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A lognormal distribution of the lengths of terminal twigs on self-similar branches of elm trees OAK
Koyama, Kohei; Yamamoto, Ken; Ushio, Masayuki.
Lognormal distributions and self-similarity are characteristics associated with a wide range of biological systems. The sequential breakage model has established a link between lognormal distributions and self-similarity and has been used to explain species abundance distributions. To date, however, there has been no similar evidence in studies of multicellular organismal forms. We tested the hypotheses that the distribution of the lengths of terminal stems of Japanese elm trees (Ulmus davidiana), the end products of a self-similar branching process, approaches a lognormal distribution. We measured the length of the stem segments of three elm branches and obtained the following results: (i) each occurrence of branching caused variations or errors in the...
Palavras-chave: Allometry; Fractal; Phenotypic plasticity; Shoot size; Stochastic process; WBE theory.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/4577
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A model for the phenotypic plasticity of North sea herring growth in relation to trophic conditions ArchiMer
Shinn, Yunne-jai; Rochet, Marie-joelle.
An adaptation of the von Bertalanffy growth model is formulated to describe the phenotypic plasticity of fish somatic growth in relation to trophic conditions. The model is developed for the North sea Downs herring (Clupea harengus). II suggests that annual growth variability during 1974-1990 was mainly due to the combined effects of herring abundance and wind-induced turbulence (coincident with the spring stratification of the water column). Springtime turbulences cause reduced and delayed planktonic blooms preceding the annual foraging period of Downs herring. The negative relation observed between herring abundance and growth is hypothesized to be due to intra-specific competition for trophic resources. Incorporated into the calculation of yield per...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Modèle de croissance; Densité-dépendance; Plasticité phénotypique; Clupea harengus; Hareng de mer du Nord; Gestion des pêches; Growth model; Density dependence; Phenotypic plasticity; Fishery management; Clupea harengus; North sea herring.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00188/29878/28358.pdf
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Adaptation génétique et détection de la sélection dans le cadre d'évolutions expérimentales ArchiMer
Barthelemy, Clement.
Adaptation is a concept at the heart of the theory of evolution by natural selection. It designates both the process which allows the adjustment of the phenotypic trait of an individual to external environmental conditions and the state resulting from this process. In this context, genetic adaptation represents all of the molecular determinants of adaptation, which means, all of the mechanisms that drives adaptation of species at the molecular level. To study the evolutionary processes during adaptation, we can study the evolution of an experimental population in response to the conditions imposed by the experimenter (environmental, demographic, etc.): this is experimental evolution. When these experiments are coupled with high-throughput sequencing, the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Adaptation polygénique; Évolution expérimentale; Épistasie; Plasticité phénotypique; Caractère à seuil; Evolve & resequence; Polygenic adaptation; Experimentale evolution; Epistasis; Phenotypic plasticity; Threshold trait; Evolve & resequence.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00693/80497/83690.pdf
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Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of the native forage grass Paspalum fasciculatum: a trait relevant to climatic changes in wetlands. Repositório Alice
SANTOS, S. A.; VALLS, J. F. M.; POTT, A.; BERSELLI, C..
This study has been conducted to detect natural forage species having adaptive phenotypic plasticity in wetlands to withstand extreme conditions in drought/flooding cycles.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Forragem; Fenotipo; Forage quality; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1057874
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Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) de Brébission Acta Botanica
Chia,Mathias Ahii; Akinsanmi,Jamiu Taiwo; Tanimu,Yahuza; Ladan,Zakari.
The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Algaecide; Growth inhibition; Microalgae; Neem; Oxidative stress; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062016000100001
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An evolutionary frame of work to study physiological adaptation to high altitudes RChHN
REZENDE,ENRICO L.; GOMES,FERNANDO R.; GHALAMBOR,CAMERON K.; RUSSELL,GREGORY A.; CHAPPELLl,MARK A..
How complex physiological systems evolve is one of the major questions in evolutionary physiology. For example, how traits interact at the physiological and genetic level, what are the roles of development and plasticity in Darwinian evolution, and eventually how physiological traits will evolve, remains poorly understood. In this article we summarize the current frame of work evolutionary physiologists are employing to study the evolution of physiological adaptations, as well as the role of developmental and reversible phenotypic plasticity in this context. We also highlight representative examples of how the integration of evolutionary and developmental physiology, concomitantly with the mechanistic understanding of physiological systems, can provide a...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Evolutionary processes; Natural selection; Life-history; Oxygen availability; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2005000200016
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Changements adaptatifs induits par la pêche chez les populations halieutiques ArchiMer
Marty, Lise.
Fishing is an important source of mortality in harvested populations and therefore may induce adaptive responses. These responses affect life-history traits in particular, which have consequences for stocks’ dynamics, and thus can alter the demographic direct effect of fishing (i.e. the reduction in stock’s biomass). Fishing-induced adaptive changes depend, non-exclusively, on two processes: evolution and phenotypic plasticity. These two components are observed at the phenotypic level because functional genes coding for the traits undergoing adaptive changes have not yet been identified. These two origins are confounded in individual phenotypes, and the impact of adaptive changes in the long run remains therefore unclear: evolutionary changes are expected...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: : Pêche; Évolution adaptative; Plasticité phénotypique; Norme de réaction; Dérive génétique; Érosion génétique; Age et taille à maturation; Croissance; Survie; Trade-offs; Densité-dépendance; Gadidées de mer du nord; Fishing; Adaptive evolution; Phenotypic plasticity; Reaction norm; Genetic drift; Genetic erosion; Age and size at maturation; Growth; Survival; Trade-offs; Density-dependence; North sea Gadoids.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00079/19013/16591.pdf
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Context dependency of trait repeatability and its relevance for management and conservation of fish populations ArchiMer
Killen, S. S.; Adriaenssens, B.; Marras, S.; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, S. J..
Repeatability of behavioural and physiological traits is increasingly a focus for animal researchers, for which fish have become important models. Almost all of this work has been done in the context of evolutionary ecology, with few explicit attempts to apply repeatability and context dependency of trait variation toward understanding conservation-related issues. Here, we review work examining the degree to which repeatability of traits (such as boldness, swimming performance, metabolic rate and stress responsiveness) is context dependent. We review methods for quantifying repeatability (distinguishing between within-context and across-context repeatability) and confounding factors that may be especially problematic when attempting to measure...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Environmental effects; Intraclass correlation; Personality; Phenotypic plasticity; Reaction norm; Temperature.
Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00337/44823/44372.pdf
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Density-dependent morphological plasticity and trade-offs among vegetative traits in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) Acta Amazonica
Andrade,Eleonora Alvarenga; Barbosa,Mário Eduardo Avelar; Demetrio,Guilherme Ramos.
Density-dependent responses are an important component of the organism life-history, and the resource allocation theory is a central concept to the life-history theory. When resource allocation varies due to environmental changes, a plant may change its morphology or physiology to cope with the new conditions, a process known as phenotypic plasticity. Our study aimed to evaluate how plant density affects Eichhornia crassipes allocation patterns. A total of 214 individuals in high and low density were collected. The density effect was observed in all plant traits examined including biomass accumulation. All traits of E. crassipes demonstrated higher values in high density conditions, except for biomass of leaves. Density exhibited a high influence on...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Plant-environment relationships; Plastic morphology; Macrophyte.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0044-59672013000400007
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Determinism of Temporal Variability in Size at Maturation of Sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Bay of Biscay ArchiMer
Véron, Matthieu; Duhamel, Erwan; Bertignac, Michel; Pawlowski, Lionel; Huret, Martin; Baulier, Loic.
Age and size at maturation appear as key parameters governing the dynamics of a population as they affect growth rate, fecundity, and survival. The expression of such life history traits is determined by genetic make-up and modulated by environmental factors mainly through phenotypic plasticity. Moreover, fishing, besides decreasing population size and changing demographic composition can alter allelic frequencies through fisheries-induced evolution by selecting for some particular traits. In the Bay of Biscay, a decreasing trend in both sardine body condition and size-at-age has recently been pointed out at the population level. The Probabilistic Maturation Reaction Norm (PMRN) approach was applied to help disentangle phenotypic plasticity and genetic...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fisheries-induced evolution; Body condition; Phenotypic plasticity; Maturation; Growth; Sardina pilchardus; Bay of biscay.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00660/77203/78637.pdf
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Does soil color affect fish evolution? Differences in color change rate between lineages of the sailfin tetra Neotropical Ichthyology
Pinto,Kalebe S.; Pires,Tiago H. S.; Stefanelli-Silva,Gabriel; Barros,Bruno S.; Borghezan,Elio A.; Zuanon,Jansen.
ABSTRACT Several organisms match their skin color to the prevalent background color, granting crypsis against predators. The rate at which body color changes occur varies among organisms as a result of physiological constraints and adaptation to variation in contrasts between objects and the environmental background. Faster darkening of body color is favored in environments that show higher amounts of contrast between common objects and the prevailing background. Soil types in Amazon forest streams (igarapés) create distinct environments with respect to the amount of contrast, a result of the amount of sand and clay, which offers different contrasts against dead leaves. Here, we investigated differences in the rates of color change among populations of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Background matching; Body color; Crenuchus spilurus; Crypsis; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252020000200204
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Efeito do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de plantas jovens de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.). Repositório Alice
ARAGÃO, D. de S.; LUNZ, A. M. P.; OLIVEIRA, L. C. de; RAPOSO, A.; FERMINO JUNIOR, P. C. P..
A capacidade de utilização da luz varia entre as espécies, e o sucesso de cada indivíduo depende de suas respostas morfoanatômicas. Este estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes intensidades luminosas sobre a anatomia foliar de mudas de Carapa guianensis Aubl. Folhas sadias do segundo e terceiro nós foram coletadas de plantas jovens desenvolvidas em quatro níveis de sombreamento: 30%, 50%, 70% e 0% (pleno sol), durante oito meses de experimento. Análises anatômicas foram feitas sob Microscopia Óptica (MO), a partir de lâminas temporárias e permanentes e sob Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). A densidade estomática não apresentou diferenças significativas. As dimensões estomáticas e a espessura dos tecidos da lâmina foliar foram maiores com o...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Plasticidade fenótipa; Essência florestal; Andiroba; Carapa guianensis; Anatomia vegetal; Folha; Radiação luminosa; Sombreamento; Plant anatomy; Tropical wood; Leaf area; Solar radiation; Shade; Phenotypic plasticity; Anatomía de la planta; Madera tropical; Área foliar; Radiación solar; Sombra; Plasticidad fenotípica.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/997277
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Effects of environmental temperature on oxygen diffusion capacity during post-natal development in the altricial rodent, Phyllotis darwini RChHN
CANALS,MAURICIO; FIGUEROA,DANIELA P; MIRANDA,JESSICA P; SABAT,PABLO.
In this contribution we studied the developmental phenotypic plasticity of respiratory structures involved in the exchange of gases in an altricial rodent, the leaf-eared mouse {Phyllotis darwini). We studied morphological pulmonary parameters of warm (30 °C) and cold acclimated animals 15 °C) at different developmental stages. We found that acclimation treatments did not affect neither lung volume, the alveolo-capillary barrier thickness nor the respiratory surface density. In consequence the oxygen diffusion capacity was not affected. Although Phyllotis darwini exhibited structural respiratory changes expected by its ontogenetic development, these structures were not affected by thermal acclimation during the post-natal development.
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Lung; Altricial rodents.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2009000100010
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Epigenetic inheritance and intergenerational effects in mollusks ArchiMer
Fallet, Manon; Luquet, Emilien; David, Patrice; Cosseau, Céline.
Recent insights in evolutionary biology have shed light on epigenetic variation that interacts with genetic variation to convey heritable information. An important characteristic of epigenetic changes is that they can be produced in response to environmental cues and passed on to later generations, potentially facilitating later genetic adaptation. While our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in vertebrates is rapidly growing, our knowledge about invertebrates remains lower, or is restricted to model organisms. Mollusks in particular, are a large group of invertebrates, with several species important for ecosystem function, human economy and health. In this review, we attempt to summarize the literature on epigenetic and intergenerational studies in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mollusk; Epigenetic; Intergenerational effect; Phenotypic plasticity; Adaptation.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00590/70163/68170.pdf
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Evidence of morphometric differentiation among Antarctic moss populations as a response to local microenvironment Acta Botanica
Medina,Rayssa Garay; Barcellos,Suziane Alves; Victoria,Filipe de Carvalho; Albuquerque,Margéli Pereira de; Pereira,Antonio Batista; Stefenon,Valdir Marcos.
ABSTRACTStudies on phenotypic variation among populations growing in different microenvironments may provide information about plasticity related to environmental pressures, and thus help to elucidate the potential evolutionary forces contributing to the origin and maintenance of diversity in any region. In this study we investigate morphometric variation on a small geographic scale for three species of Antarctic mosses. All species revealed significant differentiation among populations for all evaluated traits. The comparison of morphometric measures of populations of Polytrichum juniperinumfrom Nelson Island and from southern Brazil suggests that the effects of a small geographic scale in Antarctica are the same as a large geographic scale in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Andreae gainii; Bryum pseudotriquetrum; Nelson Island; Phenotypic plasticity; Polytrichum juniperinum.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062015000300383
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Evolutionary and Cardio‐Respiratory Physiology of Air‐breathing and Amphibious Fishes ArchiMer
Damsgaard, Christian; Baliga, Vikram B.; Bates, Eric; Burggren, Warren; Mckenzie, David; Taylor, Edwin; Wright, Patricia A..
Air‐breathing and amphibious fishes are essential study organisms to shed insight into the required physiological shifts that supported the full transition from aquatic water‐breathing fishes to terrestrial air‐breathing tetrapods. While the origin of air‐breathing in the evolutionary history of the tetrapods has received considerable focus, much less is known about the evolutionary physiology of air‐breathing among fishes. This review summarises recent advances within the field with specific emphasis on the cardiorespiratory regulation associated with air‐breathing and terrestrial excursions, and how respiratory physiology of these living transitional forms are affected by development and personality. Finally, we provide a detailed and re‐evaluated model...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Development; Evolution; Phenotypic plasticity; Terrestrialization; Water-to-air transition.
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00588/70029/67946.pdf
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Growth of radiata pine families in nursery and two years after field establishment Scientia Agricola
Meza,Sergio Enrique Espinoza; Ivković,Miloš; Arce,Marco Aliro Yáñez; Díaz,Carlos Renato Magni; Moya,Rómulo Eduardo Santelices; Ariza,Antonio María Cabrera.
ABSTRACT: Pinus radiata D. Don is the most widely planted exotic species in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and Spain. In this study, growth and survival of P. radiata were compared in 30 open pollinated families grown under two contrasting watering regimes in nursery (well-watered cf. water-stress conditions) and planted on a drought-prone site with Mediterranean climate in central Chile. This study assessed phenotypic plasticity in growth and survival at nursery stage and two years after establishment in the field. Family plasticity at nursery stage was estimated by the angular phenotypic change index (APCI), while the relationship between nursery and field traits was estimated by genetic correlations (rg) and the Pearson coefficient of correlation (rxy)....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pinus radiata; Survival; Phenotypic plasticity; Nursery-field correlations; Dry sites.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162020000301000
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Gut size flexibility in rodents: what we know, and don't know, after a century of research RChHN
NAYA,DANIEL E.
Phenotypic plasticity comprises a central concept in the understanding of how organisms interact with their environment, and thus, is a central topic in ecology and evolution. A particular case of phenotypic plasticity is phenotypic flexibility, which refers to reversible change in organism traits due to changes in internal or external environmental conditions. Flexibility of digestive features has been analyzed for more than a century in a myriad of different species and contexts. Studies in rodents on gut size flexibility have been developed mainly from two different áreas of the biological sciences, physiology and ecology. However, as for several other topics related with physiological ecology, both kinds of studies largely developed along sepárate...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Digestive physiology; Phenotypic plasticity; Physiological flexibility; Rodents.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2008000400012
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Impact of Environmental Covariation in Growth and Mortality on Evolving Maturation Reaction Norms ArchiMer
Marty, Lise; Dieckmann, Ulf; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Ernande, Bruno.
Maturation age and size have important fitness consequences through their effects on survival probabilities and body sizes. The evolution of maturation reaction norms in response to environmental covariation in growth and mortality is therefore a key subject of life-history theory. The eco-evolutionary model we present and analyze here incorporates critical features that earlier studies of evolving maturation reaction norms have often neglected: the trade-off between growth and reproduction, source-sink population structure, and population regulation through density-dependent growth and fecundity. We report the following findings. First, the evolutionarily optimal age at maturation can be decomposed into the sum of a density-dependent and a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Growth-reproduction trade-off; Source-sink population structure; Density dependence; Selection gradient.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00035/14607/11988.pdf
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Influence of environmental variables on seasonal abundance and relative growth of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea): variations of a continental population Iheringia, Sér. Zool.
Bueno,Alessandra A. P.; Bonatto,Carolina R.; Almeida,Ariádine C..
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, precipitation, and water temperature) on the abundance of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), as well as to compare the relative growth among demographic groups throughout the seasons in a lagoon system located in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais. Monthly, from August/2013 to July/2014, the prawns were collected on macrophytes of the genus Eichhornia using a semi-circular sieve. In the laboratory, the specimens were categorized into juveniles, males, ovigerous females and non-ovigerous females, and measured as total length (TL), carapace length (CL), and abdomen length (AL). The predominance of juveniles was evident,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Abiotic variables; Demographic categories; Freshwater prawn; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0073-47212019000100218
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