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Registros recuperados: 20
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Amélioration de la sélectivité des chalutiers Pêcherie multispécifique – Manche - Mer du Nord (selecmer) ArchiMer
Leonardi, Sophie; Rubin, Alex; Meillat, Marc; Coppin, Franck; Delpech, Jean-paul; Morandeau, Fabien; Larnaud, Pascal.
Ce rapport fait la synthèse des travaux réalisés en 2008 et en 2009 au cours du programme Selecmer. Celui-ci, réalisé à l'initiative des professionnels de la pêche en partenariat avec l'Ifremer, avait pour objectif de travailler à améliorer la sélectivité du chalut de fond qu'ils utilisent afin de diminuer les rejets des individus hors-tailles1, en particulier pour le merlan, tout en limitant les pertes commerciales immédiates. Une première phase a consisté à tester l'efficacité de fenêtres à mailles carrées. La deuxième phase a eu pour objectif de développer une grille sélective. Des essais en bassin et des campagnes vidéo en mer ont permis d'apporter des ajustements aux dispositifs sélectifs. L'ensemble des essais de sélectivité à bord des navires de...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Professional fishermen; Square mehs; Flume tank; Selective grid; North Sea; Channel; Bottom trawl; Selectivity; Fishing; Professionnels; Mailles carrées; Campagnes à la mer; Bassin d'essais; Grille sélective; Mer du Nord; Manche; Chalut de fond; Sélectivité; Pêche.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/rapport-6776.pdf
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Campagnes expérimentales de chalutage en mer du Nord et Manche Orientale. Volume I. Les campagnes I.B.T.S. 1997 & 1998 ArchiMer
Verin, Yves; Dufour, Jean-louis.
Since 1976, France participates to the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS), coordinated by the International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES). The main objective of the survey which is carried out on board of a research vessel, is to obtain annual forecasts of recruitment for the various commercial fish species of the North Sea. These estimates are used by ICES Working Groups to assess these various stocks and to propose management measures for the following year. In addition, the data collected during these surveys concern biological and abundance analysis of main commercial fish species exploited by European countries in the North Sea. The results of studies are published in scientific papers and have improved knowledge in this field....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mer du Nord. CIEM; Recrutement; Stocks de poissons; Indices d'abondance; Chalutage; Campagne d'échantillonnage; Mer du Nord; [CES; Recruitment; Fish stocks; Abundance indices; Trawling; Survey..
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00306/41760/40973.pdf
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Contribution à l'étude de la biologie des populations de Tacauds Trisopterus luscus (L.1758) en Manche orientale et dans le sud de la Mer du Nord ArchiMer
Desmarchelier, Manuela.
L'étude est axée principalement sur la reproduction, la croissance du Tacaud (Trisopterus luscus L.), ainsi que sur la répartition des individus à l'intérieur de la zone étudiée. Le Tacaud, poisson, gadidé, est une espèce côtière péchée artisanalement comme espèce accessoire. Les jeunes vivent à la côte; les adultes sont sur des fonds chalutables, à l'exception des plus âgés qui migrent sur des fonds rocheux. Notre étude a été réalisée à partir de chalutages expérimentaux et de l'analyse statistique des captures débarquées au port de Boulogne/mer. Le rythme de la reproduction a été déterminé, ainsi que l'âge et la taille à la première maturité sexuelle. On observe un décalage géoqraphique de la reproduction : Les populations vivant au nord mûrissent plus...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Dynamique de population; Tacaud; Mer du Nord; Manche orientale Sud; Biométrie; Reproduction; Croissance; Trisopterus luscus.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1986/these-6943.pdf
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Essais d'un chalut avec fenêtre à mailles carrées en Mer du Nord ArchiMer
Brabant, Jean-claude; Delpech, Jean-paul; Dufour, Jean-louis; Garren, Francois.
The fragile state of the cod stock in the North Sea and Western Scotland has made the European Commission take a certain amount of measures to reconstitute these stocks since the end of 2001. One of those measures consisted of improving the selection capacity of the bottom otter trawls in order to reduce the capture of juveniles, through a compulsory selection device of square mesh panel type. In this context, the Regional Marine Fisheries Committee of Nord/Pas-de-Calais/Picardie, which is against any increase of the mesh size but agrees with the adoption of a new selection device, decided to organize technical trials along with the IFREMER, so as to evaluate its efficiency. A square mesh panel system was tested in multispecific fisheries in the southern...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Essais à la mer; Pêcheries multispécifiques; Cabillaud; Mer du Nord; Sélectivité; Chalut; Mailles carrées.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/rapport-3463.pdf
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Evolution et répartition de la capacité physique et de l'effort de pêche des navires français. Estimation de l'adéquation de la capacité utilisée et des possibilités de pêche ArchiMer
Leonardi, Sophie; Leblond, Emilie; Le Blond, Samuel; Marchal, Paul.
Ce document vise à fournir des informations concernant la situation des différents stocks et la capacité des flottilles françaises et communautaires sur ces stocks. Il met à disposition des données permettant de mesurer : 1. l'évolution de la capacité physique de la flotte française. Celle-ci est abordée à travers la puissance nominale totale (kW), la puissance moyenne (kW) et le nombre de navires. L'évolution de ces indicateurs est fournie depuis 1983 pour la façade Mer du Nord – Manche – Atlantique et la façade Méditerranée, depuis 1997 pour les Départements d'Outre Mer (DOM). Dans un premier temps, l'ensemble des navires français inscrits au fichier flotte sont pris en compte. Dans un second temps, seuls les navires actifs sont retenus en distinguant...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Capacité des navires; Effort de pêche; Production; Atlantique; Mer du Nord; Méditerranée; Flotte française; Boat capacity; Fishing effort; Production; Atlantic; North sea; Mediterranean sea; French fleet.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00001/11213/7587.pdf
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Fiches d’aide à l’identification. Poissons et céphalopodes de Manche et de mer du Nord ArchiMer
Garren, Francois; Verin, Yves; Dufour, Jean-louis; Mahe, Kelig; Le Roy, Didier; Rostiaux, Emilie.
This document present identification fact sheets of fishes and cephalopods species frequently captured during scientific surveys in the English Channel and the North Sea. Simple and concise description of the morphological criteria enable a fast and easy discrimination between species that may be confused.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Identification; Poisson; Céphalopode; Manche; Mer du Nord; Identification; Fish; Cephalopod; English Channel; North Sea..
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00326/43758/43302.pdf
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Global expressions for seasonal temperatures of the sea surface and ambient air - The influence of tidal currents and water depth ArchiMer
Prandle, D.
A 'single point' coupled ocean-atmosphere model is formulated to study seasonal temperature cycles with particular application to shelf seas. The simplified atmospheric module is consistent with the physical processes described by Gill [4] while the vertical exchange of heat in the ocean module is determined via a turbulence closure model. The various empirical coefficients in the atmospheric module were determined by fitting the model output to North Atlantic observational data over the latitude range 0 degrees to 65 degrees N. The model is then applied to the shallow, strongly tidal North Sea. The general validity of the model is demonstrated, thereby indicating that the seasonal cycles of the sea surface, T-s, and ambient air, T-a, are generally...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Température; Cycle annuel; Couplage océan-atmosphère; Mer bordière; Mer du Nord; Temperature; Annual cycle; Atmosphere-ocean coupling; Shelf seas; North Sea.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00325/43665/43205.pdf
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Grands invertébrés et poissons observés par les campagnes scientifiques. Atlas de distribution. Bilan 2008 ArchiMer
Trenkel, Verena; Berthele, Olivier; Lorance, Pascal; Bertrand, Jacques; Brind'Amour, Anik; Cochard, Marie-laure; Coppin, Franck; Leaute, Jean-pierre; Mahe, Jean-claude; Morin, Jocelyne; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Salaun, Michele; Souplet, Arnauld; Verin, Yves.
Depuis une vingtaine d'années, l'Ifremer organise des campagnes de pêche scientifique en mer du Nord, Manche, Atlantique et Méditerranée concernant les ressources pélagiques, démersales et benthiques. L'objectif prioritaire est de produire des indices d'abondance des principales espèces commerciales. Elles recueillent également des données sur les espèces capturées non commerciales. Les campagnes sont réalisées selon des plans d'échantillonnage standardisés. L'engin de pêche et son gréement, la position des stations, le tri des captures, les prélèvements biologiques suivent des protocoles fixés. Chaque zone étudiée est découpée en fonction de la profondeur, de la latitude ou d'autres critères. L'échantillonnage prévoit un nombre de traits de chalut...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Populations; Halieutique; Bulletin; Méditerranée; Golfe de Gascogne; Manche; Mer du Nord; France; Pêche; Campagnes à la mer; Atlas; Survey; Mediterranean Sea; Bay of Biscay; English Channel; North Sea; France; Populations; Fishery science; Bulletin; Atlas.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/rapport-6976.pdf
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Grands invertébrés et poissons observés par les campagnes scientifiques. Bilan 2007 ArchiMer
Bertrand, Jacques; Brind'Amour, Anik; Cochard, Marie-laure; Coppin, Franck; Leaute, Jean-pierre; Lorance, Pascal; Mahe, Jean-claude; Morin, Jocelyne; Poulard, Jean-charles; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Schlaich, Ivan; Souplet, Arnauld; Trenkel, Verena; Verin, Yves.
The ecosystems exploited by fishing are complex. The species which are sought after and their distribution rely on numerous processes, in time and space. The understanding of marine ecosystems requires important means and diverse information including those of professional fishing and scientific cruises. At first, scientific fishing cruises aimed to explore marine fauna and discover new halieutic resources. They were in line with the exploration cruises carried out by Prince Albert 1st of Monaco at the end of the XIXth century. However, since the beginning of the 1970s, they have been focusing on the quantification of the resources exploited by fishing. [...] After a series of "Understanding keys" aimed at helping the reader understand the methodology and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mediterranean Sea; Bay of Biscay; English Channel; North Sea; France; Communities; Populations; Fishery science; Indicators; Bulletin; Méditerranée; Golfe de Gascogne; Manche; Mer du Nord; France; Pêche; Campagnes à la mer; Communautés; Populations; Halieutique; Indicateurs; Bulletin.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/rapport-6160.pdf
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Synthèse de l'activité des navires de pêche en 2003 ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Merrien, Claude; Berthou, Patrick; Demaneche, Sebastien.
This programme aims to respond to the public service mission of IFREMER, which is "to know, evaluate and develop the oceans' resources and enable their sustainable use". It thus brings together projects that have ambitions specific to each. The "Halieutic Information System" (SIH) has as its goal to build the observation network of halieutic resources and associated uses. It is mainly in charge of developing indicators about fishing flotillas and their output in the form of summaries to the various actors in the fishing industry (from research to professionals and managers) and the general public. This type of output is created thanks to the implementation of a standard methodology of monitoring the activities of ships, and to the existence since 2001 of a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Metier; Atlantic ocean; Channel; North Sea; Ship activities; French fishing fleet; Fishing boats; Marine district; Metier; Atlantique; Manche; Mer du Nord; Activité des navires de pêche; Flotte française; Navires de pêche; Quartier maritime.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/rapport-2630.pdf
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Synthèse des Flottilles de Pêche 2003. Flotte Mer du Nord - Manche - Atlantique ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Bermell, Sylvain; Merrien, Claude; Demaneche, Sébastien.
The document synthesizes the data collected in 2004 as part of the Fisheries Observatory of Ifremer. It updates the description of the status in 2002 of the French fishing fleets operating in the North Sea, Channel and Atlantic (published in 2003). The document is comprised of a series of leaflets. The first leaflet provides a detailed breakdown of the fishing fleet. Information provided includes vessel and crew characteristics, spatial distribution of fishing activity and catch, and gear used. A description of fleets (sub-groups of vessels using the same gear combination) is also provided at both national and regional levels. The following leaflets provide a detailed description of the fishing activity and economic status of each coast (the North Sea...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: France; Atlantique; Manche; Mer du Nord; Indicateurs économiques; Indicateurs d'activité; Engin; Métier; Flottille; Typologies; Pêche; France; Atlantic; Channel; North Sea; Economic indicators; Indicators of fishing activity; Gear; Metier; Fishing fleet; Typologies; Fishing sector.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/rapport-1227.pdf
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Synthèse des flottilles de pêche 2004 - Mer du Nord, Manche, Atlantique ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Bermell, Sylvain; Jezequel, Michele; Merrien, Claude.
This summary reports on the characteristics of the French flotillas according to trade; allocation of ships by region; spatial distribution of the activity; average economic indicators; technical characteristics of the ships...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: North Sea; Channel; Metier; Fishing gear; Ship size; Atlantic ocean; French fishing fleet; Indicateur économique; Metiers; Engins de pêche; Tailles des navires; Mer du Nord; Manche; Atlantique; Flottille française.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/rapport-2631.pdf
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Synthèse des flottilles de pêche 2006 - Flotte Mer du Nord - Manche - Atlantique - Méditerranée ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Merrien, Claude; Pitel-roudaut, Mathilde; Bermell, Sylvain; Brigaudeau, Cecile; Planchot, Marie; Demaneche, Sebastien; Jezequel, Michele; Bodere, Erwan.
This document, which is the fifth edition of a series started in 2000, provides a global overview of the data collected in 2007 as part of the Fisheries Observatory of Ifremer. It includes a brief account of the activity and financial situation of the French fleets operating in the North Sea, English Channel, Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea in 2006 and updates the 2005 issue, which was published in 2006. The summary is intended for a wide audience. The document contains several fact sheets : • The first sheet provides a global description of the French national (excluding overseas) fishing fleet (North Sea - Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea), including vessel and crew characteristics. It also presents the evolution of the French fishing...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pêche; Typologies; Flottille; Métier; Engin; Indicateurs d’activité; Indicateurs économiques; Mer du Nord; Manche; Atlantique; Méditerranée; France; Fishing sector; Typologies; Fishing fleet; Métier; Gear; Indicators of fishing activity; Economic indicators; North Sea; English Channel; Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea; France.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00042/15351/12706.pdf
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Synthèse des flottilles de pêche 2007 - Flotte Mer du Nord - Manche-Atlantique ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Merrien, Claude; Pitel, Mathilde; Jezequel, Michele.
Le présent document, sixième édition d'une série lancée en 2000, réactualise la Synthèse des flottilles 2006, publiée en 2008. Il ne prétend pas rendre compte de l'ensemble des données collectées depuis cette précédente édition. Cependant, il a pour ambition de présenter de manière synthétique, l'activité et la situation économique de la flotte de pêche française métropolitaine (façades mer du Nord Manche, Atlantique et Méditerranée), à destination d'un public très large. La Synthèse des flottilles de pêche 2007 est une compilation de fiches synthétiques, chacune d'entre elles étant construite sur le même format. : - La fiche de synthèse France Métropolitaine Elle décrit la flotte des façades Mer du Nord Manche, Atlantique et Méditerranée. Elle propose en...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marins; Navires; Situation économique; Peche; Activité; Flottilles; Méditerranée; Atlantique; Mer du Nord; Manche.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/rapport-6929.pdf
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Synthèse des flottilles de pêche 2009 - Flotte Mer du Nord - Manche - Atlantique - Méditerranée ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Merrien, Claude; Pitel-roudaut, Mathilde; Macher, Claire; Le Grand, Christelle; Demaneche, Sebastien; Jezequel, Michele; Bodere, Erwan; Le Blond, Samuel.
This document, which is the eighth edition of a series started in 2000, provides a global overview of the data collected in 2010 as part of the Fisheries Observatory of Ifremer. It aims to present a summary of the activity and economic situation of the French fleets operating in the North Sea, English Channel, Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea in 2009. It updates the 2008 issue, which was published in 2010. The summary is intended for a wide audience. The document contains several fact sheets: • The first sheet provides a description of the French national fishing fleet (North Sea - Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, excluding overseas), including vessel and crew characteristics. It also presents the evolution of the French fishing fleet since...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pêche; Typologies; Flottille; Métier; Engin; Indicateurs d’activité; Indicateurs économiques; Mer du Nord; Manche; Atlantique; Méditerranée; France; Fishing sector; Typologies; Fishing fleet; Métier; Gear; Indicators of fishing activity; Economic indicators; North Sea; English Channel; Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea; France.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00042/15352/12707.pdf
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Synthèse des flottilles de pêche 2010. Flotte de Mer du Nord - Manche - Atlantique. Flotte de Méditerranée ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Merrien, Claude; Pitel-roudaut, Mathilde; Le Grand, Christelle; Demaneche, Sebastien; Jezequel, Michele; Bodere, Erwan; Le Blond, Samuel; Macher, Claire; Le Grand, Christelle.
This document, which is the eighth edition of a series started in 2000, provides a global overview of the data collected in 2011 as part of the Fisheries Observatory of Ifremer. It aims to present a summary of the activity and economic situation of the French fleets operating in the North Sea, English Channel, Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea in 2010. It updates the 2009 issue, which was published in 2011. This synthesis is intended for a wide audience. The document contains several fact sheets: • The first sheet provides a description of the French national fishing fleet (North Sea - Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, excluding overseas), including vessel and crew characteristics. It also presents the evolution of the French fishing fleet...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pêche; Typologies; Flottille; Métier; Engin; Indicateurs d’activité; Indicateurs économiques; Mer du Nord; Manche; Atlantique; Méditerranée; France.; Fishing sector; Typologies; Fishing fleet; Métier; Gear; Indicators of fishing activity; Economic indicators; North Sea; English Channel; Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea; France.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00117/22797/20601.pdf
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Synthèse des flottilles de pêche 2011. Flotte de Mer du Nord - Manche - Atlantique. Flotte de Méditerranée ArchiMer
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Leonardi, Sophie; Demaneche, Sebastien; Merrien, Claude; Berthou, Patrick; Pitel-roudaut, Mathilde; Macher, Claire; Lespagnol, Patrick; Le Grand, Christelle; Le Blond, Samuel.
This document, which is the eighth edition of a series started in 2000, provides a global overview of the data collected in 2011 as part of the Fisheries Observatory of Ifremer. It aims to present a summary of the activity and economic situation of the French fleets operating in the North Sea, English Channel, Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea in 2011. It updates the 2010 issue, which was published in 2012. This synthesis is intended for a wide audience. The document contains several fact sheets: - The first sheet provides a description of the French national fishing fleet (North Sea - Channel, Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, excluding overseas), including vessel and crew characteristics. It also presents the evolution of the French fishing fleet...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pêche; Typologies; Flottille; Métier; Engin; Indicateurs d’activité; Indicateurs économiques; Mer du Nord; Manche; Atlantique; Méditerranée; France.; Fishing sector; Typologies; Fishing fleet; Métier; Gear; Indicators of fishing activity; Economic indicators; North Sea; English Channel; Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea; France..
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00171/28177/26411.pdf
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Synthèse des pêcheries 2000 - Flotte Mer du Nord, Manche, Atlantique ArchiMer
Berthou, Patrick; Daures, Fabienne; Guyader, Olivier; Merrien, Claude; Jezequel, Michele.
This summary of the French fisheries of the North Sea/English Channel/Atlantic for the year 2000 is done in the context of the programme "Halieutic Information Systems" that has as its goal the creation of a permanent and operational observatory of fishing. It brings together several types of data: statistical data of administrative origin, data from the IFREMER pollsters network, economic data and data acquired during sea campaigns. This first annual summary of French fisheries, meant for all actors in the fishing industry (from research to professionals and managers) and the general public, is limited to the Atlantic coast. The first part of this document contains an overall description of the English Channel Atlantic fleet, that is, all trades included....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fishing gear; French fisheries; Fishing fleet; Species; Metier; Atlantic Ocean; Channel; North Sea; Pêcheries françaises; Flottille de pêche; Engins de pêche; Espèces; Métier; Atlantique; Manche; Mer du Nord.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/rapport-2629.pdf
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Synthèse des Pêcheries 2002 - Flotte mer du Nord-Manche-Atlantique ArchiMer
Berthou, Patrick; Daures, Fabienne; Merrien, Claude; Leblond, Emilie; Guyader, Olivier; Jezequel, Michele; Bermell, Sylvain.
The document synthesizes the data collected in 2002 and 2003 as part of the Fisheries monitoring system of Ifremer. It updates the description of the status in 2000 of the French fishing fleets operating in the North Sea, Channel and Atlantic (produced in 2002). The document is made of a series of leaflets. The first leaflet provides a global description of the overall population of fishing vessels. Information provided includes vessel and crew characteristics, spatial distribution of fishing activity and catch, and gears used. A description of fleets (sub-groups of vessels using the same gear combinations) is also provided at both national and regional levels. The following leaflets provide a detailed description of the fishing activity and economic...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: France; Atlantique; Manche; Mer du Nord; Indicateurs économiques; Indicateurs d'activité; Engin; Métier; Flottille; Typologies; Pêche; France; Atlantic; Channel; North Sea; Economic indicators; Indicators of fishing activity; Gear; Metier; Fishing fleet; Typologies; Fishing sector.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/rapport-1226.pdf
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TRANSMER, un modèle hydrodynamique rapide et précis pour la simulation à moyen et long terme des transferts de radionucléides en Manche et dans le sud de la Mer du Nord ArchiMer
Bailly Du Bois, Pascal; Dumas, Franck.
TRANSMER hydrodynamic model simulates dispersion of dissolved substances in seawater at the scale of the English Channel and the south of the North Sea with a mesh size of one kilometre and a time step of 30 minutes. It has been qualitatively and quantitatively validated by 1400 measurement of 125Sb in seawater. This model evaluates the medium- and long-term consequences of releases of soluble pollutants in the marine ecosystem under normal or accidental conditions, at a very low computation cost (it takes less than one hour to simulate one year).
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: English Channel; North Sea; Radionuclide; Concentration; Dispersion; Dissolved substances; Seawater; Hydrodynamic model; Modèle; Sb 125; Dispersion; Mer du Nord; Manche.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/acte-563.pdf
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