Sabiia Seb
PortuguêsEspañolEnglish
Embrapa
        Busca avançada

Botão Atualizar


Botão Atualizar

Ordenar por: 

RelevânciaAutorTítuloAnoImprime registros no formato resumido
Registros recuperados: 19
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Agricultural Contracting Update, 2005 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
More than half of all transactions for U.S. agricultural products are still conducted through spot market exchanges, in which commodities are bought and sold in open market transactions for immediate delivery. But a growing share of U.S. farm production is produced and sold under agricultural contracts. Such contracts between farmers and their buyers are reached prior to harvest (or before the completion stage for livestock) and govern the terms under which products are transferred from the farm. The shift of production to contracting coincides with shifts of production to larger farms. Contracts are far more likely to be used on large farms than on small ones. Marketing and production contracts covered 41 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Marketing contracts; Farm structure; Farm size; Contracting; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; ARMS; Risk analysis; Marketing; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58639
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2003 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2003, up from 36 percent in 2001 and a substantial increase over estimated values of 28 percent for 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. Large farms are far more likely to contract than small farms; in fact, contracts cover over half of the value of production from farms with at least $1 million in sales. Although use of both production and marketing contracts has grown over time, growth is more rapid for production contracts, which are largely used for livestock.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Contracts; Contracting; Marketing contracts; Production contracts; Vertical integration; Vertical coordination; Market structure; Risk analysis; Price signals; Industrial Organization; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33903
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2008 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2008, up from 36 percent in 2001, and a substantial increase over 28 percent in 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. However, aggregate contract use has stabilized in recent years and no longer suggests a strong trend. Contracts between farmers and their buyers are reached prior to harvest (or before the completion stage for livestock)and govern the terms under which products are transferred from the farm. Contracts are far more likely to be used on large farms than on small farms, and they form one element in a package of risk management tools available to farmers. Production contracts are used widely in livestock production, while marketing contracts are...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Marketing contracts; Farm structure; Farm size; Farm income; Contracting; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; ARMS; Risk analysis; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101279
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Agricultural Contracts and Alternative Marketing Options: A Matching Analysis AgEcon
Katchova, Ani L..
The increasing use of agricultural contracts and processor concentration raises concerns that processors may offer lower contract prices in absence of local competition. This study examines the price competitiveness of marketing and production contracts depending on the availability of alternative marketing options. A propensity score matching method is used to compare prices using contract data from a farm-level national survey. The results show that the absence of other contractors or spot markets in producers’ areas does not lead to statistically significant price differences in agricultural contracts for most commodities, providing evidence that most agricultural processors do not exercise market power by reducing prices when other local buyers are not...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural prices; Alternative marketing options; Local competition; Marketing contracts; Production contracts; Propensity score matching; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Financial Economics; Marketing; Q13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90672
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Agricultural Contracts and Alternative Marketing Options: A Matching Analysis AgEcon
Katchova, Ani L..
The increasing use of agricultural contracts and processor concentration raises concerns that processors may offer lower contract prices in absence of competition from other local contractors and spot markets. This study examines the price competitiveness of marketing and production contracts depending on the availability of alternative marketing options. A propensity score matching method is used to compare prices using contract data from a farm-level national survey. The results show that the absence of other contractors or spot markets in producers’ areas does not lead to significant price differences in agricultural contracts for most commodities, providing evidence that most agricultural processors do not exercise market power by reducing prices...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Alternative marketing options; Local competition; Marketing contracts; Production contracts; Agricultural prices; Propensity score matching; Agribusiness; Marketing.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6336
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Contract and Exit Decisions in Finisher Hog Production AgEcon
Dong, Fengxia; Hennessy, David A.; Jensen, Helen H..
Finisher hog production in North America has seen a shift toward larger production units and contract-organized production since around 1990. Given the efficiency gains and conversion costs associated with contract production, growers may have to choose between long-term commitment through investments and atrophy with intent to exit in the intermediate term. A model is developed to show that growers with any of three efficiency attributes (lower innate hazard of exit, variable costs, or fixed contract adoption costs) are not only more likely to contract but will also produce more and expend more on lowering business survival risks. Using the 2004 U.S. Agricultural Resource Management Survey for hogs, a recursive bivariate probit model is estimated in which...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural industrialization; Hog production; Occupation choice; Production contracts; Recursive bivariate probit; Relationship-specific investments; Sector dynamics..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37331
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Contract and Exit Decisions in Finisher Hog Production AgEcon
Dong, Fengxia; Hennessy, David A.; Jensen, Helen H..
Finisher hog production in North America has seen a shift toward larger production units and contract-organized production since circa 1990. Given the efficiency gains and conversion costs associated with contract production, growers may have to choose between long term commitment through investments and atrophy with intent to exit in the intermediate term. A model is developed to show that growers with any of three efficiency attributes (lower innate hazard of exit, variable costs, or fixed contract adoption costs) are not only more likely to contract but will also produce more and expend more on lowering business survival risks. Using the 2004 U.S. Agricultural Resource Management Survey for hogs, a recursive bivariate probit model is estimated in which...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural industrialization; Hog production; Occupation choice; Production contracts; Recursive bivariate probit; Relationship-specific investments; Sector dynamics.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Production Economics; D23; Q12; J26; J43..
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49343
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Do Production Contracts Raise Farm Productivity? An Instrumental Variables Approach AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; McBride, William D..
Estimating how the use of production contracts affects farm productivity is difficult when unobservable factors are correlated with both the decision to contract and productivity. To account for potential selection bias, this study uses the local availability of production contracts as an instrument for whether a farm uses a contract in order to estimate the impact of contract use on total factor productivity. Results indicate that use of a production contract is associated with a large increase in productivity for feeder-to-finish hog farms in the United States. The instrumental variable method makes it credible to assert that the observed association is a causal relationship rather than simply a correlation.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Productivity; Production contracts; Instrumental variables; Sample selection; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45659
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Hog Producers' Risk Management Attitudes and Desire for Additional Risk Management Education AgEcon
Patrick, George F.; Peiter, Amy J.; Knight, Thomas O.; Coble, Keith H.; Baquet, Alan E..
Hog producers in Indiana and Nebraska were surveyed about sources of risk, effectiveness of risk management strategies, and prior participation in and desire for additional risk management education. Ownership of hogs by the producer, size of the operation, and age did have significant effects on ratings of both sources of risk and effectiveness of risk management strategies. Probit analysis found age, prior attendance, knowledge and prior use of the tool, level of integration, and concern about price and performance risk have significant effects on interest in further education about production contracts, futures and options, packer marketing contracts, and financial management.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Financial management; Futures and options; Packer marketing contracts; Production contracts; Risk attitudes; Risk management; D81; D83; Q12; Q16.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37110
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Learning by Doing, Risk Aversion and Use of Risk Management Strategies AgEcon
Uematsu, Hiroki; Ashok, Mishra K..
Using a national survey, double hurdle models are estimated to examine the impact of farmers’ risk attitude on use of production and marketing contracts. Risk averse farmers are less likely to use contracts but risk attitude does not have any significant impact on the intensity at which contracts are adopted.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk attitude; Double hurdle model; Production contracts; Marketing contracts; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Risk and Uncertainty; Q10; Q13; D81.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103851
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Local Monopsony Power in the Market for Broilers - Evidence from a Farm Survey AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; MacDonald, James M..
The exercise of monopsony power by broiler processing firms is plausible because production occurs within localized complexes, which limits the number of integrators with whom growers can contract. In addition, growers face distinct hold-up risks as broiler production requires a substantial investment in specific assets and most production contracts do not involve long-term purchasing commitments by integrators. This paper provides an initial exploration of the links between the local concentration of broiler integrators and grower compensation under production contracts using data from the 2006 broiler version of USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey. Results of this preliminary study, which accounts for characteristics of the operation and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poultry; Broilers; Market power; Monopsony; Production contracts; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6073
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Managing Risk in Farming: Concepts, Research, and Analysis AgEcon
Harwood, Joy L.; Heifner, Richard G.; Coble, Keith H.; Perry, Janet E.; Somwaru, Agapi.
The risks confronted by grain and cotton farmers are of particular interest, given the changing role of the Government after passage of the 1996 Farm Act. With the shift toward less government intervention in the post-1996 Farm Act environment, a more sophisticated understanding of risk and risk management is important to help producers make better decisions in risky situations and to assist policymakers in assessing the effectiveness of different types of risk protection tools. In response, this report provides a rigorous, yet accessible, description of risk and risk management tools and strategies at the farm level. It also provides never-before-published data on farmers' assessments of the risks they face, their use of alternative risk management...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Diversification; Futures contracts; Leasing; Leveraging; Liquidity; Livestock insurance; Marketing contracts; Options contracts; Production contracts; Revenue insurance; Risk; Vertical integration; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34081
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Production Contracts and Farm Business Growth and Survival AgEcon
Key, Nigel D..
In recent decades there has been a substantial increase in the scale of production and the use of production contracts in the hog sector. This paper explores empirically whether these two phenomena are related by examining whether the use of production contracts has allowed finish hog operations to expand in scale. The study takes advantage of recently collected information from the Census of Agriculture that permits a comparisons of individual independent and contract hog producers over time. The study first examines whether operations that used a contract grew at a faster rate or had lower exit rates over the subsequent five-year period than did operations that produced independently, controlling for observable factors. The study then examines how the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Farm structure; Farm business exit rate; Instrumental variables; Hogs; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Production Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61022
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
PRODUCTION CONTRACTS AND FARM PRODUCTIVITY: EXAMINING THE LINK USING INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; McBride, William D..
Estimating how production contracts affect farm productivity is difficult because the decision to use a contract is endogenous to other decisions affecting productivity. This study uses the local availability of production contracts as an instrument for whether a farm uses a contract in order to estimate the impact of contract use on total factor productivity. Results indicate that use of a production contract is associated with a large increase in productivity for feeder-to-finish hog farms in the U.S. The instrumental variable method makes it credible to assert that the observed association is a causal relationship rather than simply a correlation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity; Production contracts; Instrumental variables; Sample selection; Farm Management; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9716
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Production Contracts and the Spot Market Price of Hogs AgEcon
Key, Nigel D..
The increasing use of production contracts in the hog sector has reduced the number of spot market transactions, raised concerns about price manipulation and helped to spur legislation requiring price reporting by packers. Using data from the 2002 and 2007 Censuses of Agriculture, this study looks for evidence of market manipulation by examining whether the local prevalence of contracting affects the average price received by independent producers. The empirical approach uses a fixed-effects model to examine whether the change in the prevalence of contracting is correlated with the change in the spot market price received by individual farmers. This approach controls for unobservable time-invariant individual and county characteristics, such as product...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Alternative marketing arrangements; Market power; Spot market price; Hogs; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Production Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61020
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
PRODUCTION CONTRACTS, RISK SHIFTING, AND RELATIVE PERFORMANCE PAYMENTS IN THE PORK INDUSTRY AgEcon
Martin, Laura L..
Actual performance records of production contract farmers are used to assess the extent to which contract production reduces the risk borne by pork producers. Comparisons of contracting relative to independent market production reveal that farmers who enter into production contracts based on absolute performance measures reduce risks associated with variable income. Weak evidence is found that relative performance contracts, similar to those used in the broiler chicken industry, further reduce income variability. The effectiveness of such relative performance contracts will rely on several factors; among these are increased contract production and a more uniform pork production and processing system.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Absolute performance payment; Income variability; Pork industry; Production contracts; Relative performance payment; Risk shifting; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15048
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
The Changing Economics of U.S. Hog Production AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; McBride, William D..
The increasing size and specialization of hog operations reflect structural change in U.S. swine production during the past 15 years. The number of farms with hogs has declined by over 70 percent, as hog enterprises have grown larger. Large operations that specialize in a single phase of production have replaced farrow-to-finish operations that performed all phases of production. The use of production contracts has increased. Operations producing under contract are larger than independent operations and are more likely to specialize in a single phase of production. These structural changes have coincided with substantial gains in efficiency for hog farms and lower production costs. Most of these productivity gains are attributable to increases in the scale...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Hogs; Farm productivity; Production contracts; Pork prices; Scale of production; Farm structure; Total factor productivity; Farm Management; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Livestock Production/Industries; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6389
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
The Economic Organization of U.S. Broiler Production AgEcon
MacDonald, James M..
Broiler production in the United States is coordinated almost entirely through systems of production contracts, in which a grower’s compensation is based, in part, on how the grower’s performance compares with that of other growers. The industry is undergoing a gradual structural change as production shifts to larger broiler enterprises that provide larger shares of an operator’s household income. Larger enterprises require substantially larger investments in broiler housing, and new or retrofitted houses are also an important source of productivity growth in the industry. This report, based on a large and representative survey of broiler operations, describes the industry’s organization, housing features, contract design, fees and enterprise cost...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Broilers; Chickens; Production contracts; Broiler grower financial performance; Chicken housing; Chicken litter; Poultry; Farm Management; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58627
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
What Drives How Much Crop Producers Sell in Spot, Forward, and Futures Markets? AgEcon
Franken, Jason R.V.; Pennings, Joost M.E..
Crop producers have numerous marketing and risk management tools available. Research relating producers’ risk attitudes to their use of these tools has produced mixed results, and most studies focus on individual tools to the neglect of complementarities among them. Hence, little is known about the proportion in which these tools are used, e.g., the percentage of the crop that is forward sold as opposed to hedged. This study identifies some factors, including risk attitude, that impact the proportion of corn producers’ sales through spot markets, futures and options, and forward and production contracts using complementary survey and accounting data.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk behavior; Risk attitude; Futures and options; Forward contracts; Production contracts; Marketing; Risk and Uncertainty; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49237
Registros recuperados: 19
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
 

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa
Todos os direitos reservados, conforme Lei n° 9.610
Política de Privacidade
Área restrita

Embrapa
Parque Estação Biológica - PqEB s/n°
Brasília, DF - Brasil - CEP 70770-901
Fone: (61) 3448-4433 - Fax: (61) 3448-4890 / 3448-4891 SAC: https://www.embrapa.br/fale-conosco

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional