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Registros recuperados: 12
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BLUNT TO SHARPENED RAZOR: INCREMENTAL REFORM AND DISTORTIONS IN THE PRODUCT AND CAPITAL MARKETS IN CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Xiaobo; Tan, Kong-Yam.
A key objective of China's reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent in the reform process. Young (2000) warned that the rent-seeking behavior might lead to increasing market fragmentation. Empirical studies have since shown that this did not happen in the product markets. In this paper we argue that as rents from the product markets were squeezed out during the reform process, rent-seeking behavior shifted to the factor markets, especially the capital and land markets. The reform process now needs to be deepened to ensure that the factor markets also become more integrated and efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Reform; China; Rent Seeking; Factor and Product Market; Transition; International Development; D33; D61; D63; O11; O53; P23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60183
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COMPETITIVENESS OF MILK AND WINE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING IN ALBANIA AgEcon
Petrick, Martin; Schreiber, Catrin; Weingarten, Peter.
This study provides an empirical assessment of the competitiveness of Albanian dairy and wine production, based on specifically collected survey data. For both product groups, the analysis is carried out on two levels: farm level production of raw material and processing and manufacturing of the final product in the food industry. In a third step, both levels are aggre-gated to analyse the competitiveness of the entire production chain for each product group. Overall, the wine sector appears in an economically more favourable situation than the milk sector. Although there is currently no relevant export of wine, there has been considerable in-vestment activity at the farm level and the harmonisation of quality standards with EU legislation is currently...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural sector; Competitiveness; Milk; Wine; Albania; P23; Q12; Q13; Agrarsektor; Wettbewerbsfähigkeit; Milch; Wein; Albanien; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14877
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Construction of the recombinant pseudorabies viruses expressing Cryptosporidium parvum an immunodominant surface protein, p23 OAK
Takashima, Yasuhiro; Xuan, Xuenan; Nagasawa, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Igarashi, Ikuo; Fujisaki, Kozo; Mikami, Takeshi; Otsuka, Haruki; 玄, 学南; 五十嵐, 郁男.
To develop a vaccine against cryptosporidiosis in animals, we constructed recombinant pseudorabies virus (PrV), a member of the Herpesviridae Alphaherpesvirus subfamily, expressing an immunodominant surface protein p23 of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. Because of the wide host range of PrV, it has the possibility as the vector to delivery the foreign genes to several species of animals containing experiment animal. In the recombinant constructed in this study, the p23 gene under the control of CAG promoter was integrated into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of PRV. Antibody against p23 recognized p23 expressed in CPK cells infected with the recombinant, as the approximate 23 kDa specific band in Western blotting analysis. This study showed the...
Palavras-chave: Cryptosporidium parvum; P23; Herpes; Pseudorabies virus; Subunit vaccine.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/129
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Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant p23 for the detection of antibodies to Cryptosporidium parvum in cattle OAK
Bannai, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Seo, Jin-yong; Nakamura, Chinatsu; Zhang, Sofa; Kimata, Isao; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Li, Junyou; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xuan, Xuenan; 西川, 義文; 五十嵐, 郁男; 玄, 学南.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant p23 of Cryptosporidium parvum was established for the detection of antibodies against C. parvum in cattle. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were evaluated with the standard indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using sporozoites as antigens. Of 77 bovine sera collected from China, 20 (26.0%) were identified as positive by the IFAT. The same samples were tested with the ELISA. The optical densities at 415 nm were compared to the IFAT results and statistically analyzed to designate a provisional cut-off point. As a result, the cut-off point was concluded to be 0.08, which was considered to be the best condition in the light of its sensitivity (80%) and specificity (73.7%)....
Palavras-chave: Cryptosporidium parvum; P23; ELISA; IFAT.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/142
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Economic Returns to Entrepreneurial Behavior AgEcon
Ross, R. Brent; Westgren, Randall E..
Highly turbulent environments require firms to act entrepreneurially. The returns to entrepreneurial activities are known as entrepreneurial rents. Following the payments perspective, these rents are allocated to the entrepreneurial resources of the firm as factor payments. However, unlike other factor payments, little is known about how to value these types of rents. An analysis of the economics and management literature reveals that entrepreneurial rents are a return to alertness, subjective judgment, asset control, and uncertainty bearing. Furthermore, entrepreneurial rents are noncontractible and temporary. This paper introduces two complementary valuation models that capture these characteristics and that explicitly impute value to various...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Entrepreneurship; Factor payments; Subjective judgment; Uncertainty; Agribusiness; Risk and Uncertainty; M13; B12; B25; P23; Q13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43776
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FARM OUTPUT, NON-FARM INCOME, AND COMMERCIALIZATION IN RURAL GEORGIA AgEcon
Kan, Iddo; Kimhi, Ayal; Lerman, Zvi.
This article examines the decision of farmers to sell part of their farm output on the market, using data from the Republic of Georgia. A two-level empirical model is used, in which endowments and resource allocation decisions determine farm output and non-farm income, and these in turn determine market participation. We found, as expected, that farm output affects market participation positively, while non-farm income affects it negatively. Landholdings have an indirect positive effect on market participation, through its positive effect on farm output. Education has a negative effect on market participation, mainly through its positive effect on non-farm income.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Commercialization; Market participation; Farm output; Non-farm income; Resource allocation; Farm Management; O12; P23; P25.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7179
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How Costly are (Agricultural) Investments during Economic Transition? A Critical Literature Appraisal AgEcon
Zinych, Nataliya; Odening, Martin.
Investment theory
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Investment; Transition; Credit constraints; Soft budget constraints; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics; O16; Q14; P23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50319
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Land Reform and Development of Agricultural Land Markets in Russia AgEcon
Lerman, Zvi; Shagaida, Natalya.
Russia has experienced dramatic changes in land ownership and tenure since 1991: agricultural land has been largely privatized, individual landowners now have legal rights to most agricultural land in the country, and prohibitions on buying and selling of land have been recently removed. The necessary pre-conditions for the development of agricultural land markets have been met and we are beginning to witness transactions that involve individual landowners, and not only the state. Further development of the land market is circumscribed by the inadequacy of the administrative and technical infrastructure. The paper discusses the evolving legal framework for land reform, considers the impacts on privatization and ownership structure of agricultural land, and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land reform; Land market; Land leasing; Transition; Land Economics/Use; P23; P26; P31; P32; Q15.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24604
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Long-run costs of piecemeal reform: wage inequality and returns to education in Vietnam AgEcon
Phan, Diep; Coxhead, Ian A..
“Shock therapy” transitions in Eastern Europe facilitated movement of skilled workers into privatized industries offering high wage premia relative to state industries. Other transitional economies (notably China and Vietnam) have been slower to relinquish control over key industries and factor markets. Some costs of this piecemeal approach are now becoming apparent. We examine the spillover of continuing capital market distortions into the market for a complementary factor, skilled labor. Using Vietnamese data we find that capital market segmentation creates a two-track market for skills, in which state sector workers earn high salaries while non-state workers face lower demand and lower compensation. Growth is reduced directly by diminished allocative...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Labor; Skills; State-owned; Inequality; Wages; Vietnam; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; J31; P23; F16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124207
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Scale Effects, Technical Efficiency and Land Lease in China AgEcon
Wang, Xiaobing; Yu, Xiaohua.
Using a panel dataset from Zhejiang province in China over the period 1995-2002, we propose a two-step estimation procedure to investigate the links between land lease activity and production efficiency. We find that the output elasticity with respect to land, the scale effect and the technical efficiency are higher for farmers involved in land-lease activities. In addition, technical efficiency and land-lease activity are endogenous, and farmers with higher technical efficiency are more likely to lease more land and adopt advanced technologies to achieve higher profits, which in turn alters the technical efficiency.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Lease; Land Use Rights; Technical Efficiency; Scale Effect; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Q15; P23; D50.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115736
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The Impact of Food Price Shock on Heterogenous Credit Constrained Firms AgEcon
Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, d'Artis.
The paper analyses how the rising agricultural prices affect heterogenous farm access to inputs and production under credit market imperfections in the CEE transition countries. Using farm level panel data which contains 37416 observations, we estimate a farm credit constraint equation and find that small individual farms (IF) are on average more credit constrained than large corporate farms (CF). Using the estimated parameters we simulate the effect of the recent food price shock. Our results suggest that in the presence of credit market imperfections, the relatively less credit constrained CF benefit more from higher output prices than IF, as they are able to expand their production more flexibly. These findings have implications for the developing...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Credit constraint; Food price shock; Heterogeneous firms; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Production Economics; Q11; Q12; P23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51428
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ZUR WETTBEWERBSFAHIGKEIT DER WEISSSRUSSISCHEN MILCHWIRTSCHAFT: EINE ANWENDUNG DES PORTERSCHEN DIAMANTEN AgEcon
Hockmann, Heinrich; Ramanovich, Mikhail.
This Discussion Paper provides an analysis of competitiveness of the Belarus’ dairy sector based on international trade indicators. The ex-post analysis is extended by an ex-ante analysis in order to gain detailed insights into the sector’s future opportunities and challenges. Systematic access is established through relevant determinants with respect to Porter’s diamond. Ex-post analysis results indicate a strong position of Belarus in the international dairy trade although limited to homogenous products like milk powder and evaporated milk. Competitive disadvantages were revealed for highly processed dairy products. The ex-ante analysis through Porter’s diamond model reveals the necessary prerequisites for potentially successful future developments in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Belarus; Foreign trade; Porter; Competitiveness; Milk; Weissrussland; Aussenhandel; Porter; Wettbewerbsfahigkeit; Milch; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Productivity Analysis; P23; P45; Q17.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91962
Registros recuperados: 12
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