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Registros recuperados: 49
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A framework for efficient wastewater treatment and recycling systems AgEcon
Mekala, Gayathri Devi; Davidson, Brian; Samad, Madar; Boland, Anne-Maree.
Use of un-treated/partially treated wastewater for irrigation in the dry countries of Asia and Africa and recycling of treated wastewater in the water scarce developed countries has become a common practice due to various reasons. While the lack of wastewater treatment to appropriate levels before use is a major problem in developing countries, the high cost of wastewater recycling is the major problem in developed countries. The current paper is part of a doctoral research and presents the conceptual framework for the research and the methodology that can be used to tackle the problems associated with wastewater recycling.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Water reuse; Wastewater; Recycling; Pricing; Water allocation; Cost benefit analysis; Wastewater irrigation; Developing countries; Developed countries; Case studies; India; Australia; Hyderabad; Melbourne; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Farm Management; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46387
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An Analysis of the Recent Evolution of Mali’s Maize Subsector AgEcon
Diallo, Amadou Sekou.
In most developing countries, historically, the main strategy for improving the food sector has focused on increasing farm-level production. But in recent years, with the emphasis on value chain analysis, there has been much more focus on subsector studies, demand-driven approaches, and improving vertical coordination to assure product quality to final consumption markets. Millet, sorghum, and later rice were the traditional leading three cereal crops produced and consumed in Mali. Maize has trailed them for more than two decades, but from mid 1990s on, it has been produced and consumed in much larger quantities. Given the potentials of maize, developing and better organizing its subsector has the potential to not only increase revenues for maize farmers,...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Maize; Value chain; Mali; Cereals; Food security; Agricultural marketing; Livestock feed; Industrial organization; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Marketing; L11-Production; Pricing; And Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms; N57-Africa; Oceania; O17-Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements; O33-Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes; Q12-Micro Analysis of Farm Firms; Farm Households; And Farm Input Markets; Q13-Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness; Q18-Agricultural Policy; Food Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101316
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Assessing Competition in the U.S. Beef Packing Industry AgEcon
Ward, Clement E..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beef; Cattle; Competition; Concentration; Market structure; Meatpacking; Pricing; Agribusiness; Livestock Production/Industries; L13; Q13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94758
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Assessing the Competitive Interaction Between Private Labels and National Brands AgEcon
Cotterill, Ronald W.; Putsis, William P., Jr.; Dhar, Ravi.
In contrast to single-equation cross-sectional studies of private label share, developing a complete understanding of the nature of the competitive interaction between national brands and private labels requires an understanding of the determinants of both demand and strategic pricing decisions by firms. Consequently, we estimate a simultaneous system of share and price for private labels and national brands. From the empirical results, two measures of market response are derived. The unilateral demand elasticity measures the pure “own” demand response, while the residual (or “total”) elasticity also captures the impact of competitive price reaction (Baker and Bresnahan 1985). When taken together, these provide important strategic insights into the pricing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Competition; Competitive strategy; Private labels; Pricing; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25177
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Can German Wine Cooperatives Compete on Quality? AgEcon
Schamel, Guenter.
The German Agricultural Society (DLG) manages a multi-round annual quality control scheme where wines undergo a blind, sensory testing procedure using a 5-point scale to determine superior quality wines worthy of an annual award (Bronze, Silver, Gold, and Gold Extra). We develop a hedonic model for the 2005 award competition estimating implicit prices for different product attributes including sensory awards, quality categories, and wine style. We also control for regional origin, variety, color, and age. To discern the impact of ownership structure, we distinguish cooperatives and private wineries. Silver and Bronze awards show significant price effects relative to Gold. We also estimate highly significant price effects between quality categories (e.g....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cooperatives; Product Quality; Pricing; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Marketing; Q13; L15; D4.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51552
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Charging for irrigation water: The issues and options, with a case study from Iran AgEcon
Perry, Christopher J..
Inadequate funding for maintenance of irrigation works and emerging shortages of water are prevalent. The use of water charges to generate resources for maintenance and to reduce demand is widely advocated. Examples from other utilities, and from the domestic/industrial sectors of water supply suggest the approach could be effective. In developing countries, the facilities required for measured and controlled delivery of irrigation are rarely in place, and would require a massive investment in physical, legal and administrative infrastructure. To be effective in curtailing demand, the marginal price of water must be significant. The price levels required to cover operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are too low to have a substantial impact on demand,...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Irrigation management; Productivity; Water allocation; Water use efficiency; Operations; Maintenance; Cost recovery; User charges; Water rates; Pricing; River basins; Water shortage; Economic aspects; Salinity; Case studies; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44567
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China’s water pricing reforms for irrigation: effectiveness and impact AgEcon
Liao, Yongsong; Gao, Zhanyi; Bao, Ziyun; Huang, Qingwen; Feng, Guangzhi; Xu, Di; Cai, Jiabin; Han, Huijing; Wu, Weifeng.
Irrigation occupies a central position in China’s crop production. However, due to low per capita water resources, much worse, unevenly distributed over regions and time and the rapid increase of water diversions to non-irrigation sectors, irrigation water shortages have become a very serious problem. Without the adoption of effective measures this problem may even threaten China’s food security. Currently, irrigation efficiency is very low in general, irrigation water prices cannot fully recover water supply costs, and irrigation facilities are aging due to the lack of funding for O&M (operation & maintenance). Since water prices are regulated by the government, and not determined by the market, water prices did not work effectively in water...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Water rates; Pricing; Price policy; Cost recovery; Farmers attitudes; Water rights; Water market; Water supply; User charges; Irrigation water; Water allocation; Irrigation management; Participatory management; Water conservation; Institutions; Organizations; Water users associations; Cereals; Yields; Models; Labor; Cost benefit analysis; Irrigation requirements; Investment; Groundwater management; Wells; Irrigation canals; Food security; Legal aspects; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91872
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Competition Effects of Supermarket Services AgEcon
Bonanno, Alessandro; Lopez, Rigoberto A..
This paper investigates the effect of in-store services on retail food prices, supermarket competition, and demand using fluid milk as a case study. It is shown that higher-service supermarkets charge higher milk prices essentially because of an increase in market power due to differentiation of service offering. Results show that different types of services impact milk prices differently, that upscale food-retailers face stronger competition in newer services, and that service competition results in a trade-off for the consumer between the attractiveness of the enhanced retail configuration and the increase in prices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Retailing; Pricing; Milk; Supermarkets; Agribusiness; L81; D40; L66.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9833
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Confirming the Price Effects of Private Labels Development AgEcon
Bontemps, Christophe; Orozco, Valerie; Requillart, Vincent.
We study the price response of national brands to the development of private labels. We use monthly data from a consumer survey reporting their purchases for 218 food products. We show that when private labels have a significant effect on national brands prices (144 cases over 218), that is positive (89%). We also show that the increase in the prices of national brand products is explained by a strategy of product differentiation. Finally, price reaction of national brands differs with the type of private labels they are facing. This paper confirms, on a larger number of products, previous empirical results.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Private labels; Pricing; Empirical models; Food products; L81; Q13; D40; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24735
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Direct Marketing of Specialty Crops by Producers: A Price-Comparison between Farmers' Markets and Grocery Stores AgEcon
Watson, Jonathan Adam; Gunderson, Michael A..
Oftentimes, prices at farmers' markets are much cheaper than those at grocery stores. However, little is known about the pricing relationship between farmers' markets and nearby grocery stores. Only by further analyzing this relationship can we gain a better understanding of these pricing trends. Although this trend is seemingly consistent, further research is necessary to test this assumption. Through the collection of prices at both locales, farmers' markets and grocery stores, producers as well as consumers will have access to current prices in both markets. In recent years, consumers are looking for local produce and are willing to pay for them as they are faced with increased grocery store prices, while producers are simultaneously seeking to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farmers markets; Pricing; Grocery stores; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Marketing.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56512
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Do consumers benefit from private label development? AgEcon
Sckokai, Paolo; Soregaroli, Claudio.
In the European food sector private labels represent a relevant and increasing share of total sales. Thus, national brands need to adapt their marketing strategies to deal with this growing competition. Focusing on price strategies, recent theoretical papers conclude that private label development should cause a decrease in the price of national brands, while some empirical studies do not support this prediction. The aim of this study is to explore this empirical relationship for the Italian food retail sector, which is of special research interest, since it has undergone a dramatic change in the last 10 years. Using retail sales data, we build time series of market shares of prices of national brands and private labels for different dairy products and we...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Private label; Pricing; Retail sector; Dairy products.; Consumer/Household Economics; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10068
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Do Sales Matter? An Exploration of Price Discounting in UK Food Retailing AgEcon
Lloyd, Tim A.; Morgan, C. Wyn; McCorriston, Steve; Zgovu, Evious.
This paper assesses the impact of promotional activity in the prices of food products on supermarket shelves. The study analyses a unique, high frequency panel of supermarket prices consisting of over 230,000 weekly price observations on around 500 products in 15 categories of food stocked by the UK’s seven largest retail chains. In all, 1,700 weekly time series are available at the barcode-specific level including branded and own label products. Prices are inclusive of promotions and thus allow the frequency, magnitude and duration of sales to be analysed in greater detail than has hitherto been possible with UK data. Using this price data, sales periods are indentified. Results show that around 8% of products are on sale at any one time, and that sales...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food retailing; Pricing; Sales; Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; Marketing; L16; L66; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51572
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Does anybody give a dam? The importance of public awareness for urban water conservation during drought AgEcon
Aisbett, Emma; Steinhauser, Ralf.
Demand management has been of interest in dry climates such as Australia, Spain and the Western United States for decades. It is particularly important to understand policy options during drought conditions, as drought periods have a disproportionate effect on supply infrastructure decisions. While water‐conservation campaigns aimed at inducing voluntary consumption reductions are almost universally employed by water managers in times of supply constraint, voluntary measures are generally dismissed in the economics literature as ineffective. We argue that the robust positive correlation between dam levels and consumption after controlling for policy changes suggests that there is a significant component of voluntary conservation. Furthermore, omitting dam...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Water use; Demand management; Pricing; Behavioral aspects; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107850
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Economics of Wastewater Treatment and Recycling: An Investigation of Conceptual Issues AgEcon
Devi, Mekala Gayathri; Davidson, Brian; Boland, Anne-Maree.
In the context of continuous droughts, the search for alternative water sources and increasing environmental restrictions on discharge of treated wastewater into natural water bodies, treated wastewater recycling offers a potential solution. In this paper the methods needed to assess the questions - to what extent treated wastewater can complement the existing water sources in different sectors and at what cost - are discussed? It was concluded that a comparative Benefit Cost Analysis of different combinations of uses and treatment levels would be a critical component in the development of a decision support tool which could be used by urban planners and water authorities. It was also found that community acceptance of recycled water, distribution of costs...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Wastewater; Recycling; Water quality; Pricing; Allocation; Urban design; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9461
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Elaboración de harina de pescado OceanDocs
Silva Ortiz, S..
Almost one third of the worlds annual fish catch is used for processing into fish meal and oil. Peru and Chile are the main fish meal producing countries and they lead its commerce. Fish meal can be produced from any fish or shellfish, but fish offal from the consumption industry and the called 'Industrial fish' are mainly used. Nearly all the fish meal is produced by the wet pressing method that consists of cooking and pressing the raw material and subsequent drying and milling. There are several technologies specially designed to modify certain variables of the process in order to optimize its productivity and the quality of the final product. Fish meal quality depends on the type and freshness of the raw material, the applied thermal treatment and...
Tipo: Theses and Dissertations Palavras-chave: Fish meal; Fish wastes; Fish meal processing; Stickwater; Proteins; Industrial production; Fishery industry; Pricing; Food technology; Pricing; Food technology; Fish meal; Fish wastes; Proteins; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_31882; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_3030; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2925; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_2933; Http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_6259.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/4068
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Farmer Cooperative Theory: Recent Developments AgEcon
Staatz, John M..
Since 1980, agricultural economists have begun to reexamine fundamental issues in the theory of agricultural cooperation. These include the basic nature of farmer cooperation; the theoretical benefits and limits of cooperative enterprise; and the implications of these for cooperative members, managers, and public policy. Analysts have extended previous models of the cooperative as a type of business firm in order to analyze the impact of large cooperatives on market performance. They have also developed new models to analyze how cooperatives attempt to serve the divergent interests of different participants, such as managers and different classes of farmers. This report describes and evaluates recent theoretical developments, outlines remaining areas of...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Cooperative theory; Public policy; Market coordination; Economic performance; Finance; Pricing; Member control; Agribusiness.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52017
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Feedlot and Packer Pricing Behavior: Implications for Competition Research AgEcon
Ward, Clement E..
Seldom are observed losing bids available in industry data. A special workshop of the Fed Cattle Market Simulator was designed to capture bids for each pen of cattle traded. Data enabled identifying buyer and seller behavior in the price discovery process, both before and after imposed mergers of the two largest and two smallest packer teams. Highest losing bids also were estimated with packer bid functions and compared with observed highest losing bids. An estimated price discovery model indicated market structure as measured by number of buyers was more important than simply the number of bids or size of transactions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Buyer behavior; Competition; Fed cattle; Marketing; Pricing; Seller behavior; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7365
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Fiddling while carbon burns: why climate policy needs pervasive emission pricing as well as technology promotion AgEcon
Pezzey, John C.V.; Jotzo, Frank; Quiggin, John C..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Asia–Pacific Partnership; Climate policy; Pricing; Technology; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117740
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Fishing and poverty levels around Lake Victoria (Kenya) OceanDocs
Abila, R.O.; Omwega, R.N.; Lwenya, C..
Fishing is known to be one of the oldest occupations of mankind and in Lake Victoria (Kenya); it has been largely practiced at artisanal levels. Despite this, poverty amongst the fisher folk remains high. Why the fisher folk remain in perpetual poverty was the key research question for this study. Sampling was conducted on 12 landing beaches between June and August 2004. Data was obtained using survey questionnaires; personal interviews were made using open-ended questions and beach observations. Results from this study indicates that 179 fishers sampled earned an average income of Ksh. 107,063 each in a year with modal income of Ksh. 57,600 while in a day they earned an average income of Ksh. 518 each with modal income of Ksh. 200. Fishers perceived that...
Tipo: Proceedings Paper Palavras-chave: Fishing; Artisanal fishing; Lake fisheries; Socioeconomic aspects; Fishery economics; Public health; Malaria; Fishery management; Pricing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1834/1495
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Food security and sustainable agriculture in India: The water management challenge AgEcon
Kumar, M. Dinesh.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable agriculture; Food security; Water management; Water scarcity; Groundwater depletion; Waterlogging; Salinity; Soil degradation; Water use efficiency; Productivity; Equity; Irrigation water; Pricing; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92666
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