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Registros recuperados: 62
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A Good Opening: The Key to Make the Most of Unilateral Climate Action AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; De Cian, Enrica.
In this paper we argue that when a subgroup of countries cooperate on emission reduction, the optimal response of non-signatory countries reflects the interaction between three potentially opposing factors, the incentive to free-ride on the benefits of cooperation, the incentive to expand the demand of fossil fuels, and the incentive to adopt cleaner technologies introduced by the coalition. Using an Integrated Assessment Model with a game theoretic structure we find that cost-benefit considerations would lead OECD countries to undertake a moderate, but increasing abatement effort (in line with the pledges subscribed in Copenhagen). Even if emission reductions are moderate, OECD countries find it optimal to allocate part of their resources to energy...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Technology Spillovers; Climate Change; Partial Cooperation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q55; C72.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119104
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Adoption of Clean Leather-Tanning Technologies in Mexico AgEcon
Blackman, Allen.
In many developing countries, a host of financial, institutional, and political factors hamstring conventional environmental regulation. Given these constraints, a promising strategy for controlling pollution is to promote the voluntary adoption of clean technologies. Although this strategy has received considerable attention in policy circles, empirical research on the adoption of clean technologies in developing countries is limited. This paper presents historical background and original survey data on the adoption of five clean tanning technologies by a sample of 137 leather tanneries in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico, a city where tanneries have serious environmental impacts and conventional environmental regulation has repeatedly failed to mitigate the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Clean technology; Leather tanning; Developing country; Mexico; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q53; Q55; Q56; 013; 033.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10881
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Adoption of Pollution Prevention: The Role of Information Spillover, Mandatory Regulation, and Voluntary Program Participation AgEcon
Bi, Xiang; Deltas, George; Khanna, Madhu.
Interest in promoting Pollution Prevention (P2) has been increasing since 1991, following the passage of the Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) of 1990. As part of the PPA, facilities that are subject to the Toxics Releases Inventory (TRI) are required to disclose the number of incremental P2 activities for each listed chemicals from 1991 onward. Though the disclosure is required by the PPA, the adoption of P2 remains a voluntary initiative by firms. To promote P2 ethic among firms, the U.S.EPA has established several voluntary programs and P2 information clearinghouse. P2 technologies were more likely to be facility- and operation- specific and involved considerable information costs and uncertainty. Firms might learn about P2 technologies from their peers...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pollution prevention; Toxics Release Inventory (TRI); Voluntary 33/50 program; Information spillover; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q55; C21; L51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103741
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Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Varietal Differences in Pistachio Production in Iran Using a Meta-Frontier Analysis AgEcon
Boshrabadi, Hossain Mehrabi; Villano, Renato A.; Fleming, Euan M..
This paper reports on an analysis of technical efficiency and varietal differences in pistachio production in Iran. A random sample of 475 farmers was selected from the province of Kerman in 2003 and 2004. In this study, farmers are classified into three groups according to the variety of tree they planted. The three main varieties of pistachio trees planted are Kalleh- Ghuchi, Fandoghi and Akbari. The technical efficiency indices are computed using three approaches. First, a standard stochastic production frontier was employed using pooled data. Secondly, stochastic frontier production functions were estimated for each variety (separately). Lastly, the meta-frontier approach was used because production varieties and technologies are expected to differ...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pistachio; Stochastic meta-frontier; Production function; Technical efficiency; Iranian agriculture; Productivity Analysis; C21; Q12; Q16; Q55; R58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10425
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Arroz Transgénico en Uruguay: un modelo de simulación para estimar los beneficios económicos potenciales. AgEcon
Hareau, Guy Gaston; Mills, Bradford F.; Norton, George W..
economic surplus, imperfect markets, adoption rate, GMO, monopoly power.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: En pequeños países en desarrollo como Uruguay; Los beneficios económicos potenciales que se obtendrían por la adopción de nuevas tecnologías agrícolas basadas en biotecnología están limitados por una base productiva reducida. En este trabajo se evalúa ex - ante el impacto económico de una variedad de arroz transgénico resistente a herbicidas donde el poder de mercado de la multinacional propietaria de la variedad afecta las tasas de adopción a través del margen monopólico en el precio de la semilla. Se emplean métodos de simulación estocástica para estudiar la variación de los resultados a cambios en los parámetros tecnológicos y en las tasas de adopción. La media del excedente económico de los productores es de US$1; 82 millones; Mientras que la ganancia monopólica es de US$0; 55 millones. Estos beneficios económicos relativamente escasos sugieren que; Sin estrategias de política pública que incrementen los beneficios potenciales y reduzcan los costos de investigación; Las multinacionales no invertirían recursos significativos en el desarrollo de una variedad transgénica adaptada a las condiciones locales. Las alianzas con instituciones nacionales y el acceso a mercados regionales ampliados también contribuyen a incrementar los incentivos privados en I&D.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C14; E17; Q16; Q18; Q55.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121683
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At Home and Abroad: An Empirical Analysis of Innovation and Diffusion in Energy-Efficient Technologies AgEcon
Verdolini, Elena; Galeotti, Marzio.
This paper contributes to the induced innovation literature by extending the analysis of supply and demand determinants of innovation in energy-efficient technologies to account for international knowledge flows and spillovers. In the first part of the paper we select a sample of 38 innovating countries and we study how knowledge related to energy-efficient technologies flows across geographical and technological space. We demonstrate that higher geographical and technological distances are associated with a lower probability of knowledge flow. In the second part of the paper, we use our previous estimates to construct stocks of internal and external knowledge for a panel of 17 countries and present an econometric analysis of the supply and demand...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Technology Diffusion; Knowledge Spillovers; Energy-Efficient Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O33; Q55; C13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56216
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Benefit-costs analysis of climate-related agricultural investments in Africa: a case study AgEcon
Branca, Giacomo; Lipper, Leslie; Sorrentino, Alessandro.
Paper removed at the request of the first (corresponding) author.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; Adaptation; Mitigation; Benefit-cost analysis; Externalities; Environmental Economics and Policy; D61; D62; H54; O13; Q55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124109
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Brown Sunsets and Green Dawns in the Industrial Sector: Environmental Innovations, Firm Behavior and the European Emission Trading AgEcon
Borghesi, Simone; Cainelli, Giulio; Mazzanti, Massimiliano.
We study the driving forces behind the adoption of environmental innovations (EI) in the Italian industry over 2006-2008 through analyses of the new wave of Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data that covered for the first time environmental innovation adoptions. We investigate whether the first phase of EU ETS has exerted some effects on environmental innovations by using a very large sample of italian manufcturing firms. Estimates show that external forces and complementarity with other management practices are particularly relevant to increase the adoption of relatively new and radical technologies: relationships with other firms and institutions, local public funding, group membership are the key factors. The role of ETS on EI seems instead to be weak:...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Innovation; Industrial Sectors; ETS; Innovation Drivers; CIS Data; Environmental Economics and Policy; C21; L2; O33; Q38; Q55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121701
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Cambio climático en Uruguay, posibles impactos y medidas de adaptación en el sector agropecuario. AgEcon
Gimenez, Agustin; Castano, Jose Pedro; Baethgen, Walter E.; Lanfranco, Bruno A..
El presente trabajo presenta un resumen de información sobre cambio climático observado en Uruguay y la región y posibles escenarios futuros. Dicha información se basa fundamentalmente en estudios conducidos y finalizados recientemente (2005-2009) en el país, en el marco del programa “Assessment of Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change” (AIACC-START, TWAS, GEF) ( AIACC, 2006), en el “Análisis de la Estadística Climática y Desarrollo y Evaluación de Escenarios Climáticos e Hidrológicos de las principales Cuencas Hidrográficas del Uruguay y la Zona Costera” (Unidad de Cambio Climático de la DINAMA del MVOTMA de Uruguay, PNUD, GEF, 2005), en el estudio de “Identificación de Posibles Impactos del Cambio Climático en la Producción de Pasturas Naturales y de...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Global warming; Agriculture and livestock production; Public policy; Extreme climate events.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Q01; Q54; Q55; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121759
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Cellulosic Biofuels: Are They Economically Viable and Environmentally Sustainable? AgEcon
Khanna, Madhu.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Miscanthus; Corn Stover; Switchgrass; Cost of Production; Greenhouse Gas Intensity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q01; Q54; Q55.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94665
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Challenges to Producer Ownership of Ethanol and Biodiesel Production Facilities AgEcon
Kenkel, Philip L.; Holcomb, Rodney B..
This study examines the rapidly expanding biofuels industry and identifies challenges for producer-owned biofuel projects. The U.S. ethanol industry has been growing rapidly, and biodiesel production is poised for similar growth. Producer involvement is driven by the desire to add value to farm commodities and the impact of biofuel projects on local grain prices. Local state and federal incentives have also stimulated producer interest. The long-run profitability of biofuel projects is driven by feedstock availability, access to market centers for biofuels, access to markets for coproducts, and utility costs and availability. The rapidly increasing size and scale of ethanol and biodiesel plants make it difficult for producers to fund these projects....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Alternative energy biodiesel; Ethanol; Producer-owned business; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q42; Q55.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43772
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Climate Change Mitigation Strategies in Fast-Growing Countries: The Benefits of Early Action AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Tavoni, Massimo; Carraro, Carlo.
This paper builds on the assumption that OECD countries are (or will soon be) taking actions to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. These actions, however, will not be sufficient to control global warming, unless developing countries also get involved in the cooperative effort to reduce GHG emissions. This paper investigates the best short-term strategies that emerging economies can adopt in reacting to OECD countries’ mitigation effort, given the common long-term goal to prevent excessive warming without hampering economic growth. Results indicate that developing countries would incur substantial economic losses by following a myopic strategy that disregards climate in the short-run, and that their optimal investment behaviour is to anticipate the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy-economy Modeling; Climate Policy; Developing Countries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54; Q55; Q43.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52541
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Das neue Gentechnikgesetz - ein Gentechnikverhinderungsgesetz? AgEcon
Becker, Alexander; Holm-Muller, Karin.
In addition to existing juridical analyses of the new German act for genetic engineering, this article deals with an environmental economic assessment. It is examined what kind of external costs will arise by using/applying genetic engineering and how they will be allocated. Our focus is on the costs that explicitly evolve from the societal postulated coexistence of conventional/ organic farms and users of biotechnology. If the protection of the existing production is accepted, as postulated by politics, the new act internalizes the so called market losses relatively well. In this context, the design of precautionary duties that have to be still established by law is of utmost importance. To avoid the dangers of an excessive liability by the farmer, it is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Act for genetic engineering; Liability; Coexistence; Market loss; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; K32; Q55.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18775
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Demographic and Management Factors Affecting the Adoption and Perceived Yield Benefit of Winter Cover Crops in the Southeast AgEcon
Bergtold, Jason S.; Duffy, Patricia A.; Hite, Diane; Raper, Randy L..
The inclusion of cover crops in cropping systems brings direct and indirect costs and benefits. Farmers will adopt and utilize cover crops as long as the perceived benefit of using them is positive. This paper examines the demographic and management factors affecting the adoption and perceived benefit (in terms of improved crop yield) of using winter annual cover crops. A double selectivity model of cover crop adoption and perceived yield gain was estimated using survey data of Alabama farmers examining cover crop use and management. Results may help in understanding factors shaping farmers’ perceptions, adoption, and retention of cover crops.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Adoption; Conservation; Cover crops; Double selectivity model; Perceived yield gain; Tobit model; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Q12; Q15; Q55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120443
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Double Transplanting: Economic Assessment of an Indigenous Technology for Submergence Avoidance in the Flood-Prone Rice Environment in Bangladesh AgEcon
Azad, Md Abdus Samad; Hossain, Mahabub.
In the northern part of Bangladesh a large proportion of land is medium and low-lying which are subjected to the risk of flooding from heavy rains during the month of August and September. Consecutive days of heavy rains after the crop establishment causes flash floods leading to death of seedlings and additional costs for re-transplanting. In response to this environmental problem, farmers practice a system of double transplanting of rice, locally known as Bolon to avoid crop failure from submergence. One-month old seedlings are transferred to another field with dense transplanting, and then re-transplanted to the main after the risk of flash flood is over. Scientists argue that the system would have lower yield and higher costs, thereby lower profits...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop establishment method; Productivity; Profitability; Technical efficiency; Crop Production/Industries; O3; Q16; Q18; Q19; Q55.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25448
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Economic Evaluation of Rice-Prawn Gher Farming System on Soil Fertility for Modern Variety (MV) Paddy Production in Bangladesh AgEcon
Barmon, Basanta Kumar; Osanami, Fumio; Kondo, Takumi.
This present study attempts to examine the economic evaluation of rice-prawn gher farming system on land fertility for modern variety (MV) paddy production in Bangladesh. Laboratory based experimental data and field survey data were used in the present study. To test the change of land fertility, soils were collected before paddy production (after prawn production) and after paddy production (before prawn production) and tested in the Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI) laboratory in Khulna, Bangladesh. The findings of the study indicate that the farmer applied comparatively less chemical fertilizers in MV paddy production under the rice-prawn gher farming system compared to MV paddy production. The input cost of chemical fertilizers for MV paddy...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rice-prawn gher farming system; Soil fertility; MV paddy production; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Livestock Production/Industries; O13; Q55.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25355
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Effects of Bt Cotton in India During the First Five Years of Adoption AgEcon
Sadashivappa, Prakash; Qaim, Matin.
While previous research has analyzed the impacts of Bt cotton in India, most available studies are based on one or two years of data only. We analyze the technology’s performance over the first five years of adoption, using panel data with three rounds of observations. On average, Bt adopting farmers realize pesticide reductions of about 40%, and yield advantages of 30-40%. Profit gains are in a magnitude of US $60 per acre. These benefits have been sustainable over time. Farmers’ satisfaction is reflected in a high willingness to pay for Bt seeds. Nonetheless, in 2006 Indian state governments decided to establish price caps at levels much lower than what companies had charged before. This intervention has further increased farmers’ profits, but the impact...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bt cotton; Genetically modified crops; Farm survey; India; Seed markets; Technology adoption; Willingness to pay (WTP); Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O32; O33; Q16; Q55; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49947
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Efficiency Improving Fossil Fuel Technologies for Electricity Generation: Data Selection and Trends AgEcon
Lanzi, Elisa; Verdolini, Elena; Hascic, Ivan.
This paper studies innovation dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important means of mitigating climate change impacts. Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. We find that patenting in efficiency improving technologies has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. We also find that majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in non-OECD or BRIC countries. Conversely, non-OECD and BRIC countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically. This result shows that there is significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency improving technologies for electricity production. This flow of know-how is likely to contribute to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Technological Innovation; Energy; Patents; Fossil Fuels; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q32; Q4; Q55.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99688
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Emissions Trends and Labour Productivity Dynamics Sector Analyses of De-coupling/Recoupling on a 1990-2005 Namea AgEcon
Marin, Giovanni; Mazzanti, Massimiliano.
This paper provides new empirical evidence on Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) for greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants at sector level. A panel dataset based on the Italian NAMEA over 1990-2005 is analysed, focusing on both emission efficiency (EKC model) and total emissions (IPAT model). Results show that looking at sector evidence, both decoupling and also eventually re-coupling trends could emerge along the path of economic development. CH4 is moderately decreasing in recent years, but being a minor gas compared to CO2, the overall performance on GHGs is not compliant with Kyoto targets, which do not appear to have generated a structural break in the dynamics at least for GHGs. SOx and NOx show decreasing patterns, though the shape is affected...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Greenhouse Gases; Air Pollutants; NAMEA; Trade Openness; Labour Productivity; EKC; STIRPAT; Delinking; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; O4; Q55; Q56.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52346
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Environmental Performance and Regional Innovation Spillovers AgEcon
Costantini, Valeria; Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Montini, Anna.
The achievement of positive environmental performance at national level could strongly depend on differences in local capabilities of both institutions and the private business sector. Environmental regulation alone is a weak instrument if the institutional and business environment cannot transform regulation strengths into opportunities. In this paper, we use the new environmental accounting matrix for polluting emissions now available for the 20 Italian Regions that covers 24 sectors and combines a shift-share approach with spatial econometric modelling. We provide evidence of the role played by internal innovation, innovation spillovers and regional policies in shaping the geographical distribution of environmental performance achievements.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Performance; Technological Innovation; Regional Spillovers; Polluting Emissions; Italian Regions; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q53; Q55; Q56; R15.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94790
Registros recuperados: 62
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