivity would enhance Ethiopia’s export competitiveness, the competitive nature of international beef markets may still prevent market access.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: SPS; Livestock; Market access; System dynamics; Ethiopia; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Q10; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53794
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Coordinating to Eradicate Animal Disease, and the Role of Insurance Markets AgEcon
Hennessy, David A..
Farmed animal production has traditionally been a dispersed sector. Biosecurity actions relevant to eradicating infectious diseases are generally non-contractible, and might involve inordinately high transactions costs if they were contractible. If an endemic disease is to be eradicated within a region, synchronized actions need to be taken to reduce incidence below a critical mass so that spread can be contained. Using a global game model of coordination under public and private information concerning the critical mass required, this paper characterizes the success probability in an eradication campaign. As is standard in global games, heterogeneity in private signals can support a unique equilibrium. Partly because of strategic interactions, concentrated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biosecurity; Coordination failure; Disease insurance; Endemic disease; Global games; Market access; Public information; Veterinary public health; Livestock Production/Industries; D8; H4; Q1.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7702
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Defining a trade strategy for southern Mediterranean countries AgEcon
Bouet, Antoine.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the best trade approach for Southern Mediterranean countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey) that helps them increase market access and develop trade policies which will facilitate the most efficient economic development. The study uses, the MacMap-HS6 database on market access and the Modeling International Relations under Applied General Equilibrium (MIRAGE) model of the global economy. While most South Mediterranean (SM) countries are very protectionist, they enjoy a fairly good access to world markets, either due to product specialization or to preferences granted by the European Union in the industrial sector. Today, these countries are simultaneously opting for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade strategy; Market access; Trade policies; Economic development; MIRAGE model; Multilateralism; Regional strategies; Free trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58568
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Development domains for Ethiopia: capturing the geographical context of smallholder development options AgEcon
Chamberlin, Jordan; Pender, John L.; Yu, Bingxin.
The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the government of Ethiopia frequently frames policy discussions by broadly different geographical conditions of moisture availability, recognizing moisture reliable, drought prone and pastoralist areas. These conditions are seen as important criteria for determining the nature, extent and priority of development interventions for different parts of the country. There is considerable evidence, however, that other geographical factors also have important implications for rural development options. This paper uses agroecology, access...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Smallholders; Small farmers; Geographic conditions; Rural development strategies; Development policy; Agro-ecology; Market access; Livelihoods; Population density; International Development.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55410
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Do Price Uncertainties Affect the Use of Policy Flexibilities? The Selection of Sensitive Products in WTO Agricultural Negotiations AgEcon
Listorti, Giulia; Kempen, Markus; Girardin, Jean; Kranzlein, Tim.
In a context in which price uncertainty is likely to increase, expected market trends need to be taken carefully into account while negotiating international trade policy rules. This paper aims at analyzing what is their influence on the use of policy flexibilities in the context of WTO agricultural negotiations. In particular, within the market access pillar, we focus on the selection of sensitive products. Our model, TRIMAG (Tariff Reduction Impact Model for Agriculture), defined at the 8-digit level, optimizes the domestic agricultural value added subject to a maximum number of sensitive tariff lines, accounting for various future international price scenarios. Furthermore, we test the use of alternative options for the implementation of “tariff...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: WTO agricultural negotiations; Market access; Sensitive products; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114381
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Does Africa Trade Less than it Should, and If So, Why?: The Role of Market Access and Domestic Factors AgEcon
Bouet, Antoine; Mishra, Santosh; Roy, Devesh.
This paper addresses the question of whether Africa is an undertrading continent. We answer this question using a much-improved data set for obtaining predicted trade and by employing methods that correct for bias in estimates of undertrading. Our results indicate that globally Africa is an underexporter in our preferred Heckman specification. This result is robust to the addition of various controls and the application of variants of the gravity model of trade. We also looked for explanations for Africa’s undertrading. We found that accounting for transport and communication infrastructure reduced the undertrading effect for Africa, and in some specifications of the gravity model, the under-trading effect vanished altogether. Results from a semiparametric...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Gravity model; Undertrading; Trade related infrastructure; Market access; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42320
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Drivers and Modifiers of Lowland Use in West Africa AgEcon
Erenstein, Olaf.
Lowland development efforts in West Africa have a mixed record. The paper posits that this is due to the neglect of: (1) market opportunity as driving force for lowland use; and (2) the wider context within which lowlands are used as important modifier. The paper applies a regression-based decomposition framework to analyze the factors driving and modifying lowland use in West Africa. It uses community-level data from 1014 geo-referenced lowland units around four urban centers along an agro-ecological gradient in Cote d'Ivoire and Mali. Tobit models are used to explain the extent of lowland non-use (seasonal fallow), its diversity (in terms of rice and other crop cultivation) and its land use intensity (double cropping). Results highlight that proximity to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Urban - rural linkages; Market access; Agro-ecological gradient; West Africa; Lowland use; Peri-urban agriculture; O18; O3; Q15; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25288
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Evaluating existing policy flexibilities in WTO agricultural negotiations: different criteria for the selection of sensitive products AgEcon
Listorti, Giulia; Kempen, Markus; Girardin, Jean; Kranzlein, Tim.
Within WTO agricultural negotiations, this paper deals with alternative criteria for the selection of sensitive products. Existing methodologies mostly rely on the analysis of tariffs and trade flows. On the contrary, assessments of the economic impacts on specific groups of stakeholders, namely the domestic agricultural sector, are missing or conducted at a high level of product aggregation. We hence develop a methodology that considers the effects of the selection of sensitive products on domestic agricultural prices. Our model, TRIMAG (Tariff Reduction Impact Model for Agriculture), defined at the 8-digit level, optimizes the domestic agricultural value added subject to a maximum number of sensitive tariff lines. The existing methodologies are applied...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: WTO agricultural negotiations; Market access; Sensitive products; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98986
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Explaining National Border Effects in the Quad Food Trade AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
Starting from a theoretically consistent gravity model, this paper first provides estimates of bilateral 'border effects' in food trade among Quad countries (Canada, USA, Japan and EU) at the ISIC 4-digit level. Then, it investigates the underlying reasons of border effect, assessing the role played by policy barriers (tariffs and non-tariff barriers) with respect to barriers unrelated to trade policy, such as information related costs and cultural proximity. In contrast with several previous findings, we show that policy barriers are part of the story in explaining the strong trade reduction effect induced by national borders, and this is especially true when we control for the endogeneity of trade policy to imports, as suggested by political economy...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Border effect; Food trade; Market access; Gravity; QUAD countries; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25467
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Extending Protection at the WTO to Products Other Than Wines and Spirits: Who Will Benefit? AgEcon
Vincent, Michel.
The issue of extending geographic indicator protection to products other than wines and spirits has created wide divergences between demandeurs and opponent countries at the WTO. This article examines the economic impacts of the proposals submitted at the WTO by these two groups of countries, focusing mainly on market access, generic names and impacts for the consumer in North America. Results from our survey show that reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers in North America would be more important in improving market access for EU geographical indications (GIs) than would GI extension. In addition, it would appear that North American consumers may not benefit from extension of protection to products other than wines and spirits..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Generic names; Geographical indications; Market access; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9383
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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PRICES PRODUCERS RECEIVE FOR HOGS: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF KILLSHEET AND SURVEY DATA AgEcon
Lawrence, John D..
This paper evaluates the results of a survey of Iowa pork producers, examining potential price discrimination by packers. Prices varied greatly across producers, and the examined variables explain just over half of the variation. Factors under the producer's control were the most significant variables and accounted for the vast majority of the explainable difference in price among producers. Packer buying systems also accounted for some difference in producer prices. Finally, variables related to operation size, while statistically significant, increased the explanatory values of the equation very little.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market access; Carcass merit; Hog marketing; Price determination; Price discrimination; Demand and Price Analysis; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18276
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