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Registros recuperados: 11
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Auswirkungen und alternative Ausgestaltung der Modulation von Direktzahlungen 31
Kleinhanss, Werner.
The system of direct payments in the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is being criticised with respect to the level, unequal distribution and allocation effects on production. Besides the decoupling of direct payments a modulation and a partial transmission to the second pillar of CAP are proposed. Modulation on a voluntary basis was already introduced in Agenda 2000. In its Mid-term Review of the Agenda the Commission proposes an obligatory dynamic modulation scheme including the capping of direct payments beyond a threshold of 300 000 €. Possible impacts of the Commission's proposal are assessed with simulations based on farm accounting data of EU-FADN. Distribution effects between farm sizes and member states are unveiled. Alternate...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Midterm-review; Modulation; Farm accounting data network; Direct payments; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98269
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Budgetary Effects of Including the CEC into Dynamic Modulation 31
Banse, Martin; Grethe, Harald.
The EU Commission suggests to exclude CEC from the dynamic modulation mechanism, being part of the MTR package. This article looks at the distributional aspects of including the CEC into dynamic modulation. Under the current accession proposal the CEC would account for only 18% of the rural development budget by 2006. If modulation would be realised with the CEC being excluded this share would drop to 14% by 2010. According to the criteria proposed by the Commission for the distribution of the modulation budget the CEC would get a higher share of the modulation budget if they were included as they account for high shares in agricultural area and employment, and their GDP per capita is relatively low. Based on the assumptions made for this article they...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Modulation; EU-enlargement; CAP-budget; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98270
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Combining non-modelling and modelling approaches for the evaluation of RD policy: study of the impact of modulation as a policy instrument 31
Nowicki, Peter.
Two separate, but interlinked methodological approaches – the modelling approach and non-modelling approach – have been used in a study commissioned by DG Agriculture and Rural Development to understand the impact of Modulation. In these two approaches a range of methodological and analytical tools are used, as follows: Non-modelling Approach • Literature Review; • Case Studies carried out in eight Member States; • Questionnaires carried out by telephone interviews in the 19 Member States, in which case studies were not conducted; • CMEF Indicators – collation of information on output, result and impact indicators for the case study Member States. Modelling Approach: • Budget model, tailor made for the project, provides much of the financial detail...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural development policy evaluation; Modelling; Non-modelling; Modulation; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94893
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Impacts of SPS options on the distribution of support 31
Kleinhanss, Werner.
The Mid-Term Review and the Health Check reforms of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy include numerous options for national implementation of the Single Payment Scheme. After the farreaching decoupling of Direct Payments, further reforms and changes of support measures are necessary with respect to the financial guidelines to be established for the period after 2013. Referring to Germany, the principles of the hybrid and regional models and their effects on the distribution of direct payments are shown. With regard to CAP after 2013, the impacts of alternative payment options are analysed based on farm individual FADN data of EU-27. Options of digressive premium schemes, including capping wrt labour input, regionalised or EU-wide flat rates, lowering the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP; Direct Payments; Decoupling; Modulation; FADN; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99430
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Impacts of the flat rates and digressive schemes on the distribution of Direct Payments in the EU 31
Kleinhanss, Werner.
The Mid-Term Review and the Health Check reforms of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) include numerous options for national implementation of the Single Payment Scheme. After the far-reaching decoupling of Direct Payments, a further reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is necessary with respect to the financial guidelines to be established for the period after 2013. Referring to Germany, the principles of the hybrid and regional models and their effects on the distribution of Direct Payments are shown. With regard to future CAP, the impacts of alternative payment options are analysed based on farm individual FADN data of EU-27. Options of digressive premium schemes, including capping with regard to labour input and regionalised or EU-wide flat...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP; Direct Payments; Decoupling; Modulation; FADN; Financial Economics; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114754
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In vitro EVALUATION OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL AND MODULATORY ACTIVITIES OF CORN AND SOY FIXED OILS 37
TAVARES,Emanuele N; ANDRADE,Jacqueline C; De M. OLIVEIRA,Cícera Datiane; TINTINO,Saulo R; LIMA,Micheline A; COUTINHO,Henrique D.M.
Nowadays, it is widely known that resistant pathogenic strains are becoming one of the greatest health problems related to human sciences. It is also known that fatty acids can present antimicrobial activity. The corn and soy oils are rich in fatty acids. In this regard, this work aimed to evaluate antibacterial and modulatory activity of these two industrial fixed oils. Both tests were performed using the microdilution method to Minimum inhibitory concentration under 1024 mg/ml. The aminoglycosides activity was enhanced by combining corn oil using E. coli 27. One of the mechanisms that might explain the synergism toward the corn oil, in part, might be due to the hidrophobic nature of the saturated and unsaturated lipids present in the sample. The results...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Antibacterial activity; Corn oil; Modulation; Soy oil.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-548X2015000100003
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Low-Frequency Sea Surface Radar Doppler Echo 5
Yurovsky, Yury Yu.; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir N.; Grodsky, Semyon A.; Chapron, Bertrand.
The sea surface normalized radar backscatter cross-section (NRCS) and Doppler velocity (DV) exhibit energy at low frequencies (LF) below the surface wave peak. These NRCS and DV variations are coherent and thus may produce a bias in the DV averaged over large footprints, which is important for interpretation of Doppler scatterometer measurements. To understand the origin of LF variations, the platform-borne Ka-band radar measurements with well-pronounced LF variations at frequencies below wave peak (0.19 Hz) are analyzed. These data show that the LF NRCS is coherent with wind speed at 21 m height while the LF DV is not. The NRCS-wind correlation is significant only at frequencies below 0.01 Hz indicating either differences between near-surface wind...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Radar; Ocean; Backscatter; Doppler shift; Wave groups; Non-linearity; Modulation.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00445/55646/57298.pdf
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On the unsteady steepening of short gravity waves near the crests of longer waves in the absence of generation or dissipation 5
Peureux, Charles; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Guimarães, Pedro Veras.
The wave action equation provides a general framework that has been applied to the conservative hydrodynamic interactions between short and long surface waves. So far, only a limited range of solutions have been investigated. Here we show that the wave action equation predicts that groups of short waves propagating over long monochromatic waves are unstable. We demonstrate theoretically and numerically a new ratchet‐type instability that progressively condenses short wave action around the long wave crests due to the correlation of phase speed and action fluctuations. This instability is of particular interest because it may lead to a higher probability of breaking for short waves propagating in directions within ±35 degrees of the dominant waves...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Instability; Modulation; Wind waves.
Ano: 2021 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00661/77318/83369.pdf
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Policy Risk Through Modulation of Direct Payments: Can Farms Live with a Strategic Disadvantage? 31
Osuch, Amanda; Sahrbacher, Christoph; Kellermann, Konrad; Happe, Kathrin.
This paper explores the impacts of modulation as suggested by the EU Commission (“Preparing for the “Health Check” of the CAP reform”, 2007). The agent-based model AgriPoliS has been adapted to the case study region Ostprignitz-Ruppin (Brandenburg, Germany). Impacts on farm structures, regional production and the distribution of profits throughout farms are investigated, as well as impacts of the transfer of money coming from modulation to a second pillar measure widely spread in the case study region. The relative gains or losses of farms depending on their modulation groups are documented and potential expectations on such policies discussed.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Modulation; CAP; Decoupling; Agri-environmental payments.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48113
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Sea Surface Ka-Band Doppler Measurements: Analysis and Model Development 5
Yurovsky, Yury; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Grodsky, Semyon; Chapron, Bertrand.
Multi-year field measurements of sea surface Ka-band dual-co-polarized (vertical transmit–receive polarization (VV) and horizontal transmit–receive polarization (HH)) radar Doppler characteristics from an oceanographic platform in the Black Sea are presented. The Doppler centroid (DC) estimated using the first moment of 5 min averaged spectrum, corrected for measured sea surface current, ranges between 0 and ≈1 m/s for incidence angles increasing from 0 to 70∘ . Besides the known wind-to-radar azimuth dependence, the DC can also depend on wind-to-dominant wave direction. For co-aligned wind and waves, a negative crosswind DC residual is found, ≈−0.1 m/s, at ≈20 ∘ incidence angle, becoming negligible at ≈ 60 ∘ , and raising to, ≈+0.5 m/s, at 70∘ . For our...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Radar; Scatterometer; Ocean; Backscatter; Doppler shift; Doppler centroid; Sea surface current; Wind drift; Modulation; Transfer function; Empirical model.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00489/60077/63399.pdf
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Surfaces de mer et dissipation d'énergie 5
Veras Guimaraes, Pedro.
Stochastic wave formulations and models are the most common tools for the assessment and forecast of sea surface conditions. Their ability to account for some of the processes encountered by waves during their evolution remains however a central question. Among other processes, the wave dissipation is for instance still poorly quantified and traditional methods for wave measurements fail to proper insight into its physics in a wide range of conditions. In this context, the work presented in this PhD aims to explore available observation techniques for their application to several quantitative aspects of the dissipation of wave energy, and particularly for short wave modulated by strong tidal currents, for short wave modulated by longer waves. This work...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Vagues; Stéréo-vidéo; Bouée dérivante; Modélisation; Interaction vague-courant; Modulation; Déferlement; Breaking; Ocean waves; Stereo video; Drifting buoy; Wave modeling; Wave-current interaction.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60967/64375.pdf
Registros recuperados: 11
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