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Registros recuperados: 11
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Agriculture, Structural Change and Socially Responsible Development in China and Vietnam 31
Tisdell, Clement A..
The gradualism of economic reforms in China and Vietnam (especially in China, which has led the way in this regard) has been commented on favourably by many analysts studying transitional economies. Early market reforms in China and Vietnam were constrained by political considerations and consequently, began in agriculture and in China’s case, in rural areas with the development of town-and-village enterprises as well. It is argued that at the time when the reforms began, they were socially responsible. However, they have created a legacy which has resulted in agricultural land disputes and many town-and-village enterprises now face new economic challenges resulting in social conflict as the structure of China’s economy alters and greater market...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: China; Commercialisation of agriculture; Economic reform; Land rights; Town-and-village enterprises; Transitional economies; Vietnam.; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; P21; P25; P31; P32.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123022
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Environmental Remediation Law and Economies in Transition 31
Boyd, James.
The paper discusses the design of environmental remediation laws in countries struggling with fundamental market and institutional reforms. Optimal cleanup standards, liability rules, and enforcement are discussed from the standpoint of both economic efficiency and practical implementation. Particular attention is paid to financing mechanisms and issues that arise during privatization.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental remediation; Liability; Privatization; Transitional economies; Environmental Economics and Policy; K32; P21; Q28.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10721
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Expression of cell cycle inhibitors in canine prostate with proliferative inflammatory atrophy and carcinoma 45
Faleiro,M.B.R.; Cintra,L.C.; Jesuino,R.S.A.; Damasceno,A.D.; Moura,V.M.B.D..
ABSTRACT Gene expression of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and TP53, and immunostaining of p21, p27 and p53 were evaluated to verify the role of these cell cycle inhibitors in canine prostates with proliferative inflammatory atrophy-PIA and prostatic carcinoma-PC. Seventy samples, 15 normal, 30PIA and 25PC. Regarding number of p27 and p53 labeled cells, difference between normal and PIA and PC was observed, as well as between PIA and PC for p53. Immunostaining intensities of p21, p27 and p53 were different when comparing normal tissues to PIA and PC. Sixteen cDNA of canine prostatic FFPE tissue were subjected to RT-PCR and RT-qPCR, four normal, three PIA, and nine PC. CDKN1A mRNA was detected in four PC by RT-PCR, and it was overexpressed when compared to normal by...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: P21; P27; P53; PIA; RT-qPCR.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352018000100082
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Institutional Change of the Agricultural Administration and Rural Associations in East Germany before and after Unification 31
Wolz, Axel.
With the collapse of the socialist regime in East Germany in late 1989 and the rising political call for unification in early 1990, a radical and abrupt change of the institutional structure became necessary. Among others, the (agricultural) administration had to be totally restructured. This referred not only to substance, functions and tasks which had to be adjusted, similar to most other transition economies, to the market-economic and pluralistic democratic system, but also the whole administrative set-up had to be re-established in line with the West German system (territorial re-organisation). Hence, a new administrative system had to be built up in the East, while simultaneously the socialist one had to be dismantled. This transformation process...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transition; Agricultural administration; Rural associations; Farmers’ union; Unification; Germany; Transformation; Agrarverwaltung; Ländliche Verbände; Bauernverband; Vereinigung; Deutschland; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; H77; P21; P36; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109916
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Monitoring Managers: Does it Matter? 31
Cornelli, Francesca; Kominek, Zbigniew; Ljungqvist, Alexander.
We test under what circumstances boards discipline managers and whether such interventions improve performance. We exploit exogenous variation due to the staggered adoption of corporate governance laws in formerly Communist countries coupled with detailed ‘hard’ information about the board’s performance expectations and ‘soft’ information about board and CEO actions and the board’s beliefs about CEO competence in 473 mostly private-sector companies backed by private equity funds between 1993 and 2008. We find that CEOs are fired when the company underperforms relative to the board’s expectations, suggesting that boards use performance to update their beliefs. CEOs are especially likely to be fired when evidence has mounted that they are incompetent and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corporate Governance; Large Shareholders; Boards of Directors; CEO Turnover; Legal Reforms; Transition Economies; Private Equity; Financial Economics; G34; G24; G32; K22; O16; P21.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60665
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Moving from ‘land titling’ to ‘land governance’: The case of the Kyrgyz Republic 31
Undeland, Asyl; Burns, Tony; Deininger, Klaus W.; Selod, Harris.
There is a growing recognition that well-defined and enforceable property rights to land are important for a range of economic and social functions. To assess land governance at the country level, the World Bank has elaborated a diagnostic tool based on empirical indicators that aims to identify areas for improvement and that could be used to monitor progress in the land sector. This tool, the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF), was first tested in Peru, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Indonesia and in the Kyrgyz Republic, and is currently being implemented in a number of other countries worldwide. The present paper summarizes the main results obtained from the Kyrgyz pilot to illustrate the case of land governance issues that arise in a post-transition...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Indicators; Land policy; Land administration; Transition economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; P21; Q15; R52.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90831
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Reforms and Efficiency Change in Transition Agriculture 31
Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Vranken, Liesbet.
Studies on efficiency changes in transition agriculture yield mixed results. This paper develops both a theoretical model and an empirical analysis of how distribution of efficiency scores changes with the various stages of transition. We use a unique set of representative farm survey data to calculate farm level efficiency scores, compare the efficiency distributions of different transition countries and correlate these with various indicators of particular reforms. Our study indicates that, in particular, general institutional reforms and reforms focused on market institutions and on reducing market imperfections in input and output markets have an important positive impact on farm efficiency.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transition; Production efficiency; Reforms; Agribusiness; P2; E2; P21.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24707
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The Pitfalls of Transition: Crowding Out the “National Virtues” 31
Miljkovic, Dragan.
In this paper a view is advanced that explains why the transition to markets did not always lead to the outcomes predicted by the Washington Consensus type strategies. Institutional portfolio theory is used to define a myriad of interests and goals of a transition economy. A model is developed in which external intervention and increased external monitoring are shown to lead to lessening of the intrinsic motivation within transition economies to pursue the reforms as prescribed by Washington Consensus sometimes resulting in very slow growth rates or even a decline of the GDP.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: External monitoring; Institutional change; Intrinsic motivation; Portfolio theory; Washington consensus; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; P21; O43.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8520
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Thirty Years of Agricultural Transition in China (1977-2007) and the "New Rural Campaign" 31
Jia, Xiangping; Fock, Achim.
Agriculture in China has experienced a compelling growth in the early 1980s, a buoyant upbeat in the early 1990s, and an extended period of low growth after 1995. Decollectivization, mar-ket reforms, public investments and technology have played a critical role during this overall successful process. However, the transition has also led to increasing inequalities between the agricultural and non-agricultural population, and substantial institutional issues remain to be fully addressed. The Chinese government is now reemphasizing agriculture and rural develop-ment under its New Rural Campaign with the objective to address rural-urban inequalities, but a stronger emphasis on participation and tenure reforms is warranted.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Rural development; Transition; Institutions; China; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; O43; P21; P32.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7953
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TIMP-1 mediates the inhibitory effect of interleukin-6 on the proliferation of a hepatocarcinoma cell line in a STAT3-dependent manner 56
Guo,S.-Y.; Shen,X.; Yang,J.; Yuan,J.; Yang,R.-L.; Mao,K.; Zhao,D.-H.; Li,C.-J..
The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 is a multifunctional protein which is not only an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) but also to have a possible "cytokine-like" action. Here, we first compared mRNA expression of TIMP-1 and MMP-9 in BEL-7402 (a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), L-02 (a normal liver cell line) and QSG-7701 (a cell line derived from peripheral tissue of liver carcinoma) using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. By evaluating the variation of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio as an index of reciprocal changes of the expression of the two genes, we observed that the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was about 13- and 5-fold higher in BEL-7402 than in L-02 and QSG-7701, respectively. Significantly, overexpression of TIMP-1 decreased the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Interleukin-6; STAT3; P21.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000500004
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Transfer of Institutions: Actors and Constraints - The Russian Case in a Global Context 31
Oleinik, Anton.
Modernity is usually thought as a complex society with clearly differentiated spheres of everyday life. It means, in particular, that economic rules do not interfere with the norms structuring political, social, scientific and other interactions. The complex, differentiated society sharply contrasts with a "small" and homogeneous "pre-modern" society. The process of modernization, i.e. differentiation of the spheres of everyday life, can take various forms. In an advanced country it relies on internal forces. Modernization in this context looks like an evolutionary, "bottom-up" development. In a backward country (Russia and Germany in the first half of the 20th century), modernization requires a strong governmental (from the top to the bottom)...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: State bureaucracy; Economic backwardness; Catch-up modernization; Conservative modernization; Opportunism; Institutional constraints; Power; Authority; Invidious comparison; Institutional importation; Democracy; Shared mental model; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; A13; A14; B15; B25; B52; D73; H83; K42; N40; O17; P21; P37; P51.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26333
Registros recuperados: 11
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