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Registros recuperados: 58
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2C or Not 2C? AgEcon
Guivarch, Celine; Hallegatte, Stephane.
Political attention has increasingly focused on limiting warming to 2°C. However, to date the only mitigation commitments accompanying this target are the so-called Copenhagen pledges, and these pledges appear to be inconsistent with the 2°C objective. Diverging opinions on whether this inconsistency can or should be resolved have been expressed. This paper clarifies the alternative assumptions underlying these diverging view points and explicits their implications. It first gives simple visualizations of the challenge posed by the 2°C target. It then proposes a “decision tree”, linking different beliefs on climate change, the achievability of different policies, and current international policy dynamics to various options to move forward on climate change.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Feasibility of 2°C Target; Climate Change Negotiations; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120019
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A Case Study of an NGOs Ecotourism Efforts: Findings Based on a Survey of Visitors to its Tropical Nature Reserve AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article outlines the efforts of a small NGO, the Mareeba Wetland Foundation, to conserve nature and conduct tourism at its Mareeba Tropical Savanna Wetland Reserve in northern Queensland. It provides background about the establishment of the reserve and its nature and draws on the results from a survey of visitors to this reserve. It provides a socio-economic profile of visitors, their frequency of visits to it and their knowledge of it prior to visiting. This knowledge is found, on the whole, to be poor. The way in which visitors decided to visit the reserve is also considered as are indicators of the economic surplus obtained from visits. Because for most visitors their visit was an experiential good, doubts are raised about the traditional method...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation NGOs; Consumers’ surplus; Ecotourism; Experiential goods; Mareeba Tropical Savanna and Wetland Reserve; Mareeba Wetlands Foundation; National parks; Public economics; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; Q2; Q5; L83; H30.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93403
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Abatement Cost Uncertainty and Policy Instrument Selection under a Stringent Climate Policy. A Dynamic Analysis AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Golub, Alexander; Markandya, Anil; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo.
This paper investigates the relative economic and environmental outcomes of price versus quantity mechanisms to control GHG emissions when abatement costs are uncertain. In particular, we evaluate the impacts on policy costs, CO2 emissions and energy R&D for a stringent mitigation target of 550 ppmv CO2 equivalent (i.e. 450 for CO2 only) concentrations. The analysis is performed in an optimal growth framework via Monte Carlo simulations of the integrated assessment model WITCH (World Induced Technical Change Hybrid). Results indicate that the price instrument stochastically dominates the quantity instrument when a stringent stabilization policy is in place.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Abatement Costs; Climate Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; H2; C6; Q5.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6383
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Abatement Technology and the Environment-Growth Nexus with Education AgEcon
Pautrel, Xavier.
This article challenges the conventional result that a tighter environmental tax has no long-run effect on human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final output production. It demonstrates that the technology used in the abatement sector determines the existence and the direction of the growth-effect. A tighter environmental tax rises (respectively reduces) human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final production, if the abatement sector is relatively more intensive in human (resp. physical) capital than final sector. That result always holds for finite lifetime but for infinite lifetime it only holds when labor supply is endogenous. The transitional impact of a tighter environmental policy is also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Environment; Overlapping Generations; Human Capital; Abatement; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q5; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101379
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Análisis de la metodología de los puntos de corte para la identificación de las respuestas “inconsistentes” en los modelos de elección discreta AgEcon
Colombo, Sergio; Hanley, Nick; Bush, Glenn.
En el método del experimento de elección se supone que el entrevistado es perfectamente racional, está informado y maximiza su utilidad siguiendo una regla de elección perfectamente compensatoria. Sin embargo, es posible que los individuos empleen otras reglas de decisión en sus elecciones para simplificar el esfuerzo cognitivo del ejercicio propuesto. En este trabajo se emplea la metodología de los valores de corte para incorporar en el experimento de elección reglas de decisión no compensatorias, y se amplia esta metodología para identificar respuestas inconsistentes. Los resultados indican que el empleo de los valores de corte mejora la capacidad descriptiva de los modelos de elección, y puede ser muy útil para la identificación de inconsistencias en la...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Experimento de elección; Inconsistencias en la elección; Puntos de corte.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q5; D01.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57278
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BEHAVIOURS OF CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS. Analysis based on New (and not so new) Institutional Economics AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article draws mostly (but not entirely) on new institutional economics to consider the likely behaviours of non-government conservation organizations and the implications of these behaviours for biodiversity conservation. It considers how institutional factors may result in behaviour of conservation NGOs diverging from their objectives, including their support for biodiversity conservation; examines aspects of rent capture and conservation alliances; specifies social factors that may restrict the diversity of species supported by NGOs for conservation; considers bounded rationality in relation to the operation of conservation NGOs; and using game theory, shows how competition between NGOs for funding can result in economic inefficiencies and narrow...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Australia; Biodiversity conservation; Bounded rationality; Civil society; Common Agricultural Policy; European Union; Landcare; Mixed goods; New institutional economics; New Zealand; NGOs; Principal-and-agent problem; Political acceptability; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; Q00; Q2; Q5; Q57; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6185
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Bid Design and its Influence on the Stated Willingness to Pay in a Contingent Valuation Study AgEcon
Carmona-Torres, Carmen; Calatrava-Requena, Javier.
The CV method estimate the monetary value that specific changes in the provision of goods and services represent for society, which is asked for their Willingness To Pay (WTP) for it, according to their budget and individual preferences, in a survey. The applications of CV are a source of information to important public decision-making. Therefore, it seems to be a desirable objective for a CV study to strive to detect and reduce, as far as possible, the bias affecting the elicited values. In the present work, the starting point bias in an application to the case study of the conservation of the Iberian Lynx in Spain is analyzed. This bias is caused by the potential influence of the bid values offered to the interviewees on their stated preferences. Three...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Starting point bias; Bid design; Dichotomous choice; Openended question; Iberian Lynx; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; H4; Q2; Q5; Q57.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25367
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Bush Meets Hotelling: Effects of Improved Renewable Energy Technology on Greenhouse Gas Emissions AgEcon
Hoel, Michael.
Replaced with revised version of paper 02/20/09.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Exhaustible Resources; Renewable Energy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q30; Q42; Q5.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47175
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Canada's Domestic Carbon Emission and Trading Institution: Rules, Workability, and the Role of Offsets AgEcon
Thomassin, Paul J..
When Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol in December 2002, the country committed to decrease its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 6% below its 1990 level. It is estimated that this commitment will require Canada to decrease emissions by 270 megatonnes (Mt) per year during the first commitment period 2008 to 2012. Carbon emission trading institutions have been identified, both internationally and domestically, as being a cost effective mechanism for supplying carbon emission reductions. The paper investigates two alternative mechanisms that can be used to allocate carbon and the potential development of the carbon offset credit market. The offset market could be important for the agriculture and forestry sectors, since these sectors have the potential to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; K2; Q13; Q1; Q5; Q58.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25543
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Carbon Emissions, Renewable Electricity and Profits: Comparing Alternative Policies to Promote Anaerobic Digesters on Dairies AgEcon
Key, Nigel D.; Sneeringer, Stacy E..
Biogas recovery systems that use methane from manure to generate electricity have not been widely adopted in U.S. mainly because the costs of constructing and maintaining these systems have exceeded the value of the benefits provided. Climate change mitigation and renewable energy policies could increase profits for the operators of such systems thereby making digester adoption more widespread. For the U.S. Dairy sector, we examine digester adoption rates, emissions reductions, net returns, electricity generation, and program costs under different policy scenarios. We find that 3% or fewer dairies would need to adopt digesters to meet the policy goals of reducing 25% of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure or generating one million megawatt hours...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Anaerobic digester; Methane; Dairy; Renewable electricity; Subsidy; Carbon offsets; Climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries; Q5.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103440
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Challenges and Opportunities for Water of the Rio Grande AgEcon
Rister, M. Edward; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M..
The Rio Grande has headwaters in Colorado, flows through New Mexico, and serves as the United States.–Mexico border in Texas, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. Snow melt in Colorado and northern New Mexico constitutes the water river supply for New Mexico and the El Paso region, whereas summer monsoonal flow from the Rio Conchos in Mexico and tributaries, including the Pecos River, provides the Rio Grande flow for southern Texas. The region is mostly semiarid with frequent long-term drought periods but is also characterized by a substantial irrigated agriculture sector and a rapidly growing population. International treaties and interstate compacts provide the rules for allocation of Rio Grande waters between the United States and Mexico and among...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Agricultural economics; Conservation; Irrigation; Natural resources; Renewable resources; Resources; Water; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q5; Q15; Q20; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113529
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Changing the Allocation Rules in the EU ETS: Impact on Competitiveness and Economic Efficiency AgEcon
Demailly, Damien; Quirion, Philippe.
We assess five proposals for the future of the EU greenhouse gas Emission Trading Scheme (ETS): pure grandfathering allocation of emission allowances (GF), output-based allocation (OB), auctioning (AU), auctioning with border adjustments (AU-BA), and finally output-based allocation in sectors exposed to international competition combined with auctioning in electricity generation (OB-AU). We look at the impact on production, trade, CO2 leakage and welfare. We use a partial equilibrium model of the EU 27 featuring three sectors covered by the EU ETS – cement, steel and electricity – plus the aluminium sector, which is indirectly impacted through a rise in electricity price. The leakage ratio, i.e. the increase in emissions abroad over the decrease in EU...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission Trading; Allowance Allocation; Leakage; Spillover; Climate Policy; Kyoto Protocol; Border Adjustment; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46623
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Civil Liability, Safety and Nuclear Parks: Is Concentrated Management Better? AgEcon
Mondello, Gerard.
Ultra-hazardous risky activities as nuclear industry cannot be considered as “normal industries” i.e. industries without abnormal environmental and health risks. Consequently, the industrial organization of these specific sectors is of the utmost importance. This paper aims at studying this question. We focus on the associated costs of prevention and civil liability. We analyze how civil liability rules may contribute to extend or to discourage the expansion of nuclear parks to new operators. The paper compares the consequences of extending the management of nuclear stations to several independent operators. This question can apply to the unification process of the European electricity market in which several public and private nuclear power operators are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strict Liability; Electric Energy; Nuclear Plants; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q5; Q58; Q53; K23; L13; L52; L94.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102571
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Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies In Italy. An Economic Assessment AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; Sgobbi, Alessandra.
In this paper, the economic value of the impacts of climate change is assessed for different Italian economic sectors and regions. Sectoral and regional impacts are then aggregated to provide a macroeconomic estimate of variations in GDP induced by climate change in the next decades. Autonomous adaptation induced by changes in relative prices and in stocks of natural and economic resources is fully taken into account. The model also considers international trade effects. Results show that in Italy aggregate GDP losses induced by climate change are likely to be small. However, some economic sectors (e.g. tourism) and the alpine regions will suffer significant economic damages.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Impacts; Climate Change; Adaptation; GDP Losses; Tourism; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q43; Q5; R13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6373
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Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean: Legal and Economic Perspectives AgEcon
Markandya, Anil; Arnold, S.; Cassinelli, Mariaester; Taylor, Tim J..
This paper examines existing measures taken to protect the coastal zones of the Mediterranean Sea and assesses their success. A summary of the main pressures facing these zones is given, followed by an analysis of the legislation covering coastal zone development in ten countries: Algeria, Croatia, Egypt, France, Israel, Italy, Malta, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey. We find that not all of these states have legislation specifically covering coastal zones, but there is concern in all areas that the legislation is not working, We also look at the costs and benefits of controlling coastal development. Firstly, a literature review of valuation studies identifies a range of values placed on developed and undeveloped coastline for both users and local property...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Coastal Zone Management; Legislation; Littoral; Mediterranean; Recreation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54290
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Community-based Adaptation: Lessons from the Development Marketplace 2009 on Adaptation to Climate Change AgEcon
Heltberg, Rasmus; Prabhu, Radhika; Gitay, Habiba.
The Development Marketplace 2009 focused on adaptation to climate change. This paper identifies lessons from the Marketplace and assesses their implications for adaptation support. Our findings are based on: statistical tabulation of all proposals; in-depth qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 346 semi-finalists; and interviews with finalists and assessors. Proposals were fuelled by deep concerns that ongoing climate change and its impacts undermine development and exacerbate poverty, migration and food insecurity. Proposals addressed both local poverty and climate change challenges, and offered a wide range of approaches to render local development more resilient to current climate variability. Therefore, support to community-based adaptation...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community-based Adaptation; Development Marketplace; Adaptation; Climate Change; Environmental Economics and Policy; O1; Q5.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92711
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Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Eco-Certified Wood Products AgEcon
Jensen, Kimberly L.; Jakus, Paul M.; English, Burton C.; Menard, R. Jamey.
We use Kristrom’s simple spike model to assess the factors influencing consumers’ willingness to pay a premium for a variety of certified wood products. A survey of over 1,600 Pennsylvania and Tennessee residents found that approximately 35% were willing to pay some positive “premium” for environmentally certified wood products. For three types of weed products (a $28.80 shelf, a $199 chair, and a $799 table), we find the estimated market premiums to be $3.74, $15.94, and $45.07, respectively.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Eco-certification; Eco-labeling; Price premium; Spike models; Q5; Q23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43452
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Cooperation, Spatial-Dynamic Externalities, and Invasive Species Management AgEcon
Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S.; Wilen, James E..
Most terrestrial biological invasions occur in landscapes comprising numerous, independently managed properties. Thus, control of invasion spread generally depends on the choices of many managers, each deciding the extent to control invasions on their property. Here we develop a spatially-explicit, integrated model of invasion spread and human behavior to examine how people’s control choices under laissez-faire affect patterns of invasion spread and the total costs and damages imposed by an invader. We evaluate how characteristics of the bioeconomic and social system, including the extent of cooperation among managers, affect the divergence between socially optimal and private control efforts. We find that system-wide invasion externalities generally...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biological invasions; Cross-boundary; Coordination; Spatial-dynamic processes; Spatial spread; Eradication; Containment; Negotiation; Optimal control; Cooperative management; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Public Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q; Q1; Q2; Q5; H4.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61371
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Core Issues in the Economics of Biodiversity Conservation AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Critically reviews the following core issues in the economics of biodiversity conservation: reliance on the stated preferences of individuals as a guide to biodiversity conservation, the relevance of the phylogenetic similarity principle (and other attributes of organisms) for the survival of species; the implications of the Noah’s ark problem for selecting features of biodiversity to be saved and the difficulties raised by criteria based on safe minimum populations of species or on minimum environmental standards; the extent to which the precautionary principle can be rationally used to support the conservation of biodiversity; the impact of market extensions and globalization, as well as market and other institutional failures, on biodiversity loss; the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity conservation; Economic valuation; Intergenerational equity; Phylogenetic similarity principle; Precautionary principle; Sustainable development.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5; Q51; Q56; Q57.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92772
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Counterfactual approach for assessing agri-environmental policy: The case of the Finnish water protection policy AgEcon
Lankoski, Jussi E.; Ollikainen, Markku.
This paper applies counterfactual approach to assess the impacts of agri-environmental programs. Counterfactual analysis evaluates policies answering questions: what would have happened if...? We develop a theoretical framework for counterfactual analysis based on the inter-linkages between the behaviour of agents and the response of environmental systems to the economic decisions. We apply our model to assess the performance of the Finnish Agri- Environmental Programme to reduce agricultural nutrient runoff to the Baltic Sea. Counterfactual analysis allows us to determine both the unit effectiveness of the measures included in the Programme and its preventive impact. We demonstrate that the Finnish Agri- Environmental Programme does not achieve its goals,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental policy evaluation; Counterfactual analysis; Nutrient runoff; The Baltic Sea; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q5; H23; H43.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98993
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