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Registros recuperados: 14
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An Initial Assessment of Policies for Saving a Rare Australian Glider: Experimental Results, Economics and Ecology AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Wilson, Clevo; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath.
Reviews the ecological status of the mahogany glider and describes its distribution, habitat and abundance, life history and threats to it. Three serial surveys of Brisbane residents provide data on the knowledge of respondents about the mahogany glider. The results provide information about the attitudes of respondents to the mahogany glider, to its conservation and relevant public policies and about variations in these factors as the knowledge of participants of the mahogany glider alters. Similarly data is provided and analysed about the willingness to pay of respondents to conserve the mahogany glider. Population viability analysis is applied to estimate the required habitat area for a minimum viable population of the mahogany glider to ensure at least...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation policies; Contingent valuation; Knowledge; Mahogany glider Petaurus gracilis; Population viability analysis; Social cost-benefit analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51290
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Assessing Extinction Risk: Integrating Genetic Information Ecology and Society
Dunham, Jason; University of Nevada-Reno; jdunham@proaxis.com; Peacock, Mary; University of Nevada-Reno; mpeacock@scs.unr.edu; Tracy, C. Richard; University of Nevada-Reno; dtracy@unr.edu; Nielsen, Jennifer; Stanford University; jnielsen@leland.stanford.edu; Vinyard, Gary; University of Nevada-Reno; gvinyard@med.unr.edu.
Risks of population extinction have been estimated using a variety of methods incorporating information from different spatial and temporal scales. We briefly consider how several broad classes of extinction risk assessments, including population viability analysis, incidence functions, and ranking methods integrate information on different temporal and spatial scales. In many circumstances, data from surveys of neutral genetic variability within, and among, populations can provide information useful for assessing extinction risk. Patterns of genetic variability resulting from past and present ecological and demographic events, can indicate risks of extinction that are otherwise difficult to infer from ecological and demographic analyses alone. We provide...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Extinction risk; Genetic variation; Incidence function analysis; Population viability analysis; Ranking methods; Risk assessment; Spatial scale; Temporal scale..
Ano: 1999
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Can Road-Crossing Structures Improve Population Viability of an Urban Gliding Mammal? Ecology and Society
Taylor, Brendan D.; Southern Cross University; Griffith University; brendan.taylor@scu.edu.au; Goldingay, Ross L.; Southern Cross University; ross.goldingay@scu.edu.au.
Tree-dwelling mammals are potentially highly vulnerable to discontinuities in habitat created by roads. We used population modeling to assess the viability of a metapopulation of Australia’s largest gliding marsupial, the greater glider (Petauroides volans), occurring in forest remnants in the fastest-urbanizing region of Australia, where habitat is dissected by major roads. Crossing structures for arboreal mammals (consisting of a land bridge with wooden poles for gliding and adjacent rope canopy bridges) have been installed over an arterial road that separates two of these remnants (one large, one small). It is currently unknown whether this species will use the crossing structures, but available tree height and spacing do not allow a glide...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Crossing structures; Gliding mammals; Modeling; Motorways; Population viability analysis.
Ano: 2009
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Contribution of Inbreeding to Extinction Risk in Threatened Species Ecology and Society
Brook, Barry W; Northern Territory University; barry.brook@ntu.edu.au; Tonkyn, David W; Clemson University; tdavid@clemson.edu; O'Grady, Julian J; Macquarie University; jogrady@rna.bio.mq.edu.au; Frankham, Richard; Macquarie University; rfrankha@rna.bio.mq.edu.au.
Wild populations face threats both from deterministic factors, e.g., habitat loss, overexploitation, pollution, and introduced species, and from stochastic events of a demographic, genetic, and environmental nature, including catastrophes. Inbreeding reduces reproductive fitness in naturally outbreeding species, but its role in extinctions of wild populations is controversial. To evaluate critically the role of inbreeding in extinction, we conducted realistic population viability analyses of 20 threatened species, with and without inbreeding depression, using initial population sizes of 50, 250, and 1000. Inbreeding markedly decreased median times to extinction by 28.5, 30.5, and 25% for initial populations of 50, 250, and 1000, respectively, and the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Endangered species; Inbreeding depression; Life histories; Median time to extinction; Population viability analysis; Purging.
Ano: 2002
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Differences and Congruencies between PVA Packages: the Importance of Sex Ratio for Predictions of Extinction Risk Ecology and Society
Brook, Barry W; Northern Territory University; barry.brook@ntu.edu.au; Burgman, Mark A; University of Melbourne; m.burgman@botany.unimelb.edu.au; Frankham, Richard; Macquarie University; rfrankha@rna.bio.mq.edu.au.
Population viability analysis (PVA) is used in conservation biology to predict extinction probabilities for threatened species. Previous studies have revealed large differences between the predictions of PVA modeling packages, but these comparisons included a range of nonstandard factors. A standardized comparison of five PVA packages (GAPPS, INMAT, RAMAS Metapop, RAMAS Stage, and VORTEX) was conducted on six examples (two mammals, two birds, one reptile, and a hypothetical bird/mammal-like life history). The individual-based packages (GAPPS and VORTEX) predicted a consistently higher risk of extinction than their matrix-based counterparts (INMAT and the RAMAS programs). This arose as only the former considered the effect of demographic stochasticity in...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Demographic stochasticity; Extinction risk; Individual-based models; Matrix-based models; Model comparison; Parameter estimation; Population viability analysis; Sex ratio.
Ano: 2000
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Effects of Roads and Traffic on Wildlife Populations and Landscape Function: Road Ecology is Moving toward Larger Scales Ecology and Society
van der Ree, Rodney; University of Melbourne; rvdr@unimelb.edu.au; van der Grift, Edgar A.; Alterra, Wageningen UR, Netherlands; edgar.vandergrift@wur.nl; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, USA; apclevenger@gmail.com.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Animal movement; Animal-vehicle collisions; Barrier effect; Ecological threshold; Gene flow; Habitat fragmentation; Mitigation; Population viability analysis; Road ecology; Road-effect zone; Traffic mortality; Traffic noise; Traffic volume; Transportation planning.
Ano: 2011
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Extinction of canid populations by inbreeding depression under stochastic environments in Southwestern Goiás State: a simulation study Genet. Mol. Biol.
Rodrigues,Flávia Melo; Diniz-Filho,José Alexandre Felizola.
A frequently addressed question in conservation biology is what is the chance of survival for a population for a given number of years under certain conditions of habitat loss and human activities. This can be estimated through an integrated analysis of genetic, demographic and landscape processes, which allows the prediction of more realistic and precise models of population persistence. In this study, we modeled extinction in stochastic environments under inbreeding depression for two canid species, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachiurus) and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), in southwest Goiás State. Genetic parameters were obtained from six microsattelite loci (Short Tandem Repeats - STR), which allowed estimates of inbreeding levels and of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Population persistence; Population viability analysis; Canids; STR markers; Parque Nacional das Emas.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572007000100021
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Extinction of mammalian populations in conservation units of the Brazilian Cerrado by inbreeding depression in stochastic environments Genet. Mol. Biol.
Silva,Marcel Müller Fernandes Pereira da; Diniz-Filho,José Alexandre Felizola.
Despite methodological and theoretical advances in conservation genetics, data on genetic variation on broad regional spatial scales are still scarce, leading conservation planners to use general heuristic or simulation models for an integrated analysis of genetic, demographic and landscape parameters. Here, we extended previous results by evaluating spatial patterns of extinction by inbreeding depression under stochastic variation of environments for mammalian populations in 31 conservation units of the Brazilian Cerrado. We observed a large spatial variation of times to extinction, for different conservation units and body-size classes of species. For small-bodied species (500 g), the population times to extinction in the conservation units were usually...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Population persistence; Population viability analysis; Mammals; Cerrado; Conservation units.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572008000400030
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Genetic consequences of population subdivision: the marsupial Micoureus paraguayanus (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia) as a case study Rev. Bras. Zool.
Brito,Daniel.
Habitat fragmentation may cause population subdivision, affecting genetic variation, leading to heterozygosity loss and increased inbreeding, and contributing to population extinction. However, some genetic models have shown that under some conditions, population subdivision can favor heterozygosity and allelic diversity, and small populations may adapt to inbreeding. Here I investigate the relationship between population subdivision and genetic diversity for the marsupial Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) using the program Vortex. Hypothetical populations of 100 and 2000 individuals were partitioned into 1, 2, 5 or 10 populations that were linked by varying rates of dispersal and also by sex-biased dispersal. Results suggested that heterozygosity and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Genetic drift; Genetic load; Habitat fragmentation; Inbreeding; Metapopulation; Population viability analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-46702009000400013
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Genotypic diversity of the Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) and their HLA class I Ligands in a Saudi population Genet. Mol. Biol.
Omar,Suliman Y. Al; Alkuriji,Afrah; Alwasel,Saleh; Dar,javid Ahmed; Alhammad,Alwaleed; Christmas,Stephen; Mansour,Lamjed.
Abstract Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) have been used as good markers for the study of genetic predisposition in many diseases and in human genetic population dynamics. In this context, we have investigated the genetic diversity of KIR genes and their main HLA class I ligands in Saudi population and compared the data with other studies of neighboring populations. One hundred and fourteen randomly selected healthy Saudi subjects were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR genes and their HLA-C1, -C2, -Bw4Thr80 and Bw4Ile80 groups, using a PCR-SSP technique. The results show the occurrence of the framework genes (3DL2, 3DL3 and 2DL4) and the pseudogenes (2DP1 and 3DP1) at highest frequencies. All inhibitory KIR (iKIR) genes...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: KIR diversity; Gene polymorphism; Molecular evolution; PCR SSP; Population viability analysis.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572016000100014
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Is size structure a good measure of future trends of plant populations? an empirical approach using five woody species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) Acta Botanica
Virillo,Carolina Bernucci; Martins,Fernando Roberto; Tamashiro,Jorge Yoshio; Santos,Flavio Antonio Maës dos.
Size distributions in woody plant populations have been used to assess their regeneration status, assuming that size structures with "reverse-J" shapes represent stable populations. We present an empirical approach of this issue using five woody species from the Cerrado. Considering count data for all plants of these five species over a 12-year period, we analyzed size distribution by: a) plotting frequency distributions and their adjustment to the negative exponential curve and b) calculating the Gini coefficient. To look for a relationship between size structure and future trends, we considered the size structures from the first census year. We analyzed changes in number over time and performed a simple population viability analysis, which gives the mean...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Gini coefficient; Population dynamics; Reverse-J shape; Population viability analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062011000300012
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Setting population targets for mammals using body mass as a predictor of population persistence ArchiMer
Hilbers, Jelle P.; Santini, Luca; Visconti, Piero; Schipper, Aafke M.; Pinto, Cecilia; Rondinini, Carlo; Huijbregts, Mark A. J..
Conservation planning and biodiversity assessments need quantitative targets to optimize planning options and assess the adequacy of current species protection. However, targets aiming at persistence require population-specific data, which limits their use in favor of fixed and non-specific targets, likely leading to unequal distribution of conservation efforts among species. Here we propose a method to derive equitable population targets, which are quantitative targets of population size that ensure equal probabilities of persistence across a set of species, and can be easily inferred from species-specific traits. We applied population dynamics models across a range of life-history traits representative for mammals, and estimated minimum viable population...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Allometry; Conservation biology; Conservation target; Extinction; Minimum viable population; Population viability analysis; Wildlife; Wildlife management.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00353/46387/46013.csv
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Tackling Biocomplexity with Meta-models for Species Risk Assessment Ecology and Society
Nyhus, Philip J.; Environmental Studies Program, Colby College; pjnyhus@colby.edu; Lacy, Robert; Chicago Zoological Society; rlacy@ix.netcom.com; Westley, Frances R; Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison; westley@wisc.edu; Miller, Philip; Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN); pmiller@cbsg.org; Vredenburg, Harrie; Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary; harrie.vredenburg@haskayne.ucalgary.ca; Paquet, Paul; Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary; ppaquet@sasktel.net; Pollak, John; Visual Biosystems; jp@visualbiosystems.com.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biocomplexity; Endangered species; Human dimension; Meta-model; Population viability analysis; Risk assessment; VORTEX..
Ano: 2007
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Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability Ecology and Society
van der Ree, Rodney; Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology, Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne; rvdr@unimelb.edu.au; Heinze, Dean; Department of Primary Industries and Water; Dean.Heinze@dpiw.tas.gov.au; McCarthy, Michael; Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology; mamcca@unimelb.edu.au; Mansergh, Ian; Department of Sustainability and Environment; ian.mansergh@dse.vic.gov.au.
Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a “reconnected” population remained 15% lower...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Barrier effect; Burramys; Population-level impacts; Population viability analysis; Road ecology; Underpass; Wildlife crossing structure.
Ano: 2009
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