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10 years of transition in Ukraine agriculture: An analysis of productivity and efficiency of enterprises AgEcon
Lissitsa, Alexej; Odening, Martin; Babycheva, Tamara.
This paper analyzes efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) change of large agricultural enterprises during their transition to a market economy in Ukraine. In this case the efficiency is calculated by data envelopment analysis and the productivity change is measured by the Malmquist Productivity Change Index in the period between 1990 and 1999. On average, TFP declined by 6% annually, dropping a total 42%. The main reason for the observed TFP decline is a decrease in technical efficiency, which is found to be remarkably significant. At the same time there is a high variation among individual enterprises: their distribution of efficiency scores widens, which indicates that the farms diverge with respect to their economic performance. The Tobit...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Эффективность; Общая продуктивность фактора; Анализ оболочки данных; Малмквист-индекс изменения общей продуктивности фактора; Переходный период; Украина; Effizienz; Totale Faktor Produktivität; Data Envelopment Analysis; Malmquist Productivity Change Index; Transition; Ukraine; Efficiency; Total Factor Productivity; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; Q12; D25; O1; O4; P3.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92168
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A mosaic type of development - the Agri-food Districts experience in Italy AgEcon
Brasili, Cristina; Fanfani, Roberto.
The Italian Industrial Districts (IDs) are now considered in the national and international literature as one of the main factors of the successful and rapid industrial development of Italy after the Second World War. In this paper we outline the general characteristics of the IDs approach and then the distinctive figures of the agrifood districts. A mosaic type of development characterised the geographical distribution of the different agrifood districts in the Italian experience. The different origins of agrifood districts often determines their production and structural characteristics of firms, with a relevant role of SMEs. In many cases, these districts originated from handcraft traditions and specific local demand. Their specialized production is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-Food Districts; Italian Industrial Districts (IDs); Technical efficiency of a panel of firms; Economic Development; International Development; A1; C23; O1; Q10; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9404
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A Mosaic Type of Development: The Agri-Food Districts Experience in Italy AgEcon
Brasili, Cristina; Fanfani, Roberto.
The Italian Industrial Districts (IDs) are now considered in the national and international literature as one of the main factors of the successful and rapid industrial development of Italy after the Second World War. In this paper we outline the general characteristics of the IDs approach and then the distinctive figures of the agrifood districts. A mosaic type of development characterised the geographical distribution of the different agrifood districts in the Italian experience. The different origins of agrifood districts often determines their production and structural characteristics of firms, with a relevant role of SMEs. In many cases, these districts originated from handcraft traditions and specific local demand. Their specialized production is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-Food Districts; Italian Industrial Districts (IDs); Technical efficiency of a panel of firms; Economic Development.; International Development; A1; C23; O1; Q10; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25405
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A Review of Value-Added Centers: Objectives, Structures, Staffing, and Funding AgEcon
Holcomb, Rodney B.; Johnson, Aaron J..
Value-added centers have been established in many states. These centers vary greatly in objectives, operational structures, staffing, and funding. This paper uses examples of several centers and programs, with a specific emphasis on three centers, to provide a better understanding of value-added centers and their operations.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Multidisciplinary; Planning; Value-added; Agribusiness; L3; O1; Q0.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6525
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A Typology of Food Security in Developing Countries under High Food Prices AgEcon
Yu, Bingxin; You, Liangzhi; Fan, Shenggen.
The recent surge in food prices around the world may reverse the gains of reducing hunger and poverty in the recent years. This paper employs factor and sequential typology analysis using data for 175 countries to identify groups of countries categorized according to four measures of food security: utilization, availability, accessibility and stability. Nine indicators are used for this study: calories intake, protein intake, fat intake, food production, the ratio of total exports to food imports, soil fertility, length of growing period, coefficient of variation of length of growing period and urbanization. The analysis first identifies 5 distinct food security groups characterized by food intake then further split these groups based on similarities and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; Factor analysis; Agricultural potential; Typology; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; C0; F0; O1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51043
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Abatement and Transaction Costs of Carbon-Sink Projects Involving Smallholders AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Lipper, Leslie.
Agroforestry projects have the potential to help mitigate global warming by acting as sinks for greenhouse gasses. However, participation in carbon-sink projects may be constrained by high costs. This problem may be particularly severe for projects involving smallholders in developing countries. Of particular concern are the transaction costs incurred in developing projects, measuring, certifying and selling the carbon-sequestration services generated by such projects. This paper addresses these issues by analysing the implications of transaction and abatement costs in carbon-sequestration projects. A model of project participation is developed, which accounts for the conditions under which both buyers and sellers would be willing to engage in a carbon...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agroforestry; Climate Policy; Carbon Sequestration Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q23; Q57; O1; O13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9324
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AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS FOR CHRISTIAN GROUPS COMBATING PERSISTENT POVERTY AgEcon
Barrett, Christopher B.; Brown, Douglas R..
Persistent poverty is one of the core challenges faced by Christians and by development scholars and practitioners alike. There is no question that Jesus was concerned about the poor - both materially and spiritually. From his first public address in the Synagogue in Nazareth, His home town, where He concluded by saying that He had come to "preach good news to the poor" (Luke 4:18), Jesus lived the gospel in word and deed. We, as Christian men and women, whether researchers or practitioners, are called to do no less. When Jesus made His parting remarks to His disciples, He said (John 20:21) "As the Father has sent me, I am sending you." emphasizing that we are to do likewise. This concern permeates the Old and New Testament, another example being the words...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development; O1; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14738
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BARRIERS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN ZAMBIAN SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZE FARMS: EVIDENCE FROM MICRO-DATA AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal; Chiwele, Dennis K..
The objective of this paper is to identify factors which limit the ability of Zambian farmers to increase Maize productivity and/or diversify their crop mix. Both may enable wealth accumulation, investments, and further expansion. Specifically, we link variations in agricultural decisions, practices, and outcomes, to variations in the tightness of the different constraints. We model crop production decisions as having recursive structure. Initially, farmers decide on land allocation among the different crops, based on their information set at planting time. Then, as new information (weather, market conditions) is revealed, farmers can change output by influencing the yield. This recursive structure enables to separate the effects of the constraints on the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Diversification; Maize Productivity; Recursive Decisions; Two-stage Estimation; Censored Dependent Variables; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O1; Q1.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21877
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BAYES' ESTIMATES OF THE DOUBLE HURDLE MODEL IN THE PRESENCE OF FIXED COSTS AgEcon
Holloway, Garth J.; Barrett, Christopher B.; Ehui, Simeon K..
We present a model of market adoption (participation) where the presence of non-negligible fixed costs leads to non-zero censoring of the traditional double-hurdle regression. Fixed costs arise due to household resources that must be devoted a priori to the decision to participate in the market. These costs-usually a cost of time-motivate two-step decision-making and focus attentions on the minimum-efficient scale of operations (the minimum amount of milk sales) at which market entry becomes viable. This focus, in turn, motivates a non-zero-censored Tobit regression estimated through routine application of Markov chain Monte Carlo Methods.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market participation; Fixed costs; Double-hurdle model; Censored regression.; Financial Economics; O1; O11; C34; O13; Q16; D1.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14741
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BAYESIAN HERDERS: ASYMMETRIC UPDATING OF RAINFALL BELIEFS IN RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL FORECASTS AgEcon
Lybbert, Travis J.; Barrett, Christopher B.; McPeak, John G.; Luseno, Winnie K..
Temporal climate risk weighs heavily on many of the world's poor. Recent advances in model-based climate forecasting have expanded the range, timeliness and accuracy of forecasts available to decision-makers whose welfare depends on stochastic climate outcomes. There has consequently been considerable recent investment in improved climate forecasting for the developing world. Yet, in cultures that have long used indigenous climate forecasting methods, forecasts generated and disseminated by outsiders using unfamiliar methods may not readily gain the acceptance necessary to induce behavioral change. The value of model-based climate forecasts depends critically on the premise that forecast recipients actually use external forecast information to update...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; O1; D1; Q12.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14762
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Community-based Adaptation: Lessons from the Development Marketplace 2009 on Adaptation to Climate Change AgEcon
Heltberg, Rasmus; Prabhu, Radhika; Gitay, Habiba.
The Development Marketplace 2009 focused on adaptation to climate change. This paper identifies lessons from the Marketplace and assesses their implications for adaptation support. Our findings are based on: statistical tabulation of all proposals; in-depth qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 346 semi-finalists; and interviews with finalists and assessors. Proposals were fuelled by deep concerns that ongoing climate change and its impacts undermine development and exacerbate poverty, migration and food insecurity. Proposals addressed both local poverty and climate change challenges, and offered a wide range of approaches to render local development more resilient to current climate variability. Therefore, support to community-based adaptation...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community-based Adaptation; Development Marketplace; Adaptation; Climate Change; Environmental Economics and Policy; O1; Q5.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92711
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CORRUPTION AND OPENNESS AgEcon
Neeman, Zvika; Paserman, Daniele; Simhon, Avi.
We consider a neoclassical growth model with endogenous corruption. Corruption and wealth, which are co-determined in equilibrium, are shown to be negatively correlated. Richer countries tend to be less corrupt, and corrupt economies tend to be poorer. This observation gives rise to the following puzzle: If poorer countries do indeed experience higher levels of corruption, and if indeed as suggested by a number of empirical studies corruption hampers growth, then how did rich countries, who were poor once, become rich? Our answer is simple. In the past, economies were mostly "closed" in the sense that it was difficult to transfer illicit money outside of the economy. In contrast, today's economies are mostly open. In the relatively closed economies...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Growth; Openness; International Development; F2; H0; O1; O4.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14977
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DECOMPOSING PRODUCER PRICE RISK: A POLICY ANALYSIS TOOL WITH AN APPLICATION TO NORTHERN KENYAN LIVESTOCK MARKETS AgEcon
Barrett, Christopher B.; Luseno, Winnie K..
This paper introduces a simple method of price risk decomposition that determines the extent to which producer price risk is attributable to volatile inter-market margins, intra-day variation, intra-week (day of week) variation, or terminal market price variability. We apply the method to livestock markets in northern Kenya, a setting of dramatic price volatility where price stabilization is a live policy issue. In this particular application, we find that large, variable inter-market basis is the most important factor in explaining producer price risk in animals typically traded between markets. Local market conditions explain most price risk in other markets, in which traded animals rarely exit the region. Variability in terminal market prices accounts...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; O1; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14753
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Deposit Collectors AgEcon
Ashraf, Nava; Karlan, Dean S.; Yin, Wesley.
Informal lending and savings institutions exist around the world, and often include regular door-to-door deposit collection of cash. Some banks have adopted similar services in order to expand access to banking services in areas that lack physical branches. Using a randomized control trial, we investigate determinants of participation in a deposit collection service and evaluate the impact of offering the service for micro-savers of a rural bank in the Philippines. Of 137 individuals offered the service in the treatment group, 38 agreed to sign-up, and 20 regularly used the service. Take-up is predicted by distance to the bank (a measure of transaction costs of depositing without the service) as well as being married (a suggestion that household bargaining...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Savings behavior; Microfinance; Field experiment; Savings mobilization; Deposit collector; Financial Economics; D1; D9; G1; G2; O1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28502
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Does Composition of Government Spending Matter to Economic Growth? AgEcon
Yu, Bingxin; Fan, Shenggen; Saurkar, Anuja.
This paper assesses the impact of the composition of government spending on economic growth in developing countries. We use a dynamic GMM model and a panel data set for 44 developing countries between 1980 and 2004. We find that the various types of government spending have different impact on economic growth. In Africa, human capital spending contributes to economic growth whereas in Asia, capital formation, agriculture and education has strong growth promoting effect. In Latin America, none of government spending items has significant impact on economic growth. Our results are robust regardless of model specifications and instruments chosen.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Government expenditure; Growth; GMM; Agricultural and Food Policy; Financial Economics; International Development; H5; O1; C232.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51684
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Does Privatization Deliver? Access to Telephone Services and Household Income in Poor Rural Areas Using a Quasi-Natural Experiment for Peru AgEcon
Chong, Alberto E.; Galdo, Virgilio; Torero, Maximo.
We take advantage of a quasi-natural experiment in Peru by which the privatized telecommunications company was required by government to randomly install and operate public pay phones on small rural towns along the national territory. Using a especially designed household survey for a representative sample of rural towns we are able to link access to telephone services with household income. We find, that regardless of the income measurement, most characteristics of public telephone are positively linked with income. Remarkably, the benefits are given at both non-farm and farm income levels. Not only do the findings hold when using instrumental variables but they are further confirmed when using propensity scores matching methods.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Privatization; Institutions; Rural; Poverty; Telecommunications; Consumer/Household Economics; G32; H10; J45; O1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25691
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Does Reducing Malaria Improve Household Living Standards? AgEcon
Laxminarayan, Ramanan.
Living in malaria-endemic regions places an economic burden on households even if they do not actually suffer an episode of malaria. Households living with endemic malaria are less likely to have access to economic opportunities and may have to modify agricultural practices and other household behavior to adapt to their disease environment. Data from Vietnam demonstrate that reductions in malaria incidence through government-financed malaria control programs can contribute to higher household income for all households living in endemic areas. Empirically, a 10% decrease in malaria cases at the national level translates to a roughly US $30 million annual economic benefit in the form of improved living standards.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Malaria; Living standards; Disease; Health Economics and Policy; D1; O1; I0.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10633
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ECONOMIC SITUATION OF MOLDAVIANS FARM ENTERPRISES AgEcon
Cimpoies, Dragos; Schulze, Eberhard.
The given Discussion Paper represents the results of a questionnaire, conducted in 2003, on basic economic questions in 104 Moldavian farm enterprises. The received results continue the cycle of research activities concerning the privatization and restructuring of farm enterprises in different countries of Central and Eastern Europe, are written on a similar structure, allowing to carry out a comparative analysis between the countries of the region. To some extent, the given paper can be regarded as a continuation of the Discussion Paper 60. As the base for the analysis "the standardized questionnaire" has been put forward, developed by IAMO, being advanced and adapted by the authors to local conditions. Study of the activity of farm enterprises of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consolidation; Land lease; Production factors; Buy-sell; Work force; Legal forms; Moldova; Konsolidierung; Verpachtung; Produktionsfaktoren; Kauf und Verkauf; Arbeitskräfte; Rechtsformen; Консолидация; Аренда; Производственные ресурсы; Купля-продажа; Трудовые ресурсы; Организационно-правовые формы; Молдова.; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis; С 81; Q12; D25; O1; O4; P3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92020
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Economics, Area Studies and Human Development AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper suggests that area studies and economics have a better chance to be married successfully if we shift our attention from the exclusive emphasis on economic growth towards improvements in human development, especially the much broadened version of that concept. Different areas are shown to differ substantially in terms of the choices they make among the various independent dimensions of well-being and the various indicators within each dimension. The particular characteristics of each area play an important role in determining the choices societies make and the extent to which they are constrained by their initial conditions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economics; Human Development; Area Studies; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; O1; O2; O5.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52333
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Economics of Biofortification AgEcon
Qaim, Matin; Stein, Alexander J.; Meenakshi, J.V..
Micronutrient malnutrition affects billions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Different micronutrient interventions are currently being used, but their overall coverage is relatively limited. Biofortification – that is, breeding staple food crops for higher micronutrient contents – has been proposed as a new agriculture-based approach. Yet, as biofortified crops are still under development, relatively little is known about their economic impacts and wider ramifications. In this article, the main factors that will influence their future success are discussed, and a methodology for economic impact assessment is presented, combining agricultural, nutrition, and health aspects. Ex ante studies from India and other developing countries...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Micronutrient malnutrition; Public health; Biofortification; Agricultural technology; Impact analysis; Developing countries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I1; I3; O1; O3; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25584
Registros recuperados: 70
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