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A lognormal distribution of the lengths of terminal twigs on self-similar branches of elm trees OAK
Koyama, Kohei; Yamamoto, Ken; Ushio, Masayuki.
Lognormal distributions and self-similarity are characteristics associated with a wide range of biological systems. The sequential breakage model has established a link between lognormal distributions and self-similarity and has been used to explain species abundance distributions. To date, however, there has been no similar evidence in studies of multicellular organismal forms. We tested the hypotheses that the distribution of the lengths of terminal stems of Japanese elm trees (Ulmus davidiana), the end products of a self-similar branching process, approaches a lognormal distribution. We measured the length of the stem segments of three elm branches and obtained the following results: (i) each occurrence of branching caused variations or errors in the...
Palavras-chave: Allometry; Fractal; Phenotypic plasticity; Shoot size; Stochastic process; WBE theory.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/4577
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A model for the phenotypic plasticity of North sea herring growth in relation to trophic conditions ArchiMer
Shinn, Yunne-jai; Rochet, Marie-joelle.
An adaptation of the von Bertalanffy growth model is formulated to describe the phenotypic plasticity of fish somatic growth in relation to trophic conditions. The model is developed for the North sea Downs herring (Clupea harengus). II suggests that annual growth variability during 1974-1990 was mainly due to the combined effects of herring abundance and wind-induced turbulence (coincident with the spring stratification of the water column). Springtime turbulences cause reduced and delayed planktonic blooms preceding the annual foraging period of Downs herring. The negative relation observed between herring abundance and growth is hypothesized to be due to intra-specific competition for trophic resources. Incorporated into the calculation of yield per...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Modèle de croissance; Densité-dépendance; Plasticité phénotypique; Clupea harengus; Hareng de mer du Nord; Gestion des pêches; Growth model; Density dependence; Phenotypic plasticity; Fishery management; Clupea harengus; North sea herring.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00188/29878/28358.pdf
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Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of the native forage grass Paspalum fasciculatum: a trait relevant to climatic changes in wetlands. Repositório Alice
SANTOS, S. A.; VALLS, J. F. M.; POTT, A.; BERSELLI, C..
This study has been conducted to detect natural forage species having adaptive phenotypic plasticity in wetlands to withstand extreme conditions in drought/flooding cycles.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Forragem; Fenotipo; Forage quality; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1057874
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Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) de Brébission Acta Botanica
Chia,Mathias Ahii; Akinsanmi,Jamiu Taiwo; Tanimu,Yahuza; Ladan,Zakari.
The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Algaecide; Growth inhibition; Microalgae; Neem; Oxidative stress; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062016000100001
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An evolutionary frame of work to study physiological adaptation to high altitudes RChHN
REZENDE,ENRICO L.; GOMES,FERNANDO R.; GHALAMBOR,CAMERON K.; RUSSELL,GREGORY A.; CHAPPELLl,MARK A..
How complex physiological systems evolve is one of the major questions in evolutionary physiology. For example, how traits interact at the physiological and genetic level, what are the roles of development and plasticity in Darwinian evolution, and eventually how physiological traits will evolve, remains poorly understood. In this article we summarize the current frame of work evolutionary physiologists are employing to study the evolution of physiological adaptations, as well as the role of developmental and reversible phenotypic plasticity in this context. We also highlight representative examples of how the integration of evolutionary and developmental physiology, concomitantly with the mechanistic understanding of physiological systems, can provide a...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Evolutionary processes; Natural selection; Life-history; Oxygen availability; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2005000200016
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Changements adaptatifs induits par la pêche chez les populations halieutiques ArchiMer
Marty, Lise.
Fishing is an important source of mortality in harvested populations and therefore may induce adaptive responses. These responses affect life-history traits in particular, which have consequences for stocks’ dynamics, and thus can alter the demographic direct effect of fishing (i.e. the reduction in stock’s biomass). Fishing-induced adaptive changes depend, non-exclusively, on two processes: evolution and phenotypic plasticity. These two components are observed at the phenotypic level because functional genes coding for the traits undergoing adaptive changes have not yet been identified. These two origins are confounded in individual phenotypes, and the impact of adaptive changes in the long run remains therefore unclear: evolutionary changes are expected...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: : Pêche; Évolution adaptative; Plasticité phénotypique; Norme de réaction; Dérive génétique; Érosion génétique; Age et taille à maturation; Croissance; Survie; Trade-offs; Densité-dépendance; Gadidées de mer du nord; Fishing; Adaptive evolution; Phenotypic plasticity; Reaction norm; Genetic drift; Genetic erosion; Age and size at maturation; Growth; Survival; Trade-offs; Density-dependence; North sea Gadoids.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00079/19013/16591.pdf
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Context dependency of trait repeatability and its relevance for management and conservation of fish populations ArchiMer
Killen, S. S.; Adriaenssens, B.; Marras, S.; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, S. J..
Repeatability of behavioural and physiological traits is increasingly a focus for animal researchers, for which fish have become important models. Almost all of this work has been done in the context of evolutionary ecology, with few explicit attempts to apply repeatability and context dependency of trait variation toward understanding conservation-related issues. Here, we review work examining the degree to which repeatability of traits (such as boldness, swimming performance, metabolic rate and stress responsiveness) is context dependent. We review methods for quantifying repeatability (distinguishing between within-context and across-context repeatability) and confounding factors that may be especially problematic when attempting to measure...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Environmental effects; Intraclass correlation; Personality; Phenotypic plasticity; Reaction norm; Temperature.
Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00337/44823/44372.pdf
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Density-dependent morphological plasticity and trade-offs among vegetative traits in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) Acta Amazonica
Andrade,Eleonora Alvarenga; Barbosa,Mário Eduardo Avelar; Demetrio,Guilherme Ramos.
Density-dependent responses are an important component of the organism life-history, and the resource allocation theory is a central concept to the life-history theory. When resource allocation varies due to environmental changes, a plant may change its morphology or physiology to cope with the new conditions, a process known as phenotypic plasticity. Our study aimed to evaluate how plant density affects Eichhornia crassipes allocation patterns. A total of 214 individuals in high and low density were collected. The density effect was observed in all plant traits examined including biomass accumulation. All traits of E. crassipes demonstrated higher values in high density conditions, except for biomass of leaves. Density exhibited a high influence on...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Plant-environment relationships; Plastic morphology; Macrophyte.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0044-59672013000400007
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Efeito do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de plantas jovens de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.). Repositório Alice
ARAGÃO, D. de S.; LUNZ, A. M. P.; OLIVEIRA, L. C. de; RAPOSO, A.; FERMINO JUNIOR, P. C. P..
A capacidade de utilização da luz varia entre as espécies, e o sucesso de cada indivíduo depende de suas respostas morfoanatômicas. Este estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes intensidades luminosas sobre a anatomia foliar de mudas de Carapa guianensis Aubl. Folhas sadias do segundo e terceiro nós foram coletadas de plantas jovens desenvolvidas em quatro níveis de sombreamento: 30%, 50%, 70% e 0% (pleno sol), durante oito meses de experimento. Análises anatômicas foram feitas sob Microscopia Óptica (MO), a partir de lâminas temporárias e permanentes e sob Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). A densidade estomática não apresentou diferenças significativas. As dimensões estomáticas e a espessura dos tecidos da lâmina foliar foram maiores com o...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Plasticidade fenótipa; Essência florestal; Andiroba; Carapa guianensis; Anatomia vegetal; Folha; Radiação luminosa; Sombreamento; Plant anatomy; Tropical wood; Leaf area; Solar radiation; Shade; Phenotypic plasticity; Anatomía de la planta; Madera tropical; Área foliar; Radiación solar; Sombra; Plasticidad fenotípica.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/997277
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Effects of environmental temperature on oxygen diffusion capacity during post-natal development in the altricial rodent, Phyllotis darwini RChHN
CANALS,MAURICIO; FIGUEROA,DANIELA P; MIRANDA,JESSICA P; SABAT,PABLO.
In this contribution we studied the developmental phenotypic plasticity of respiratory structures involved in the exchange of gases in an altricial rodent, the leaf-eared mouse {Phyllotis darwini). We studied morphological pulmonary parameters of warm (30 °C) and cold acclimated animals 15 °C) at different developmental stages. We found that acclimation treatments did not affect neither lung volume, the alveolo-capillary barrier thickness nor the respiratory surface density. In consequence the oxygen diffusion capacity was not affected. Although Phyllotis darwini exhibited structural respiratory changes expected by its ontogenetic development, these structures were not affected by thermal acclimation during the post-natal development.
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Lung; Altricial rodents.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2009000100010
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Evidence of morphometric differentiation among Antarctic moss populations as a response to local microenvironment Acta Botanica
Medina,Rayssa Garay; Barcellos,Suziane Alves; Victoria,Filipe de Carvalho; Albuquerque,Margéli Pereira de; Pereira,Antonio Batista; Stefenon,Valdir Marcos.
ABSTRACTStudies on phenotypic variation among populations growing in different microenvironments may provide information about plasticity related to environmental pressures, and thus help to elucidate the potential evolutionary forces contributing to the origin and maintenance of diversity in any region. In this study we investigate morphometric variation on a small geographic scale for three species of Antarctic mosses. All species revealed significant differentiation among populations for all evaluated traits. The comparison of morphometric measures of populations of Polytrichum juniperinumfrom Nelson Island and from southern Brazil suggests that the effects of a small geographic scale in Antarctica are the same as a large geographic scale in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Andreae gainii; Bryum pseudotriquetrum; Nelson Island; Phenotypic plasticity; Polytrichum juniperinum.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062015000300383
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Growth of radiata pine families in nursery and two years after field establishment Scientia Agricola
Meza,Sergio Enrique Espinoza; Ivković,Miloš; Arce,Marco Aliro Yáñez; Díaz,Carlos Renato Magni; Moya,Rómulo Eduardo Santelices; Ariza,Antonio María Cabrera.
ABSTRACT: Pinus radiata D. Don is the most widely planted exotic species in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and Spain. In this study, growth and survival of P. radiata were compared in 30 open pollinated families grown under two contrasting watering regimes in nursery (well-watered cf. water-stress conditions) and planted on a drought-prone site with Mediterranean climate in central Chile. This study assessed phenotypic plasticity in growth and survival at nursery stage and two years after establishment in the field. Family plasticity at nursery stage was estimated by the angular phenotypic change index (APCI), while the relationship between nursery and field traits was estimated by genetic correlations (rg) and the Pearson coefficient of correlation (rxy)....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pinus radiata; Survival; Phenotypic plasticity; Nursery-field correlations; Dry sites.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162020000301000
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Gut size flexibility in rodents: what we know, and don't know, after a century of research RChHN
NAYA,DANIEL E.
Phenotypic plasticity comprises a central concept in the understanding of how organisms interact with their environment, and thus, is a central topic in ecology and evolution. A particular case of phenotypic plasticity is phenotypic flexibility, which refers to reversible change in organism traits due to changes in internal or external environmental conditions. Flexibility of digestive features has been analyzed for more than a century in a myriad of different species and contexts. Studies in rodents on gut size flexibility have been developed mainly from two different áreas of the biological sciences, physiology and ecology. However, as for several other topics related with physiological ecology, both kinds of studies largely developed along sepárate...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Digestive physiology; Phenotypic plasticity; Physiological flexibility; Rodents.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2008000400012
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Impact of Environmental Covariation in Growth and Mortality on Evolving Maturation Reaction Norms ArchiMer
Marty, Lise; Dieckmann, Ulf; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Ernande, Bruno.
Maturation age and size have important fitness consequences through their effects on survival probabilities and body sizes. The evolution of maturation reaction norms in response to environmental covariation in growth and mortality is therefore a key subject of life-history theory. The eco-evolutionary model we present and analyze here incorporates critical features that earlier studies of evolving maturation reaction norms have often neglected: the trade-off between growth and reproduction, source-sink population structure, and population regulation through density-dependent growth and fecundity. We report the following findings. First, the evolutionarily optimal age at maturation can be decomposed into the sum of a density-dependent and a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Growth-reproduction trade-off; Source-sink population structure; Density dependence; Selection gradient.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00035/14607/11988.pdf
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Influence of environmental variables on seasonal abundance and relative growth of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea): variations of a continental population Iheringia, Sér. Zool.
Bueno,Alessandra A. P.; Bonatto,Carolina R.; Almeida,Ariádine C..
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, precipitation, and water temperature) on the abundance of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862), as well as to compare the relative growth among demographic groups throughout the seasons in a lagoon system located in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais. Monthly, from August/2013 to July/2014, the prawns were collected on macrophytes of the genus Eichhornia using a semi-circular sieve. In the laboratory, the specimens were categorized into juveniles, males, ovigerous females and non-ovigerous females, and measured as total length (TL), carapace length (CL), and abdomen length (AL). The predominance of juveniles was evident,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Abiotic variables; Demographic categories; Freshwater prawn; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0073-47212019000100218
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Innateness and the instinct to learn Anais da ABC (AABC)
Marler,Peter.
Concepts of innateness were at the heart of Darwin's approach to behavior and central to the ethological theorizing of Lorenz and, at least to start with, of Tinbergen. Then Tinbergen did an about face, and for some twenty years the term 'innate' became highly suspect. He attributed the change to Lehrman's famous 1953 critique in which he asserted that classifying behaviors as innate tells us nothing about how they develop. Although Lehrman made many valid points, I will argue that this exchange also led to profound misunderstandings that were ultimately damaging to progress in research on the development of behavior. The concept of 'instincts to learn', receiving renewed support from current theorizing among geneticists about phenotypic plasticity,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Innateness; Song learning; Phenotypic plasticity; Behavioral genetics; Tinbergen's four questions.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652004000200002
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Interação genótipo x ambiente via modelos de normas de reação para características de crescimento em bovinos Nelore. Repositório Alice
AMBROSINI, D. P.; MALHADO, C. H. M.; MARTINS FILHO, R.; CARNEIRO, P. L. S..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao ambiente em bovinos da raça Nelore por meio de diferentes modelos de normas de reação e estimar o progresso genético no gradiente ambiental. Determinaram-se os parâmetros ganho de peso da desmama ao sobreano (GP345) e o peso ajustado aos 205 dias de idade (P205). Um modelo animal padrão (MA), dois modelos hierárquicos de normas de reação com homocedasticidade de variância residual e dois com heterogeneidade foram utilizados. O modelo hierárquico de normas de reação homocedástico com um passo apresentou o melhor ajuste. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade diretos do ambiente baixo para o ambiente alto, no gradiente ambiental, foram de 0,03 a 0,63 e de 0,13 a 0,62, respectivamente, para GP345 e P205. As...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Avaliação genética; Correlação genética; Plasticidade fenotípica; Sensibilidade ambiental; Reprodutores; Genetic evaluation; Genetic parameters; Environmental sensitivity; Parâmetro genético; Genetic correlation; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1042292
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Intraspecific differences in metabolic rate of Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae): the effect of thermal acclimation in arid and mesic habitats RChHN
Novoa,F. Fernando; Rivera-hutinel,Antonio; rosenmann,Mario; Sabat,Pablo.
Studies of metabolic capacities in rodents have been largely studied at an inter-specific levels, but physiological capacities of populations belonging to the same species have received lesser attention. Here we studied the maximum and basal metabolic rates of two populations of the rodent Chroeomys olivaceus dwelling in habitats with contrasting temperature and rainfall regimes, and to test if differences in metabolic capacities are due to local adaptation or acclimatization effect. After four weeks of acclimation to 25 ºC and 10 ºC, the BMR and MMR were determined in individuals from the northern population of Caleta Loa, and the southern population of La Picada. Individuals from ‘La Picada’ population were heavier than those from Caleta Loa. MMR and BMR...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Basal metabolic rate; Chroeomys olivaceus; Maximum metabolic rate; Population; Phenotypic plasticity.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2005000200004
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Intraspecific Variation in Leaf Life Span for the Semi-evergreen Liana Akebia trifoliata is Caused by Both Seasonal and Aseasonal Factors in a Temperate Forest OAK
Koyama, Kohei; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro.
We investigated the leaf demography of a temperate woody liana, Akebia trifoliata, in a temperate forest in Japan, Akebia is semi-evergreen: some leaves are shed before winter, while others remain through the winter. Previous studies of semi-evergreen species found that variation in leaf life span was caused by variation in the timing of leaf emergence, Leaves that appeared just before winter over-wintered, while leaves appearing earlier were shed, However, it is unclear whether leaves of the same cohort (i.e., leaves that appear at the same time within a single site) show variation in life span under the effect of strong seasonality. To separate variation in life span among the leaves in each cohort from variation among cohorts, we propose a new method -...
Palavras-chave: Akebia trifoliata; Leaf demography; Leaf lifespan; Leaf phenology; Liana; Phenotypic plasticity; Semi-evergreen.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/4523
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LARVAL MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AND ITS RELATION TO HOST PLANTS IN SYNCIRSODES PRIMATA (LEPIDOPTERA: GEOMETRIDAE) Gayana
Bocaz,Patricia; Parra,Luis E.; Victoriano,Pedro F..
Morphological variations in larvae of Syncirsodes primata (Walker 1862) from different hosts were studied. Three different morphs, varying in the number of dorsal tubercles and color, were detected. It appears that these variations depend upon the species of host plant on which the larvae inhabit. The results suggest that the selection of host plants may determine the color, indicating phenotypic plasticity. However, constancy in tubercle number, independent of a change of host plant, suggests genetic differences among morphs
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Morphological variation; Phenotypic plasticity; Syncirsodes primata; Geometridae; Lepidoptera.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-65382003000100006
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