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An ecotoxicological view on neurotoxicity assessment 5
Legradi, J. B.; Di Paolo, C.; Kraak, M. H. S.; Van Der Geest, H. G.; Schymanski, E. L.; Williams, A. J.; Dingemans, M. M. L.; Massei, R.; Brack, W.; Cousin, Xavier; Begout, Marie-laure; Van Der Oost, R.; Carion, A.; Suarez-ulloa, V.; Silvestre, F.; Escher, B. I.; Engwall, M.; Nilen, G.; Keiter, S. H.; Pollet, D.; Waldmann, P.; Kienle, C.; Werner, I.; Haigis, A. -c.; Knapen, D.; Vergauwen, L.; Spehr, M.; Schulz, W.; Busch, W.; Leuthold, D.; Scholz, S.; Vom Berg, C. M.; Basu, N.; Murphy, C. A.; Lampert, A.; Kuckelkorn, J.; Grummt, T.; Hollert, H..
The numbers of potential neurotoxicants in the environment are raising and pose a great risk for humans and the environment. Currently neurotoxicity assessment is mostly performed to predict and prevent harm to human populations. Despite all the efforts invested in the last years in developing novel in vitro or in silico test systems, in vivo tests with rodents are still the only accepted test for neurotoxicity risk assessment in Europe. Despite an increasing number of reports of species showing altered behaviour, neurotoxicity assessment for species in the environment is not required and therefore mostly not performed. Considering the increasing numbers of environmental contaminants with potential neurotoxic potential, eco-neurotoxicity should be also...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Eco-neurotoxicity; Neurotoxicity; EDA; REACH; AOP; Behaviour; Computational toxicity; Ecological; Species.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00473/58477/61058.pdf
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An environmentally relevant mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) disrupts mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism and neurotransmission in the brain of exposed zebrafish and their unexposed F2 offspring 5
Blanc, Mélanie; Alfonso, Sebastien; Bégout, Marie-laure; Barrachina, Célia; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Keiter, Steffen H.; Cousin, Xavier.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants still present in aquatic environments despite their total or partial ban. Previously, we observed that an environmentally realistic mixture of these compounds affects energy balance, growth, and reproduction in exposed zebrafish (F0), and behavior in their unexposed offspring (F1-F4). In the present work, we performed lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses on brains of zebrafish (F0-F2) from exposed and control lineages to identify molecular changes that could explain the observed phenotypes. The use of both technologies highlighted that F0 zebrafish displayed impaired mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism regulation (depletion in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Danio rerio; Persistent-organic pollutant; Neurotoxicity; Brain metabolism; RNA-Seq.
Ano: 2021 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00646/75797/76720.pdf
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Anticonvulsant evaluation of 2-pyrazolines carrying naphthyl moiety: An insight into synthesis and molecular docking study 60
Nusrat,Birjees; Siddiqui,Nadeem; Sahu,Meeta; Naim,Mohd. Javed; Shahar Yar,Mohammad; Ali,Ruhi; Ozair,Alam.
A series of N-substituted-3-(napthalen-2-yl)-5-substituted phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carbothioamide derivatives (4a-n) were synthesized with the view of structural requirements of pharmacophore for potential anticonvulsant agents. The synthesized compounds were assayed intraperitoneally (i.p.) and subcutaneously (s.c.) in mice against seizures induced by MES and scPTZ methods, respectively.Neurologic deficit was evaluated by rotarod method. Among the tested compounds, 4g, 4i, 4j and 4n emerged as the most active molecule in the MES model at a dose of 30 mg/kg at 0.5h comparable to standardscarbamazepine and phenytoin. In the scPTZ test,4e and 4l were found to be most active compounds at the lowest dose of 30 mg/kg at 0.5h, in the management of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pyrazolines; Anticonvulsants; Molecular docking; Neurotoxicity.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502019000100516
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Assessment of biomedical and pharmacological activities of sea anemones Stichodactyla mertensii and Stichodactyla gigantea from Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, southeast coast of India 80
Thangaraj,S; Bragadeeswaran,S.
Cnidarians comprise an old and diverse animal phylum, and possess a wide variety of biologically active substances. Sea anemones contain a diversity of interesting biologically active compounds including some potent toxins. In the present work, the sea anemones Stichodactyla mertensii and Stichodactyla gigantea, collected from the Mandapam coast, are characterized biomedically and pharmacologically. The crude protein was obtained by using methanol and aqueous extracts. The respective protein contents of S. mertensii and S. gigantea were found to be 2.10 µg/mL and 1.87 µg/mL. The methanol and aqueous extracts of S. mertensii and S. gigantea yielded six and nine bands by SDS-PAGE on 12% gel. In the hemolytic assay, both extracts exhibited hemolytic effect on...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aqueous extract; Neurotoxicity; Mouse bioassay; Analgesic activity.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992012000100007
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Biochemical and biological evaluation of gyroxin isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom 80
Barros,LC; Soares,AM; Costa,FL; Rodrigues,VM; Fuly,AL; Giglio,JR; Gallacci,M; Thomazini-Santos,IA; Barraviera,SRCS; Barraviera,B; Ferreira Junior,RS.
Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and capable of converting fibrinogen into fibrin, presents coagulant and neurotoxic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such coagulant and toxic properties. Gyroxin was isolated using only two chromatographic steps - namely gel filtration (Sephadex G-75) and affinity (Benzamidine Sepharose 6B) - resulting in a sample of high purity, as evaluated by RP-HPLC C2/C18 and electrophoretic analysis that showed a molecular mass of 30 kDa. Gyroxin hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrates, which caused it to be classified as a serine proteinase and thrombin-like enzyme. It was stable from pH 5.5 to 8.5 and inhibited by Mn²+, Cu²+, PMSF and benzamidine. Human...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Gyroxin; Neurotoxicity; Coagulant activity; Crotalus durissus terrificus; Serine proteinase.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992011000100004
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Consecutive bites on two persons by the same cobra: a case report 80
Amin,MR; Mamun,SMH; Chowdhury,NH; Rahman,M; Ghose,A; Al Hasan,A; Faiz,MA.
In tropical countries like Bangladesh, persons are bitten by snakes every day and a considerable number of patients die en route to the hospital. An event of consecutive neurotoxic bites on two men by a single snake was observed in the Snake Bite Study Clinic (SBSC) of the Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH). Two brothers, working in their semi-pucca restaurant, were successively bitten by the same cobra on their lower limbs. Within an hour, they were taken to the CMCH. Few minutes after admission, both developed symptoms of neurotoxicity: ptosis, nasal voice, dysphagia, broken neck sign, etc. They received polyvalent antivenom (Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceuticals Company, India) and other auxiliary treatment immediately. Within few hours, neurotoxic...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Consecutive bites; Neurotoxicity; Cobra; Snakebite; Antivenom.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992008000400014
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Effects of manganese (Mn2+) on neurotoxic and myotoxic activities induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararacussu venoms in chick biventer cervicis preparations 80
Bueno,L. G. F.; Leite,G. B.; Cruz-Höfling,M. A.; Rodrigues-Simioni,L.; Oshima-Franco,Y..
In the present study, manganese (Mn2+), a neuromuscular blocker with pre and postsynaptic actions, was used to verify the neurotoxicity and myotoxicity induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) and Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venoms in biventer cervicis preparations (BCp). Preparations pretreated with 0.66 and 1.6mM Mn2+ did not affect Cdt venom-induced blockage nor change KCl-induced contracture but partially reduced ACh-induced contracture. However, both Mn2+ concentrations partially hindered Bjssu venom-induced blockage after washing the preparations with Krebs solution, and only 1.6mM Mn2+ preparations significantly recovered ACh-induced contracture. The effect of Cdt venom myotoxicity on contractile responses was different from that of Bjssu...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Contracture; Divalent cation; Mn2+; Myotoxicity; Neuromuscular blockage; Neurotoxicity.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992007000200007
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Enhancement of domoic acid neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae bioassay by marine fungal metabolites 5
Ruiz, Nicolas; Petit, Karina; Vansteelandt, Marieke; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Baudet, Joseph; Amzil, Zouher; Biard, Jean-francois; Grovel, Olivier; Pouchus, Yves Francois.
Peptaibols are small linear fungal peptides which are produced in the marine environment. They exhibit neurotoxicity by forming pores in neuronal membranes. This work describes their combine effect with domoic acid, a neurotoxic phycotoxin, on Diptera larvae. The Acute toxicity bioassay on this biological model was tested with a panel of different toxins (microbial, algal or fungal). It allowed the discrimination of neurotoxins and non-neurotoxic toxins, and an evaluation of the toxicity level (MED and ED50) which were correlated with published LD50 in mice for neurotoxins tested. The highest activities on this test were found for Na+ channel blockers tetrodotoxin (ED50 = 0.026 mg/kg) and saxitoxin (ED50 = 0.18 mg/kg). Domoic acid was less active with an...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Domoic acid; Peptaibol; Synergism; Neurotoxicity; Marine-derived fungal metabolite; Diptera larvae bioassay.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00002/11279/7886.pdf
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Fatal neurotoxic envenomation following the bite of a greater black krait (Bungarus niger) in Nepal: a case report 80
Pandey,Deb Prasad; Sharma,Sanjib Kumar; Alirol,Emilie; Chappuis,François; Kuch,Ulrich.
Abstract Background Neurotoxic envenomation following bites by kraits (Bungarus species) is a leading cause of snakebite mortality in South Asia. Over a long time, this had been attributed only to one species, the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus). However, recent research has provided increasing evidence of the involvement of several krait species. Here, we report a fatal case of neurotoxic envenomation following the bite of a greater black krait (Bungarus niger) in Nepal. Case presentation A 33-year-old man was bitten in the outdoor corridor of his home in the eastern hills of Ilam district while handling a snake he thought to be non-venomous. He subsequently developed severe abdominal pain, frequent vomiting, and signs of neurotoxic envenomation...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: Bungarus niger; Neurotoxicity; Krait; Envenomation; Antivenom; Snakebite.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992016000100503
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Genotoxic, neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities of apomorphine and its oxidized derivative 8-oxo-apomorphine 56
Picada,J.N.; Roesler,R.; Henriques,J.A.P..
Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist proposed to be a neuroprotective agent in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that apomorphine displays both antioxidant and pro-oxidant actions, and might have either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects on the central nervous system. Some of the neurotoxic effects of apomorphine are mediated by its oxidation derivatives. In the present review, we discuss recent studies from our laboratory in which the molecular, cellular and neurobehavioral effects of apomorphine and its oxidized derivative, 8-oxo-apomorphine-semiquinone (8-OASQ), were evaluated in different experimental models, i.e., in vitro genotoxicity in Salmonella/microsome assay and WP2...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Apomorphine; 8-Oxo-apomorphine- semiquinone; Dopamine; Genotoxicity; Neurotoxicity.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2005000400001
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In Situ Behavioral Response of Common Loons Associated with Elevated Mercury (Hg) Exposure 7
Nocera, Joseph J; Acadia University; 023758n@acadiau.ca; Taylor, Philip D; Acadia University; ptaylor@resalliance.org.
Common Loons (Gavia immer) in Nova Scotia, Canada have the highest blood mercury (Hg) concentrations of any loon population in North America. Previous studies have shown that exposure to varying levels of Hg in prey is associated with changes in pre-nesting adult behavior. We report here the first association of sublethal blood Hg contamination with changes in behavior of Common Loon young. As Hg levels in their blood rise, the amount of time that chicks spend brooding (by back-riding) decreases (P = 0.004) and time spent preening increases (P = 0.003). The sum increase in energy expenditure is not being compensated for with expected increases in feeding rates or begging. We suggest that such altered time-activity budgets may disrupt the energetic balance...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Behavioral toxicology; Common loon behavior; Gavia immer; Kejimkujik National Park; Nova Scotia; Canada; Mercury; Neurotoxicity; Southwestern New Brunswick; Sub-lethal exposure; Time-activity budgets..
Ano: 1998
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Influence of the dopaminergic system, CREB, and transcription factor-κB on cocaine neurotoxicity 56
Planeta,C.S.; Lepsch,L.B.; Alves,R.; Scavone,C..
Cocaine is a widely used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. Abnormalities in newborns have been demonstrated to be due to the toxic effects of cocaine during fetal development. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is complex and involves interactions of the drug with several neurotransmitter systems, such as the increase of extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulation of transcription factors. The aim of this review was to evaluate the importance of the dopaminergic system and the participation of inflammatory signaling in cocaine neurotoxicity. Our study showed that cocaine activates the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB, which regulate genes involved in cellular...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cocaine; Apoptosis; NF-κB; CREB; BDNF; Neurotoxicity.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2013001100909
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INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN NEUROTOXIC AND MYOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF Bothrops neuwiedii VENOMS 79
BORJA-OLIVEIRA,C. R.; SOARES,A. M.; ZAMUNÉR,S. R.; HYSLOP,S.; GIGLIO,J. R.; PRADO-FRANCESCHI,J.; RODRIGUES-SIMIONI,L..
Snake venoms frequently vary in composition. In this work, we compared the neurotoxic and myotoxic activities of 16 lots of Bothrops neuwiedii venoms from different regions of Brazil, using chick biventer cervicis preparations. The neuromuscular blockade varied from 2% to 100% after 120 min incubation with venoms (50 mug/ml). In all cases, this blockade was irreversible and concentration-dependent; at low concentrations (10-20 mug/ml), 15 of the 16 venom lots failed to abolish responses to acetylcholine (110 muM), but blocked responses to KCl (13.4 muM), and induced contracture. At 5-20 mug/ml, the most active venom totally blocked twitch-tension without affecting responses to acetylcholine and KCl. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for basic proteins...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bothrops neuwiedii venom; Intraspecific variation; Myotoxicity; Neurotoxicity; Neuromuscular blockade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-79302002000100008
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Methylmercury intoxication activates nitric oxide synthase in chick retinal cell culture 56
Herculano,A.M.; Crespo-López,M.E.; Lima,S.M.A.; Picanço-Diniz,D.L.W.; Nascimento,J.L.M. Do.
The visual system is a potential target for methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the cellular mechanisms of toxicity induced by MeHg in retinal cells. Various reports have indicated a critical role for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation in modulating MeHg neurotoxicity in cerebellar and cortical regions. The aim of the present study is to describe the effects of MeHg on cell viability and NOS activation in chick retinal cell cultures. For this purpose, primary cultures were prepared from 7-day-old chick embryos: retinas were aseptically dissected and dissociated and cells were grown at 37ºC for 7-8 days. Cultures were exposed to MeHg (10 µM, 100 µM, and 1 mM) for 2, 4, and 6 h. Cell viability was measured by MTT...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Methylmercury; Chick retinal cell culture; Nitric oxide synthase; Cell viability; Neurotoxicity.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2006000300013
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Methylmercury intoxication and histochemical demonstration of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the striate cortex of adult cats 56
Oliveira,R.B.; Gomes-Leal,W.; do-Nascimento,J.L.M.; Picanço-Diniz,C.W..
The effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on histochemical demonstration of the NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity in the striate cortex were studied in 4 adult cats. Two animals were used as control. The contaminated animals received 50 ml milk containing 0.42 µg MeHg and 100 g fish containing 0.03 µg MeHg daily for 2 months. The level of MeHg in area 17 of intoxicated animals was 3.2 µg/g wet weight brain tissue. Two cats were perfused 24 h after the last dose (group 1) and the other animals were perfused 6 months later (group 2). After microtomy, sections were processed for NADPHd histochemistry procedures using the malic enzyme method. Dendritic branch counts were performed from camera lucida drawings for control and intoxicated animals (N = 80). Average,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: NADPH-dehydrogenase; Visual cortex; Neurotoxicity; Neuropil; Mercury.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1998000900009
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Microglia ­ astrocyte interaction in Alzheimer's disease: friends or foes for the nervous system? 48
VON BERNHARDI,ROMMY; RAMIREZ,GIGLIOLA.
Brain glial cells secrete several molecules that can modulate the survival of neurons after various types of damage to the CNS. Activated microglia and astrocytes closely associate to amyloid plaques in Alzheimer Disease (AD). They could have a role in the neurotoxicity observed in AD because of the inflammatory reaction they generate. There is controversy regarding the individual part played by the different glial cells, and the interrelationships between them. Both astrocytes and microglia produce several cytokines involved in the inflammatory reaction. Moreover, the same cytokines may have different effects, depending on their concentration and the type of cells in the vicinity. In turn, the events occurring in response to injury may lead to changes in...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; SS-amyloid; Cell activation; Inflammatory process; Neurotoxicity; Senile plaques.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602001000200017
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Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis snake venom in mouse nerve-muscle preparations 80
Durigon,A. M.; Borja-Oliveira,C. R.; Dal Belo,C. A.; Oshima-Franco,Y.; Cogo,J. C.; Lapa,A. J.; Souccar,C.; Rodrigues-Simioni,L..
The pharmacological effects of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations were studied. Venom (20 mug/ml) irreversibly inhibited indirectly evoked twitches in PND preparations (60 ± 10% inhibition, mean ± SEM; p<0.05; n=6). At 50 mug/ml, the venom blocked indirectly and directly (curarized preparations) evoked twitches in mouse hemidiaphragms. In the absence of Ca2+, venom (50 mug/ml), produced partial blockade only after an 80 min incubation, which reached 40.3 ± 7.8% (p<0.05; n=3) after 120 min. Venom (20 mug/ml) increased (25 ± 2%, p< 0.05) the frequency of giant miniature end-plate potentials in 9 of 10 end-plates after 30 min and the number of miniature end-plate potentials which was maximum (562 ±...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Giant MEPPs; Myotoxicity; Neurotoxicity; Presynaptic action.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992005000100004
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Physiopathological modulators of amyloid aggregation and novel pharmacological approaches in Alzheimer's disease 42
DEFELICE,FERNANDA G.; FERREIRA,SÉRGIO T..
The biological mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are complex, as several factors likely contribute to the development of the disease. Therefore, it is not surprising that a number of different possible therapeutic approaches addressing distinct aspects of this disease are currently being investigated. Among these are ways to prevent amyloid aggregation and/or deposition, to prevent neuronal degeneration, and to increase brain neurotransmitter levels. Here, we discuss possible roles of endogenous modulators of Abeta aggregation in the physiopathology of AD and some of the strategies currently under consideration to interfere with brain levels of beta-amyloid, its aggregation and neurotoxicity.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Alzheimer's disease; Abeta peptide; Aggregation; Neurotoxicity; Physiopathological modulators.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652002000200006
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Projet de recherche sur l'identification de nouveaux composés toxiques dans les coquillages 5
Amzil, Zouher.
ln November 1992, an event affecting Shellfish health received extensive media coverage: an unknown toxin had been detected in oysters from the bay of MarennesOleron (France). This phenomenon remains unexplained to this day. Since then, a growing number of observations obtained in the context of the REPHY phytoplankton monitoring network, have reported a mouse-active substance found in Shellfish and belonging to none of the known phycotoxin classes. These observations have been reported in France as weil as abroad (Canada, Norway, Ireland, New Zealand ... ). Mice treated intraperitoneally with the DSP screening test- exhibit neurological symptoms with disorders of the central nervous system leading to early death (within 5 to 10 minutes). Several hundred...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Toxicité atypique; Test-souris; Neurotoxicité; Identification de principe(s) actif(s); Atypical toxicity; Mouse-test; Neurotoxicity; Identification of active principle( s).
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00156/26732/24813.pdf
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Purification and n-terminal sequencing of two presynaptic neurotoxic PLA2, neuwieditoxin-I and neuwieditoxin-II, from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis (jararaca pintada) venom 80
Borja-Oliveira,C. R.; Kassab,B. H.; Soares,A. M.; Toyama,M. H.; Giglio,J. R.; Marangoni,S.; Re,L.; Rodrigues-Simioni,L..
Two presynaptic phospholipases A2 (PLA2), neuwieditoxin-I (NeuTX-I) and neuwieditoxin-II (NeuTX-II), were isolated from the venom of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis (BNP). The venom was fractionated using molecular exclusion HPLC (Protein-Pak 300SW column), followed by reverse phase HPLC (µBondapak C18 column). Tricine-SDS-PAGE in the presence or absence of dithiothreitol showed that NeuTX-I and NeuTX-II had a molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa and 28kDa, respectively. At 10µg/ml, both toxins produced complete neuromuscular blockade in indirectly stimulated chick biventer cervicis isolated preparation without inhibiting the response to acetylcholine, but NeuTX-II reduced the response to KCl by 67.0±8.0% (n=3; p<0.05). NeuTX-I and NeuTX-II are probably...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Chick biventer cervicis; Loose patch clamp; Nerve-muscle preparation; Neuromuscular junction; Neurotoxicity; PLA2 neurotoxin; Presynaptic action; Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis; Neuwieditoxin-I; Neuwieditoxin-II.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992007000100008
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