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Arsenic phytoextraction and hyperaccumulation by fern species Scientia Agricola
Gonzaga,Maria Isidoria Silva; Santos,Jorge Antonio Gonzaga; Ma,Lena Qiying.
Arsenic (As) is an ubiquitous trace metalloid found in all environmental media. Its presence at elevated concentrations in soils derives from both anthropogenic and natural inputs. Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogenic element, which has caused severe environmental and health problem worldwide. Technologies currently available for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated sites are expensive, environmentally disruptive, and potentially hazardous to workers. Phytoextraction, a strategy of phytoremediation, uses plants to clean up contaminated soils and has been successfully applied to arsenic contaminated soils. It has the advantage of being cost-effective and environmentally friendly. A major step towards the development of phytoextraction of arsenic-impacted...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Environmental contamination; Hyperaccumulator plants; Phytoremediation.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162006000100015
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Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium WILLD. and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia BENTH. Seedlings. Repositório Alice
CIPRIANI, H. N.; DIAS, L. E.; COSTA, M. D.; CAMPOS, N. V.; AZEVEDO, A. A.; GOMES, R. J.; FIALHO, I. F.; AMEZQUITA, S. P. M..
Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As)- contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Arsenate; Heavy metals; Phytoremediation; Root anatomy; Soil contamination; Contaminação do solo; Metais pesados; Anatomia radicular; Fitorremediação.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/974289
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Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Cipriani,Henrique Nery; Dias,Luiz Eduardo; Costa,Maurício Dutra; Campos,Naiara Viana; Azevedo,Aristéa Alves; Gomes,Roberto Junio; Fialho,Izabela Ferreira; Amezquita,Sandra Patrícia Montealegre.
Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Arsenate; Heavy metals; Phytoremediation; Root anatomy; Soil contamination.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832013000500031
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Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Melo,Roseli Freire; Dias,Luiz Eduardo; Mello,Jaime Wilson Vargas de; Oliveira,Juraci Alves.
Arsenic has been considered the most poisonous inorganic soil pollutant to living creatures. For this reason, the interest in phytoremediation species has been increasing in the last years. Particularly for the State of Minas Gerais, where areas of former mining activities are prone to the occurrence of acid drainage, the demand is great for suitable species to be used in the revegetation and "cleaning" of As-polluted areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) Maiden and E. cloeziana F. Muell, for phytoremediation of As-polluted soils. Soil samples were incubated for a period of 15 days with different As (Na2HAsO4) doses (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3). After 30 days of exposure the basal leaves...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phytoremediation; Arsenate; Phytotoxicity.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832010000300040
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Behavior of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus citriodora seedlings grown in soil contaminated by arsenate. Repositório Alice
MELO, R. F. de; DIAS, L. E.; ASSIS, I. R. de.
Persistent areas of tailings and deposits from coal and gold mining may present high levels of arsenic (As), mainly in the arsenate form, endangering the environment and human health. The establishment of vegetation cover is a key step to reclaiming these environments. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla and E. citriodora seedlings for use in phytoremediation programs of arsenate-contaminated areas. Soil samples were incubated at increasing rates (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg dm-3) of arsenic (arsenate form, using Na 2HAsO4) for 15 days. The seedlings were produced in a substrate (vermiculite + sawdust) and were transplanted to the pots with soil three months after seed germination. The values of plant height and diameter...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Raiz; Arsênio; Contaminação do solo; Eucalyptus urophylla; Eucalyptus citriodora; Semente; Muda; Cobertura vegetal; Recuperação do solo; Solo; Eucalyptus; Brotação; Germinação; Phytoremediation; Phytotoxicity; Revegetation.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1064078
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Behavior of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus citriodora Seedlings Grown in Soil Contaminated by Arsenate Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Melo,Roseli Freire; Dias,Luiz Eduardo; Assis,Igor Rodrigues de.
ABSTRACT Persistent areas of tailings and deposits from coal and gold mining may present high levels of arsenic (As), mainly in the arsenate form, endangering the environment and human health. The establishment of vegetation cover is a key step to reclaiming these environments. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla and E. citriodora seedlings for use in phytoremediation programs of arsenate-contaminated areas. Soil samples were incubated at increasing rates (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg dm-3) of arsenic (arsenate form, using Na2HAsO4) for 15 days. The seedlings were produced in a substrate (vermiculite + sawdust) and were transplanted to the pots with soil three months after seed germination. The values of plant height and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phytoremediation; Phytotoxicity; Revegetation.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832016000100516
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Biological properties of Endophytic Fungi BABT
Sudha,Venkatesan; Govindaraj,Ramar; Baskar,Kathirvelu; Al-Dhabi,Naif Abdullah; Duraipandiyan,Veeramuthu.
The endophytic fungus is have rich source of secondary metabolites which act as biological active agent in the higher plants. The fungal derivatives play vital part in human life and their compounds are the source of drug for cancer, microbial and viral diseases. The natural compounds from the endophytes acts as growth inhibitor of plant pathogenic organism. Endophytes are rich sources of natural products which are used in agriculture (plant growth and insecticidal), pharmaceutical industries and also used for phytoremediation.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Endophytic fungi; Secondary metabolites; Anticancer; Phytoremediation; Pest management.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132016000100413
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BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND HEAVY METAL ABSORPTIONBY FOUR PLANTS GROWN AT THE MORAVIA DUMP, MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA. Acta biol.Colomb.
SOLANGE SÁNCHEZ,MARÍA; TORRENEGRA,RUBÉN DARÍO; MARTÍNEZ,HERNÁN; SALAZAR,CLAUDIA EUGENIA; BARAHONA,ROLANDO.
Dumps are sites where the presence of high heavy metal (HM) concentration is a common occurrence, creating the need for implementing restoration processes immediately after their closure. In the 7.6 ha and 45 m high Morro de Moravia dump, arose from the disposal of Medellín solid wastes from 1974 to 1984, previous studies have demonstrated high contents of contaminants, including HM, prompting the need to identify effective mechanisms to implement its restoration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptation, growth and phytoremediation capacity of Bidens pilosa, Lepidium virginicum, Brachiaria decumbens and Arachis pintoi. Content of HM (mg/kg) in Moravia residue matrix went from 17 to 8193 for Pb, 44 to 564 for Cr, 0.2 to 339 for Cd and 77...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bidens pilosa; Brachiaria decumbens; Chromium; Lead; Phytoremediation.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-548X2010000200019
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Cadmium effect on the association of jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Scientia Agricola
Andrade,Sara Adrián López de; Jorge,Renato Atílio; Silveira,Adriana Parada Dias da.
The effect of cadmium (Cd) on mycorrhizal association and on shoot and root Cd concentration was investigated in jackbean plants under hydroponic conditions. The treatments consisted of the inoculation of three different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Glomus etunicatum, G. intraradices and G. macrocarpum, and a non-inoculated control, two Cd (0 and 5 µmol L-1) and two P (1 and 10 mg L-1) levels in the nutrient solution. Mycorrhizal colonization, length of AMF extraradical mycelium, guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots, plant growth and root and shoot Cd and P concentrations were determined. Mycorrhizal status did not promote jackbean growth but in most of the cases mycorrhization increased root and shoot Cd concentrations. Cd ions were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Peroxidase; Cd accumulation; Extraradical mycelium; Phytoremediation; Hydroponics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162005000400013
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Chemical amendment and phytostabilization of an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd Scientia Agricola
Santos,Fabiana Soares dos; Magalhães,Márcio Osvaldo Lima; Mazur,Nelson; Amaral Sobrinho,Nelson Moura Brasil do.
Phytostabilisation of a contaminated soil with heavy metals is considered a very appropriate technology to reduce erosion and dispersion of contaminants. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of both chemical amendments (calcium silicate and brewery sludge), and phytoremediation using the grass Brachiaria decumbens, on an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd (industrial residue). Industrial residue samples placed into 30 L containers were amended with 20% brewery sludge, calcium silicate (2%, 3%), and 20% of brewery sludge + calcium silicate (2.5%, 4%), and were compared to the control treatment (non-amended residue). After pH stabilization, B. decumbens plants were grown on all treatments in order to evaluate the ability of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: Phytoremediation; Inertization; Contamination; Heavy metals.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162007000500008
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Copper toxicity on photosynthetic responses and root morphology of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae). Repositório Alice
MARQUES, D. M.; VERONEZE JÚNIOR, V.; SILVA, A. B. da; MANTOVANI, J. R.; MAGALHAES, P. C.; SOUZA, T. C. de.
Copper (Cu) is a micronutrient essential for plant development. However, in excess, it is toxic to plants and may cause various physiological and morphological changes. The study of the growth of plants exposed to excess Cu is important for the development of phytoremediation programs and for understanding the mechanisms involved in the tolerance of this metal. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of excess copper on photosynthetic responses and root morphology ofHymenaeacourbaril L. Biometric measurements, gas exchange, root morphology, and Cu content in tissues and indices (TI and TF) were assessed, involving metal content and biomass.Uptoaconcentrationof200mgkg−1,Cufavored growth, gas exchange, and root...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Troca de gás; Toxicidade; Metal Pesado; Raiz; Cobre; Phytoremediation.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1105592
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Copper translocation and tolerance in seedlings of tree species grown in contaminated soil AGRIAMBI
Silva,Rodrigo F. da; Ros,Clovis O. Da; Scheid,Douglas L.; Grolli,André L.; Marco,Rudinei De; Missio,Evandro L..
ABSTRACTHigh concentrations of copper (Cu) may be toxic to plants, yet some species can be tolerant to soils contaminated by this metal. The study aimed to evaluate Cu translocation and tolerance in seedlings of ‘timbaúva’ (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong), ‘pata-de-vaca’ (Bauhinia forficata Link) and ‘amendoim-bravo’ (Pterogyne nitensTul) subjected to Cu-contaminated soil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse for 120 days, using as substrate a clayey Oxisol. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design, using a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, corresponding to three forest species (‘timbaúva’, ‘pata-de-vaca’ and ‘amendoim-bravo’) and six Cu doses in the soil (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mg kg-1), with six replicates. The following...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Heavy metal; Phytoremediation; Reforestation; Soil cover.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-43662015001101093
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Development of bean plants in soil contaminated with trifloxysulfuron-sodium after Stizolobium aterrimum and Canavalia ensiformis cultivation Planta Daninha
Procópio,S.O.; Santos,J.B.; Pires,F.R.; Silva,A.A.; Santos,E.A.; Cargnelutti Filho,A..
Phytoremediation, the use of plants to decontaminate soils and water resources from organic pollutants such as herbicides, is economically and environmentally a promising technique applied in many areas, including agriculture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of bean plants cultivated in the field, in soil with different levels of trifloxysulfuron-sodium contamination, following cultivation of two green manure species, as well as to evaluate the possibility of recontamination of the area by such herbicide with the straw permanence on the soil. The experiment was carried out in Coimbra, MG, Brazil, on a sandy clayey Red - Yellow Argisol from March to November 2003. Four levels of soil contamination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phaseolus vulgaris; Phytoremediation; Carryover; Green manures.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-83582007000100010
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Differential behavior of the summer cover crops in the absorption and translocation of copper. Repositório Alice
VENDRUSCOLO, D.; SANTANA, N. A.; SOUTO, K. M.; FERREIRA, P. A.; MELO, G. W. B. de; JACQUES, R. J. S..
Phytoremediation is an alternative technique used to treat copper-contaminated soils. The objective of this research was to explore the behavior of nine summer cover crops regarding the growth, absorption and translocation of copper in soils with contamination levels exceeding the Value of Prevention, with a view to selecting plants for phytoremediation programs. In the experiments the Cambisol was contaminated with copper, added in doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 500 and 600mg kg -1, in which the following nine plants were cultivated under greenhouse conditions: Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablad, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Pennisetum glaucum and Paspalum notatum. At 90 days after sowing the...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Heavy metal; Phytoextraction; Soil pollution; Phytoremediation.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1103432
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Differential behavior of the summer cover crops in the absorption and translocation of copper Ciência Rural
Vendruscolo,Diogo; Santana,Natielo Almeida; Souto,Kelen Müller; Ferreira,Paulo Ademar Avelar; Melo,George Wellington Bastos de; Jacques,Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti.
ABSTRACT: Phytoremediation is an alternative technique used to treat copper-contaminated soils. The objective of this research was to explore the behavior of nine summer cover crops regarding the growth, absorption and translocation of copper in soils with contamination levels exceeding the Value of Prevention, with a view to selecting plants for phytoremediation programs. In the experiments the Cambisol was contaminated with copper, added in doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 500 and 600mg kg-1, in which the following nine plants were cultivated under greenhouse conditions: Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablad, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Pennisetum glaucum and Paspalum notatum. At 90 days after...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Heavy metal; Soil pollution; Phytoremediation; Phytostabilization; Phytoextraction.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782018001200251
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Ecological Risks of Novel Environmental Crop Technologies Using Phytoremediation as an Example AgEcon
Angle, J. Scott; Linacre, Nicholas A..
Phytoremediation is the use of living plants, known as hyperaccumulators which absorb unusually large amounts of metals in comparison to other plants. The use of classical plant breeding and new molecular techniques offers great potential to develop crops with the ability to clean up polluted sites. While these technologies have gained widespread attention, prior to commercial development, there are risks that must be considered – only a few of which have received even modest examination. Therefore, the focus of this working paper is to explore specific risks associated with phytoremediation and suggest ways in which these risks can be managed so that new, novel, and innovative plant technologies may be applied to provide low cost and efficient...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk; GMO; Biotechnology; Phytoremediation; Phytoextraction; Phytomining; Environmental risk; Crop Production/Industries; Q16; Q2.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59225
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EDTA assisted phytorremediation of a Pb contamined soil: metal leaching and uptake by jack beans Scientia Agricola
Gabos,Mariana Bassetto; Abreu,Cleide Aparecida de; Coscione,Aline Reneé.
Lead (Pb) is one of the main soil contaminants. It is also of difficult phytoremediation due to its low solubility and high retention on soil particles. EDTA application to soil is a strategy to increase heavy metal phytoextraction, but such chelants usually cause phytotoxicity and metal leaching side effects. Therefore, these research work objectives were to evaluate the effects of single (0.5 g kg-1) and split (0.25 + 0.25 g kg-1) EDTA application on Pb uptake by jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.) as well as on Pb vertical movement in a Pb contaminated soil material. Two sets of experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions: in the first one, plants were grown in 3L-pots filled with a Pb-contaminated soil to evaluate Pb uptake by plants; for...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Canavalia ensiformis L.; Lead; Phytoremediation; Chelant.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162009000400012
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EDTA-induced phytoextraction of lead and barium by brachiaria (B. decumbens cv. Basilisk) in soil contaminated by oil exploration drilling waste Agronomy
Andrade, André Fernão Martins de; Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Santos, Fabiana Soares dos; Magalhães, Marcio Osvaldo Lima; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo; Lima, Leilane da Silva.
The phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents has been widely studied for the remediation of contaminated soils. To evaluate the efficiency of EDTA-induced phytoextraction of Ba and Pb using Brachiaria decumbens for the remediation of soil contaminated by oil well drilling and exploration waste, an experiment was conducted by applying a single dose (6 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil) and split doses of EDTA (three applications of 2 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil). The samples were subjected to sequential extractions using the method proposed by Ure et al. (1993) as modified by Rauret et al. (1999).The application of EDTA did not influence the distribution of Ba in various chemical fractions of the soil. The dry matter production did not differ significantly between...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: 5.01.01.00-5 heavy metals; Phytoremediation; Chelating compounds ciência do solo.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/18172
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Effect of cadmium on growth, micronutrient concentration, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and acid phosphatase activities in plants of Pfaffia glomerata Braz. J. Plant Physiol.
Skrebsky,Etiane C.; Tabaldi,Luciane A.; Pereira,Luciane B.; Rauber,Renata; Maldaner,Joseila; Cargnelutti,Denise; Gonçalves,Jamile F.; Castro,Gabriel Y.; Shetinger,Maria R.C.; Nicoloso,Fernando T..
Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen plantlets were grown under different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μM) in a hydroponic system during 7 d. Plant growth, micronutrient, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, as well as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; E.C.4.2.1.24) and acid phosphatase (AP; E.C.3.1.3.2) activities were then analysed. Cadmium concentration in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd levels. Metal concentration was on average 12-fold greater in root than in shoot tissues. Root length was unaffected by Cd treatments. In contrast, dry weight of both shoot and roots increased significantly upon addition of 20 and 40 μM Cd. Moreover, shoot and total plant dry weight was only reduced in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Brazilian ginseng; Carotenoid; Chlorophyll; Heavy metal; Micronutrient; Phytoremediation.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-04202008000400004
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Effect of Phytoaccumulation of Arsenic and Chromium on Structural and Ultrastructural Changes of Brake Fern (Pteris vittata) Braz. J. Plant Physiol.
Sridhar,Balaji B. Maruthi; Han,Fengxiang X.; Diehl,Susan V.; Monts,David L.; Su,Yi.
Structural and ultrastructural changes caused by bioaccumulation of As and Cr in brake fern (Pteris vittata), a known arsenic hyperaccumulator, were investigated. Potted plants of brake fern were exposed to metal treatments of As and Cr for three weeks. Leaf, stem and root samples were collected periodically and fixed for LM (Light Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) to evaluate anatomical changes. The fresh weights, dry weights, RWC (Relative Water Content) and plant heights were obtained before the brake fern plants were harvested for metal accumulation analysis. The As accumulated mainly in the shoots while Cr accumulated mainly in the roots of the metal-treated plants. Significant changes in the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anatomy; Arsenic; Chromium; Hyperaccumulator; Microscopy; Phytoremediation; Pteris vittata; Translocation; Ultrastructure.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-04202011000400006
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