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A Search Model for Joint Implementation AgEcon
Bella, Giovanni.
The aim of this paper is to present a search model in the field of environmental economics, where so-called clean and dirty producers enter the trading market, both looking for a partner with whom to exchange the goods they are endowed with. The model derived in this paper is rather simple. Nevertheless, it is able to produce a series of interesting results and useful insights, and is conveniently used here as a framework to explain the functioning of Joint Implementation programmes for polluting emissions’ reduction.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental economics; Search theory; Market failures; Environmental Economics and Policy; C61; O13; Q26.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54356
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A Spatial-Intertemporal Model for Tropical Forest Management Applied to Khao Yai National Park, Thailand AgEcon
Albers, Heidi J..
This paper discusses the application of a spatial-intertemporal model for tropical forest management to Khao Yai National Park in Thailand. This type of model, especially the spatial components, finds different optimal land allocations than do traditional models at empirically relevant levels of benefits. The spatial analysis here suggests that most of this park can be best used as a preserved area and also provides support for expanding the park into an adjacent unpopulated area. The analysis demonstrates that the park's benefits to regional agriculture and villagers are large enough that preservation can proceed without international support, and that local people, as a group, have incentives to maintain most of the area as preserved land. Although the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Parks; Protected areas; People-park conflict; Spatial; Biodiversity; Option value; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2; Q15; O13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10751
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A Tale of Two Communities: Explaining Deforestation in Mexico AgEcon
Alix-Garcia, Jennifer Marie; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Explaining land use change in Mexico requires understanding the behavior of the local institutions involved. We develop two theories to explain deforestation in communities with and without forestry projects, where the former involves a process of side payments to non-members of the community and the latter of partial cooperation among community members. Data collected in 2002 combined with satellite imagery are used to test these theories. For the forestry villages, we establish a positive relationship between the distribution of profits as dividends instead of public goods and forest loss. For communities not engaged in forestry projects, deforestation is largely related to the ability of the community to induce the formation of a coalition of members...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Deforestation; Common property; Partial cooperation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D70; H41; O13; N56; Q23; Q24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25066
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A Trend Deduction Model of Fluctuating Oil Prices AgEcon
Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, ZhongXiang.
Crude oil prices have been fluctuating over time and by a large range. It is the disorganization of oil price series that makes it difficult to deduce the changing trends of oil prices in the middle- and long-terms and predict their price levels in the short-term. Following a price-state classification and state transition analysis of changing oil prices from January 2004 to April 2010, this paper first verifies that the observed crude oil price series during the soaring period follow a Markov Chain. Next, the paper deduces the changing trends of oil prices by the limit probability of a Markov Chain. We then undertake a probability distribution analysis and find that the oil price series have a log-normality distribution. On this basis, we integrate the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Oil Price; Log-normality Distribution; Limit Probability of a Markov Chain; Trend Deduction Model; OPEC; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q41; Q47; C12; C49; F01; O13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101300
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Abatement and Allocation in the Pilot Phase of the EU ETS AgEcon
Anderson, Barry; Di Maria, Corrado; Convery, Frank J..
We use historical industrial emissions data to assess the level of abatement and overallocation that took place across European countries during the pilot phase (2005-2007)of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. Using a dynamic panel data model, we estimate the counterfactual (business-as-usual) emissions scenario for EU member states. Comparing this baseline to allocated and verified emissions, we conclude that both overallocation and abatement occurred, along with under-allocation and emissions inflation. Over the three trading years of the pilot phase we find over-allocation of approximately 376 million EUAs (6%) and total abatement at the member state level of 107 Mt CO2 (1.8%). However, due to over-allocation and possible uncertainty about...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading Scheme; Climate Policy; Dynamic Panel Data Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; O13; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55831
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Abatement and Transaction Costs of Carbon-Sink Projects Involving Smallholders AgEcon
Cacho, Oscar J.; Lipper, Leslie.
Agroforestry projects have the potential to help mitigate global warming by acting as sinks for greenhouse gasses. However, participation in carbon-sink projects may be constrained by high costs. This problem may be particularly severe for projects involving smallholders in developing countries. Of particular concern are the transaction costs incurred in developing projects, measuring, certifying and selling the carbon-sequestration services generated by such projects. This paper addresses these issues by analysing the implications of transaction and abatement costs in carbon-sequestration projects. A model of project participation is developed, which accounts for the conditions under which both buyers and sellers would be willing to engage in a carbon...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agroforestry; Climate Policy; Carbon Sequestration Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q23; Q57; O1; O13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9324
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Access to Land, Income Diversification and Poverty Reduction in Rural Kenya AgEcon
Karugia, Joseph Thuo; Oluoch-Kosura, Willis; Nyikal, Rose Adhiambo; Odumbe, Michael; Marenya, Paswel Phiri.
The increasing land scarcity and the worsening trend of poverty in Kenya in recent years have raised concerns about the focus on land-based agriculture as the basis of growth in the rural areas. This paper combines two complementary data sets obtained from two locations in Kenya, drawn against distinctively different land availability patterns, to examine the diverse rural asset base and key sources of livelihood in the rural areas. The analysis reveals that while access to productive land is still an important determinant of livelihoods in the rural areas, even where land holdings are very small, growth in farm productivity alone may not guarantee households sufficient incomes to escape poverty. We find evidence to suggest that growth of non-farm sector...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Diversification; Livelihoods; Land holding; Assets; Kenya.; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Q12; Q15; Q18; O18; O13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25488
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Adopting Organic Agriculture: An Investigation Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour AgEcon
Hattam, Caroline.
Certified organic production by small-scale farmers in developing countries is increasingly promoted as an opportunity to access a growing and dynamic market, while at the same time, enhance productivity and improve incomes. Nevertheless, adoption has been limited. The economics literature suggests profitability is the main constraint, however, the sustainable agriculture literature is inconclusive and considers attitudes of significant importance. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study investigates the psychological barriers to adoption using small-scale avocado producers from Michoacan, Mexico as a case study. The data is obtained from a household study carried out during 2004 and is modelled using an ordered probit model. Despite positive...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic agriculture; Theory of planned behaviour; Entry barriers; O13; Production Economics; Q12; D8.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25269
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Adoption of Genetically Modified Eggplant in India: An Ex Ante Analysis AgEcon
Kolady, Deepthi; Lesser, William H..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/28/05.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetically Modified Crops; Bt Eggplant; Adoption; India; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O13; O14; O33.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19262
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Agricultural Distortion Patterns Since the 1950s: What Needs Explaining? AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna L.; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto.
This paper summarizes a new database that sheds light on the impact of trade-related policy developments over the past half century on distortions to agricultural incentives and thus also to consumer prices for food in 75 countries spanning the per capita income spectrum. Price-support policies of advanced economies hurt not only domestic consumers and exporters of other products but also foreign producers and traders of farm products, and they reduce national and global economic welfare. On the other hand, the governments of many developing countries have directly taxed their farmers over the past half-century, both directly (e.g., export taxes) and also indirectly via overvaluing their currency and restricting imports of manufactures. Thus the price...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural price and trade policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50305
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Agricultural Productivity, Drought, and Economic Growth in Sahel AgEcon
Boubacar, Inoussa.
A standardized precipitation index is used in a regression analysis to quantify the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity in Sahel. I first estimate a Malmquist productivity index and its efficiency and technical change components. I further assess the statistical significance of the indices by estimating some confidence intervals via a bootstrap method. In the second stage of the analysis, I use a Probit model to estimate the extent to which climate variables affect agricultural productivity. It appears that agricultural performance has been disastrous in many Sahelian countries from 1970 to 2000. Using a comparable cross-country measure of drought, I provide evidence that precipitation variability is constraining not only Sahel’s...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity; Agriculture; Sahel; International Development; Production Economics; O13; O55; Q54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56321
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Agricultural Protection Growth in Europe, 1870-1969 AgEcon
Swinnen, Johan F.M..
Dramatic changes took place in agricultural policies in Europe in the 19th and 20th century. In the 1860s European nations agreed on a series of trade agreements which spread free trade across the continent. In the 1960s European nations concluded an international agreement which spread heavy government intervention and protection against imports across the continent. This paper offers hypotheses as to the causes of these dramatic changes in agricultural protection.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political economy; Agricultural distortions; High-income countries; Economic development of Europe; F13; N53; O13; Q18; P16.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50296
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Agricultural Sector and Economic Growth in Tunisia: Evidence from Co-integration and Error Correction Mechanism AgEcon
Chebbi, Houssem Eddine; Lachaal, Lassaad.
For the past two decades, Tunisia has been undertaken important structural reforms, which call in most cases for market and trade liberalization (agricultural structural adjustment program, GATT reforms, free trade area with the European Union). The private-led type of growth strategy with less government intervention has culminated these last years into a more rapid economic growth and openness. Within this context, this paper examines the agricultural sector role into the economic growth and its interactions with the other sectors using time-series co-integration techniques. We use annual data from 1961 to 2005 to estimate a VAR model that includes GDP indices of five sectors in Tunisian economy. Empirical results from this study indicate that in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Co-integration; Economic growth; Agricultural sector; Tunisia; International Development; C22; O13; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9416
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Agricultural transition and integration to the world economy: NIS case AgEcon
Serova, Eugenia.
The paper studies the major trends in the agri-food trade in the NIS countries. It describes the trade flows, production cooperation and trade regimes within NIS countries; trade with the rest of the world and accession to the WTO. The key tested hypothesis of the paper is that intra-region trade dominate international trade in the NIS region, however this centrifugal tendency is forced by nation’s specialization set in the Soviet period. The development process in the NIS countries will cause more deep international integration. Also paper measure IIT for the NIS countries both for trade within the region and beyond it as well as IIT for some particular groups af agri-food commodities. It allowed an author to understand whether product variety explain the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: NIS countries; Agri-food trade; Trade liberalization; Intra-industry trade (IIT); Agricultural and Food Policy; P33; O13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8513
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Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries A Framework for Analysis AgEcon
Trienekens, Jacques H..
www.ifama.org
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Developing country value chains; Research framework; Upgrading; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; O13; Q13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103987
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Agriculture in Indonesia: Lagging Performance and Difficult Choices AgEcon
Barichello, Richard R.; Patunru, Arianto.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Development; O13; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94712
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Agriculture in Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina: Social Buffer vs. Development AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan.
This paper draws attention to the specific post-civil-war situation in agriculture and the food sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). These developments are presented in an association with the overall situation in the country. Due to economic and non-economic reasons, B&H faces a general problem of a lack of international competitiveness. In a current situation, there are rare products to be internationally competitive and the country relies on imports of food and other products. During the post-civil-war emergency and reconstruction stage, the bulk of food and agricultural inputs, were donated or granted by different governments, humanitarian organizations, and donors to mitigate the effects of widespread poverty caused by the war destructions...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Social buffer; Land leasing; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Agribusiness; Q15; Q18; O13; O52.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24726
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Agriculture in the Age of Globalization AgEcon
Romano, Donato.
This paper aims at analyzing the asymmetries in the process of globalization and its differentiated outcomes on (i) developed and less developed countries, and (ii) on LDC agriculture. The consequences of these asymmetries are reflected in the dramatic changes in world agricultural trade – an unprecedented growth of agricultural trade in real terms and a dramatic change in its composition which is increasingly moving away from bulk commodities towards high-value, processed consumer-ready agricultural goods. The impacts of these changes on LDC agriculture have been quite differentiated, with most countries experiencing a worsening of their agricultural trade balance. This change of the LDC trade position is counterintuitive if we still think of agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Globalization; Agriculture; LDCs; International Relations/Trade; O13; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25253
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Agriculture's Terms of Trade: Issues and Implications AgEcon
Colman, David R..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; F14; N50; N60; N70; O13; P45; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53200
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An Evaluation of Overseas Oil Investment Projects under Uncertainty Using a Real Options Based Simulation Model AgEcon
Zhu, Lei; Zhang, ZhongXiang; Fan, Ying.
This paper applies real options theory to establish an overseas oil investment evaluation model that is based on Monte Carlo simulation and is solved by the Least Squares Monte-Carlo method. To better reflect the reality of overseas oil investment, our model has incorporated not only the uncertainties of oil price and investment cost but also the uncertainties of exchange rate and investment environment. These unique features have enabled our model to be best equipped to evaluate the value of oil overseas investment projects of three oil field sizes (large, medium, small) and under different resource tax systems (royalty tax and production sharing contracts). In our empirical setting, we have selected China as an investor country and Indonesia as an...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Overseas Oil Investment; Project Value; Real Options; Least Squares Monte-Carlo; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q41; Q43; Q48; G31; O13; O22; C63.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119106
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