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Registros recuperados: 17
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Combined Effects of Load Factors and Booking Time on Fares: Insights from the Yield Management of a Low-Cost Airline AgEcon
Alderighi, Marco; Nicolini, Marcella; Piga, Claudio A..
Based on two strands of theoretical research, this paper provides new evidence on how fares are jointly affected by in-flight seat availability and purchasing date. As capacity-driven theories predict, it emerges that fares monotonically and substantially increase with the flights occupancy rate. Moreover, as suggested in the literature on intertemporal price discrimination, the adoption of advance purchase discounts is widespread as the departure date nears, but it may be part of a U-shaped temporal profile, where discounts are preceded by periods of relatively higher fares. Finally, the intervention of yield management analysts appears to play a substantial role.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Pricing policy; Panel Data; Ryanair; Yield Management; Demand and Price Analysis; D22; L11; L93.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122020
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Comparisons of LSMS-ISA data collection and dissemination efforts in Central America AgEcon
Zúniga-González, Carlos Alberto.
This paper was presented in The Third Wye Global Conference. The Wye City Group on Rural Statistics and Agricultural Household Income is hosting its third global conference on agricultural and rural household statistics. The conference will be hosted by the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture and is cosponsored by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and the World Bank. Conference objectives Support the U.N. • Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics by highlighting international needs and opportunities to improve statistics on rural and farm households, and strengthen the process of collecting and disseminating statistics on rural and farm households in OECD and developing...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Panel Data; LSMS-ISA; MECOVI.; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C83; P52; E61..
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90751
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Determinants and Dynamics of Farm Diversification AgEcon
Weiss, Christoph R.; Briglauer, Wolfgang.
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Diversification; Farm Sector; Dynamics; Panel Data; Farm Management.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24929
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Do Japanese Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Stimulate Agricultural Growth in East Asia? Panel Cointegration Analysis AgEcon
Sattapon, Weerapong.
The agricultural sector is an important sector that most people in East Asia rely on and growth in this sector may help to lift their standard of living. This study assessed what factors contributed to agricultural growth by applying the panel econometric approach. First, the long-run relationship between the agriculture growth and its explanatory variable was investigated by applying the IPS unit root test and Pedroni panel cointegration test. The results indicated that all variables showed an integration of order unity, and showed strong evidence to support the existence of long-run relationship. The results from Fixed Effect (FE) regression indicated that imports, exports and trade liberalization were the important factors that contributed to growth in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural growth; East Asia; Foreign Direct Investment; Trade; Panel Data; International Relations/Trade; O4; Q17; R0.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25570
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EU policy reform simulation based on panel data estimation of on- and off-farm labour supply equations for Dutch dairy farmers AgEcon
Ooms, Daan L.; Hall, Alastair R..
This research focuses on the estimation of labour supply equations for Dutch dairy farmers that are suitable for policy simulations. Data availability leads to the fact that we can not estimate structural labour supply equations. We show how to derive reduced form equations suitable for policy simulations. In this research we use the panel data sample selection estimation approach of Kyriazidou (1997) and Wooldridge (1995) to estimate the off-farm labour supply equation. The two lead to different estimation results and different simulation results based on these.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Econometrics; Panel Data; Sample Selection; Labour Supply; CAP Reform; Labor and Human Capital; C23; C24; C51; C53; D13; J22; Q12; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19434
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Factor-Augmenting Technical Change: An Empirical Assessment AgEcon
De Cian, Enrica.
Starting from a system of factor demands, an empirical model that allows estimating factor-augmenting technical change is derived. Factor-augmenting technical change is defined as the improvement in factor productivities that can occur either exogenously or endogenously, with changes in other macroeconomic variables. This paper provides additional estimates for the substitution possibilities among inputs and it offers new empirical evidence on the direction and sources of factor-augmenting technical change, an issue that has not yet been explored by the empirical literature on growth determinants. The empirical findings suggest that technical change is directed. Technical change tends to be more energy-saving than capital- and labour-saving. Both R&D...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Factor-Augmenting Technical Change; Technology Spillovers; Panel Data; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C3; O47; Q55; Q56.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50403
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Factors Affecting Demand for Branded Beef AgEcon
Martinez, Stephen W.; Hanagriff, Roger D.; Lau, Michael H.; Harris, James Michael.
This paper finds that branded fresh beef expenditures increased from 20.8 percent in 1998 to 28.6 percent in 2004 for all fresh beef expenditures. In addition, geographic location, household income, household race, and household size were found to affect the likelihood of branded fresh beef purchases in 2004.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Branded beef; Demographics; Demand; Panel Data; Logit; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34885
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Legal Families and Environmental Protection: Is there a Causal Relationship? AgEcon
Di Vita, Giuseppe.
In this paper we build up the analysis of La Porta et al. (1998), to investigate the importance of legal families in explaining the variations in pollution emissions in different countries. The main intuition behind our analysis is that the nations in which the rights of shareholders are more protected, promote real and financial investment; this increases the speed at which the per-capita income corresponding to the declining branch of the Environmental Kutznets Curve (EKC) is achieved. In econometrics different regression analyses were performed using as dependent variables three different kinds of pollutants (CO2, fine suspended particulates and waste), including as an explanation some financial variables never before considered in this kind of study.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Dummy Variables; Environmental Kutznets Curve; Legal Families; Panel Data; Pollution Emissions; Environmental Economics and Policy; K4; Q0.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8219
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Partial equilibrium model of Czech beef trade AgEcon
Maly, Michal; Mala, Zdenka; Sobrova, L.; Halova, P..
The paper is focused on the modeling of a partial equilibrium on the beef market in the Czech Republic. The goal of the paper is a construction and a quantification of a partial equilibrium model of mentioned trade, used for simulation purpose and enabling delimitation of main determinants of beef supply and demand. Data was gained from standard statistical reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and from Statistics of Households Accounts from the year 1995 – 2009. Proposed model respects three levels of beef chain – farmer, processer and consumer. Simultaneously, it respects trade flows on an open market. From the functional point of view, it respects nonlinearity of suppose relationships. The model was quantified by OLS with respects of recursive...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beef; Partial Equilibrium Model; Czech Republic; Time Series; Panel Data; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Production Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; GA; IN.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109736
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“Poor stays poor” - Household asset poverty traps in rural semi-arid India AgEcon
Naschold, Felix.
Although identifying the existence and the nature of household-level poverty traps would have important implications for the design of poverty reduction policies empirical evidence is still scant. A small, but growing empirical literature has begun testing for poverty traps as thresholds in non-linear welfare dynamics. Employing a variety of quantitative methods it has produced a variety of conclusions. This paper uses a uniquely long household panel from three villages in rural India to examine whether the detection of poverty traps may be contingent on the quantitative method used to model household welfare dynamics. It then employs a novel semiparametric panel data estimator that combines the advantages of the existing methods. Since in the context of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Household Welfare Dynamics; Semiparametric Estimation; Penalized Splines; India; Panel Data; Asset Poverty; International Development; I32; C14; O12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49396
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Socio-Economic Model of Jiangsu Province Based on Panel Data AgEcon
Chen, Jian-hong; Liu, Zhen-xiao.
Based on the meaning of Panel Data, regression model and its specific estimation method of Panel Data are introduced. Combined with the actual situation of farmland in Jiangsu Province, socio-economic factors affecting the farmland change is taken as the explanatory variables, such as total population, regional GDP, agricultural output value, total investment of fixed asset, total retail sales of social consumer goods, per capita disposable income of urban residents, and per capita income of farmer. And farmland is taken as the explained variable. According to the Panel Data of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, Fixed Effect Model of fixed coefficient and variable intercept is selected based on the result of Hausman Test. This model is also used to construct...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farmland; Panel Data; Eviews; Socio-Economic Model; China; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93457
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Technical efficiency of Organic Fertilizer in small farms of Nicaragua: 1998-2005 AgEcon
Zúniga-González, Carlos Alberto.
This article applies frontier production function analysis to small farms in Nicaragua during 1998-2005 (Battese and Coelli, 1988). The objective of this study is to estimate an average function that will provide a picture of the shape of the organic fertilizer technology of an average firm (in our case, agricultural production units). Furthermore I present a best-practice of organic fertilizer against which the efficiency of the firms within the primary sector can be measured (Coelli, T: 1995). The results show an average of technical efficiency acceptable which the makers of public policy in Nicaragua must considerer for the future. It is imperative if we consider an economy activity indexes that have increased during this period.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technical Efficiency; LSMS; Organic Fertilizer; Small Farm; Panel Data; Agribusiness; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53078
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Testing for Convergence Clubs in Income Per-Capita: A Predictive Density Approach AgEcon
Canova, Fabio.
The paper proposes a technique to jointly tests for groupings of unknown size in the cross sectional dimension of a panel and estimates the parameters of each group, and applies it to identifying convergence clubs in income per-capita. The approach uses the predictive density of the data, conditional on the parameters of the model. The steady state distribution of European regional data clusters around four poles of attraction with different economic features. The distribution of income per-capita of OECD countries has two poles of attraction and each group has clearly identifiable economics characteristics. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Methode vorgestellt, mit der es möglich ist, Gruppierungen von Querschnittsdaten von zunächst unbekanntem Umfang...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Heterogeneities; Panel Data; Predictive Density; Income Inequality; International Development; C11; D90; 047.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26361
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The Effect of Climate Change over Agricultural Factor Productivity: Some Econometric Considerations AgEcon
McCarl, Bruce A.; Villavicencio, Xavier; Wu, Ximing.
This paper examines the role that climate change might be playing in the declining returns to agricultural research. For this purpose, we estimate a cross-section time-series model of agricultural total factor productivity for the U.S. states over the period 1970–1999, with the inclusion of climatic variables, and controlling for non stationarity of the data. Our findings suggest that after controlling for climatic variables and non stationarity, the effect of Public Agricultural Research Capital over Total Factor Productivity is reduced.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Factor Productivity; Returns to Research; Panel Data; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C33; O13; Q16.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49452
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THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM PARTICIPATION ON SMALL FARMS IN CHILE AgEcon
Edmonds, Christopher M..
This research examines the effect of a government sponsored technology transfer program for small holder farms in Chile. The effect of family participation in the technology transfer program is evaluated with respect to a number of 'outcomes' including its effect on farm revenues, total family income, and household poverty status. The empirical examination uses maximum likelihood selection and fixed- and random-effects estimation techniques. By estimating the effect of program participation on crop selection, crop yields, farm use of certified seeds, and the scale of farming activities, the research examines the mechanisms through which the program appears to raise farm revenues. Estimation results show program participation had a positive and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Extension Services; Program Evaluation; Impact Assessment; Technological Change; Choices and Consequences; Chile; Farm Households; Panel Data; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21520
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The Impact of Urbanization on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Developing Countries AgEcon
Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada.
This paper analyzes the impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions in developing countries. In this study we treat population as a predictor in the model, instead of assuming a unitary elasticity of emissions with respect to population growth. We contribute to the existing literature by examining the effect of urbanization, taking into account the presence of heterogeneity in the sample of countries and testing for the stability of the estimated elasticities over time. The sample covers the period from 1975 through 2005 for different groups of countries, classified according to their income levels. Our results show that, whereas the impact of population growth on emissions is above unity and only slightly different for upper, middle, and low-income countries,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CO2 Emissions; Developing Countries; Panel Data; Population Growth; Urbanization; Q25; Q4; Q54.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37673
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Why Should Regional Agricultural Productivity Growth Converge? Evidence from Italian Regions AgEcon
Esposti, Roberto.
The paper analyses agricultural TFP growth across Italian regions during the 1952-2002 period, and aims at identifying those factors that favour or hinder regional agricultural TFP growth convergence. Of major relevance is whether regions, despite their inescapable heterogeneity, tend to share common technological improvements, that is, to move along the same productivity growth rate. TFP growth decomposition ultimately allows attributing observed productivity performance to convergence and divergence forces. Appropriate testing and estimation procedures are adopted to take into account panel unit-root issues and cross-sectional dependence.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: TFP growth; Convergence; Panel Data; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43955
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