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Beyond taxonomy: prospects for understanding morphological diversity in the grasses (Poaceae) Darwiniana
Kellogg,Elizabeth A..
The grass family (Poaceae) is unusually well known taxonomically, with over 10,000 described species. These are characterized and classified according to a variety of morphological characters, particular those of the inflorescence and the spikelet but also a wealth of micromorphological and moleculary characters. Much data on the family is accessible electronically. Available phylogenies have identified 12 major lineages that are classified as subfamilies; within these subfamilies, especially for subfamily Panicoideae, the phylogeny is becoming increasingly clear. Developmental studies focus on the activity and fate of meristems throughout the plant, and illustrate how adult morphology arises. Analyses of quantitative trait loci (QTL) verify that some...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Poaceae; Phylogeny; Taxonomy; Development; Quantitative genetics; Gene expression.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-67932006000100001
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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus Genet. Mol. Biol.
Bison,Odair; Ramalho,Magno Antonio Patto; Rezende,Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha; Aguiar,Aurélio Mendes; Resende,Marcos Deon Vilela de.
In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Diallel; Eucalyptus breeding; Hybrids; Quantitative genetics; Wood quality.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572007000300019
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Estimates of genetic parameters of late seed-coat darkening of carioca type dry beans Ciência e Agrotecnologia
Araújo,Lilian Cristina Andrade de; Ramalho,Magno Antonio Patto; Abreu,Ângela de Fátima Barbosa.
In order to facilitate commercialization of cultivars of carioca type dry beans, the grains must have the lightest possible cream color and this phenotype must be persistent (late seed-coat darkening). There are reports of genetic variability for this trait. The objectives of this study were to obtain information regarding genetic control of the trait, with emphasis on the estimate of heritability and if it varies according to days after harvest, to verify the effect of locations and/or crop season on seed-coat darkening of the grains and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic correlations of the trait with cooking time, tannin content and grain yield. F2:3 and F2:4 progenies derived from crossing of the cultivar BRSMG Madrepérola (late seed-coat...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Genetic plant breeding; Quantitative genetics; Grain quality.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-70542012000200003
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Estimation of genetic parameters in the analysis of square lattice experiment group Bragantia
VIANA,JOSÉ MARCELO SORIANO; REGAZZI,ADAIR JOSÉ.
Aiming to demonstrate how to obtain unbiased estimates of genetic parameters of base populations, unaffected by genotype x environment effects, this paper presents the variance and covariance components of the intra-block analysis of a group of square lattice experiments and the estimators of the components associated to treatment effect. Random model and mixed models with environment effect fixed and other effects random are considered. In the analysis with treatments not corrected for blocks/replications/environments, the estimators of the variance and covariance components due to treatment effect are different from those of the analysis considering the complete block model. Data from two experiments of a breeding program of Eucalyptus pyrocarpa were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Quantitative genetics; Genetic parameters; Variance components; Covariance components; Joint analysis; Square lattice.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051999000100019
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Estimation of genetic parameters in the square lattice analysis Bragantia
VIANA,JOSÉ MARCELO SORIANO; REGAZZI,ADAIR JOSÉ.
This paper shows how to obtain unbiased estimates of genetic parameters of base populations, e.g., genotypic variance among families, heritability on a family mean basis, genotypic correlation and direct and indirect expected genetic gains, when the sampled families were evaluated in square lattice experiment. The theoretical part presents the variance and covariance components of the intra-block analysis of square lattice and the estimators of the components associated to treatment effect, considering the ordinary least squares method. In the analysis with treatments not corrected for blocks/replications, the estimator of the component due to treatment effect is equal to that of the analysis considering the complete block model. Experimental data from a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Quantitative genetics; Genetic parameters; Variance components; Covariance components; Square lattice.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051999000100018
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Evolution and development: some insights from evolutionary theory Anais da ABC (AABC)
DAVID,JEAN R..
Developmental biology and evolutionary biology are both mature integrative disciplines which started in the 19th century and then followed parallel and independent scientific pathways. Recently, a genetical component has stepped into both disciplines (developmental genetics and evolutionary genetics) pointing out the need for future convergent maturation. Indeed, the Evo-Devo approach is becoming popular among developmental biologists, based on the facts that distant groups share a common ancestry, that precise phylogenies can be worked out and that homologous genes often play similar roles during the development of very different organisms. In this essay, I try to show that the real future of Evo-Devo thinking is still broader. The evolutionary theory is...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Quantitative genetics; Multicellularity; Analogy; Homology; Sexual reproduction.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652001000300008
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GENES - a software package for analysis in experimental statistics and quantitative genetics - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i3.21251 Agronomy
Cruz, Cosme Damião; Universidade Federal de Viçosa.
GENES is a software package used for data analysis and processing with different biometric models and is essential in genetic studies applied to plant and animal breeding. It allows parameter estimation to analyze biological phenomena and is fundamental for the decision-making process and predictions of success and viability of selection strategies. The program can be downloaded from the Internet (http://www.ufv.br/dbg/genes/genes.htm or http://www.ufv.br/dbg/biodata.htm) and is available in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Specific literature (http://www.livraria.ufv.br/) and a set of sample files are also provided, making GENES easy to use. The software is integrated into the programs MS Word, MS Excel and Paint, ensuring simplicity and effectiveness in...
Palavras-chave: Software; Statistical analysis; Genetic analysis; Quantitative genetics; Biometry software análise estatística análise genética genética quantitativa biometria..
Ano: 2013 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/21251
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Genetic basis of gametogenesis in diploid and triploid Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Normand, Julien; Ernande, Bruno; Boudry, Pierre.
Today, triploidy is the most common method used to genetically improve marine bivalve aquaculture production. In the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, triploidy affects many traits. The most proeminent one is reproductive effort, which is greatly reduced compared to diploids. The combined effects of physiological trade-offs between survival, growth and reproduction together with the reduction of reproductive effort in triploids explains the global enhancement of yield observed. However, the sterility of triploid oysters is only partial and some triploid individuals can show normal gametogenesis (i.e. similar to diploids), especially under warm conditions. In diploid oysters, the heritability of reproductive effort has been shown to be relatively low, but a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Parentage analysis; Triploidy; Oyster; Quantitative genetics; Gametogenesis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/acte-4525.pdf
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Genetic potential of common bean parents for plant architecture improvement Scientia Agricola
Silva,Vanessa Maria Pereira e; Carneiro,Pedro Crescêncio Souza; Menezes Júnior,José Ângelo Nogueira de; Carneiro,Vinícius Quintão; Carneiro,José Eustáquio de Souza; Cruz,Cosme Damião; Borém,Aluizio.
In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding, plant selection that associate erect plant architecture, high yield, and grains with good commercial acceptance has been the choice of breeders. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate potential parents, to obtain promising segregating populations that associate high yield, erect plant architecture and carioca grain type, as well as to obtain information on heterosis, general and specific combining ability of these parents regarding grain yield and traits related to plant architecture. Fourteen common bean lines were crossed under a partial diallel scheme. Group 1 was composed by eight erect plant lines and group 2 by six carioca grain type lines. The F1's plants from the crosses and the 14 parents were evaluated...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; General and specific combining ability; Partial diallel; Quantitative genetics.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162013000300005
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Genetic variability during four cycles of recurrent selection in rice PAB
Morais Júnior,Odilon Peixoto de; Melo,Patrícia Guimarães Santos; Morais,Orlando Peixoto de; Colombari Filho,José Manoel.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters among progenies of the CNA6 population of upland rice (Oryza sativa) for grain yield and plant height in four cycles of recurrent selection, in order to evaluate the genetic variability and the genotype × location interaction. The experimental data were obtained from yield trials of S0:2 progenies, which were carried out in the experimental design of Federer’s augmented blocks, without replications for progenies within each location. The effect of S0:2 progenies was significant in all cycles for grain yield and in the first three cycles for plant height, indicating the maintenance of the population’s genetic potential to generate transgressive progenies. The...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Oryza sativa; Genotype × environment interaction; Population improvement; Quantitative genetics; Variance components.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2017001101033
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Genetic variation for growth at one and two summers of age in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Heritability estimates and response to selection ArchiMer
Vandeputte, Marc; Kocour, M; Mauger, S; Rodina, M; Launay, A; Gela, D; Dupont Nivet, M; Hulak, M; Linhart, O.
We estimated the heritability of growth-related traits (weight and length at ages one summer, first spring and two summers) in a synthetic mirror carp strain (HSM) in the Czech Republic. The four generation pedigree was obtained from parentage assignment of three factorial mating designs with microsatellite markers, and included 195 fish without phenotypes (48 G0, 147 G1) and 1321 fish with phenotypes (674 G2, 647 G3). Animal model heritability estimates over generations were in the range 0.21-0.33 for length and in the range 0.31-0.44 for weight. The genetic correlation between length and weight was high (0.97). The correlations between growth measurements in the first and in the second summer of age were moderate to low (0.34-0.67). Divergent selection...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Quantitative genetics; Performance; Microsatellites; Parentage assignment; Realized heritability; Selection response; Selection; Growth; Heritability; Cyprinus carpio; Common carp.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4076.pdf
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Incorporation of compound inflorescences and selection of high-yielding progenies in cowpea PAB
Bernardo,Karla Annielle da Silva; Freire Filho,Francisco Rodrigues; Ribeiro,Valdenir Queiroz; Vieira,Paulo Fernando de Melo Jorge; Lopes,Ângela Celis de Almeida; Oliveira,Rosana Mendes de Moura.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) progenies with compound inflorescences, short peduncles, early cycle, good plant architecture, and high-yielding potential. The initial genetic material consisted of 453 F2:3 progenies, selected from ten crosses and evaluated using Federer’s augmented block design, with two controls. Of these, 60 progenies from the F4:5 and F4:6 generations were selected and assessed in two consecutive experiments, both in a 8x8 lattice design with four controls and four replicates. Early selection was efficient at fixing the evaluated traits. A wide genetic variability was detected among and within progenies. The estimated and obtained heritability and genetic gains in the F4:5 and F4:6...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Vigna unguiculata; Breeding; Genetic variability; Heritability; Quantitative genetics.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2018001001150
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Methods for Simultaneous Evaluation of Productivity, Adaptability and Genotypic Stability in Eucalyptus grandis Progeny Trials in the State of Sao Paulo PFB - Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira
Pinto Júnior, José Elidney; Sturion, José Alfredo; Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela de; Ronzelli Júnior, Pedro.
The estimated Harmonic Mean for Genetic Values (MHVG), Relative Performance of Genetic Values (PRVG) and the Harmonic Mean of Relative Performance of Genetic Values (MHPRVG) were used as measures to provide and facilitate the interpretation of genotypic stability and adaptability of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. The different criteria were applied as alternatives to the simulation of selection for productivity, stability, adaptability, as well as for the joint value of these attributes together. The estimates were generated by using the mixed model, assuming genetic effects to be random. The software SELEGEN-REML/BLUP was used to evaluate progeny trials and to estimate statistical parameters. The best trees to be used in seedling and clonal...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Quantitative genetics; Mixed models; Eucalypt improvement; Prediction of genetic values; REML/BLUP. Genética quantitativa; Modelos mistos; Melhoramento de eucalipto; Predição de valores genéticos; REML/BLUP..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://pfb.cnpf.embrapa.br/pfb/index.php/pfb/article/view/204
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Mixture models in quantitative genetics and applications to animal breeding R. Bras. Zootec.
Gianola,Daniel; Boettcher,Paul J.; Ødegård,Jørgen; Heringstad,Bjørg.
Finite mixture models are helpful for uncovering heterogeneity due to hidden structure; for example, unknown major genes. The first part of this article gives examples and reviews quantitative genetics issues of continuous characters having a finite mixture of Gaussian components. The partition of variance in a mixture, the covariance between relatives under the supposition of an additive genetic model and the offspring-parent regression are derived. Formulae for assessing the effect of mass selection operating on a mixture are given. Expressions for the genetic correlation between a mixture and a Gaussian trait are presented. If there is heterogeneity in a population at the genetic or environmental levels, then genetic parameters based on theory treating...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bayesian methods; Dairy cattle; Maximum likelihood; Mixture distributions; Quantitative genetics; Somatic cell scores.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982007001000017
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Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae) raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale) and Raphanus sativus L. (radish) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Peppe,Fernanda Borja; Lomônaco,Cecília.
The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m) of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and radish (Raphanus sativus). The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Quantitative genetics; Genetic correlation; Morphological plasticity; Phenotypic correlation; Physiological plasticity; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572003000200012
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Potencial plástico de Cabralea canjerana subsp. polytricha (Adr. Juss.) Penn. (Meliaceae) e seu papel na formação de ecótipos em áreas de cerrado e vereda, Uberlândia, MG Rev. Bras. Bot.
FUZETO,ADRIANA PAULA; LOMÔNACO,CECÍLIA.
A formação de ecótipos em Cabralea canjerana subsp. polytricha foi estudada em áreas de cerrado e vereda de uma reserva ecológica no município de Uberlândia, MG, utilizando modelos de genética quantitativa para medida de plasticidade fenotípica. Os ecótipos foram caracterizados quanto à altura dos indivíduos, peso de frutos e sementes, número de sementes viáveis por fruto e sincronização no período de floração. Existe grande variabilidade genética para caracteres importantes na determinação do valor adaptativo da subspécie. Os genótipos respondem fenotipicamente à heterogeneidade ambiental, provocada pelo gradiente cerrado/vereda, em dois dos três caracteres observados. As respostas plásticas foram distintas entre os genótipos, quanto à direção e...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cabralea canjerana; Ecotypes; Phenotypic plasticity; Quantitative genetics.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042000000200007
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Research Article Comparing covariance matrices: random skewers method compared to the common principal components model Genet. Mol. Biol.
Cheverud,James M.; Marroig,Gabriel.
Comparisons of covariance patterns are becoming more common as interest in the evolution of relationships between traits and in the evolutionary phenotypic diversification of clades have grown. We present parallel analyses of covariance matrix similarity for cranial traits in 14 New World Monkey genera using the Random Skewers (RS), T-statistics, and Common Principal Components (CPC) approaches. We find that the CPC approach is very powerful in that with adequate sample sizes, it can be used to detect significant differences in matrix structure, even between matrices that are virtually identical in their evolutionary properties, as indicated by the RS results. We suggest that in many instances the assumption that population covariance matrices are...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Covariance matrix; Common principal components; Random skewers; New World monkeys; Quantitative genetics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572007000300027
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Using genealogy to improve selection efficiency of pedigree method Scientia Agricola
Nunes,José Airton Rodrigues; Moreto,Alexsander Luís; Ramalho,Magno Antonio Patto.
In the pedigree method of conducting an autogamous population of segregating plants, the genealogy of the progenies is registered. Although labor-intensive, these data are rarely used. One possibility of exploiting this information is to improve selection efficiency using BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction). In this study BLUP with genealogy inclusion was compared to the mean in the progenies evaluation conducted by the pedigree method. Progenies of crosses of the common bean lines BRS MG Talismã and BRS Valente in F4:6 and F4:7 were used. The 256 F4:6 progenies were sown in February 2005, in southeast of Brazil, in a 16 <FONT FACE=Symbol>´</FONT> 16 simple lattice design. The grain yield data were subjected to BLUP analysis with inclusion...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: BLUP; Selection method; Bean improvement; Heritability; Quantitative genetics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162008000100004
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Variabilité génétique et évaluation génomique de la résistance à la nécrose nerveuse virale de populations sauvages de bar/loup (Dicentrarchus labrax) ArchiMer
Doan, Quoc Khanh.
European seabass is one of the most economic species in aquaculture in Mediterranean areas. Viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a disease affecting at least 70 aquatic species, has become the most serious threat to seabass cultured industry. While numerous studies have been performed in order to control this disease, no simple and effective procedures are available. In this thesis, we question genetic variability and the potential of selective breeding as an opportunity to address thwart this threat.After a general introduction (first chapter) and a deep literature review of nodavirus in aquaculture (second chapter), we explore in the third chapter the genetic variability of resistance of different wild populations of European seabass, namely Northern Atlantic...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Génétique quantitative; Analyses génomiques; Pathologie; Résistance virale; Aquaculture; Quantitative genetics; Genomics; Pathology; Virus resistance; Aquaculture.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60971/64379.pdf
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