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Agrarpolitische Interessen Frankreichs und Deutschlands – Gemeinsamkeiten und Divergenzen unter sich ändernden Rahmenbedingungen AgEcon
Ahrens, Heinz; Lippert, Christian.
The aim of this contribution is to examine how the French and the German positions on agricultural policy have developed since the foundation of the EEC and what the driving forces were behind. The “general consensus” underlying the EEC treaty, and according to which the common market would be “conquered” by France in the case of the classical agricultural products, could not be translated into practice; for what emerged for these products was not a customs union but a “price support union”. As a consequence French intra-community agricultural exports had to be redirected to the world market. Thus initial positive French income transfers via intracommunity trade were transformed into transfers from the EC budget, an evolution that can be interpreted as a...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: CAP; Agricultural policy; European Union; France; Germany; EEC Treaty; Price cuts; Quantitative restrictions; Agenda 2000; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98761
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ECONOMICS OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ADMINISTRATION AgEcon
Skully, David W..
The 1996 Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture was a step toward free trade. The Agreement lifts bans and quotas on imports, but allows their conversion into tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), which function like quotas. At present, many of the 1,300 TRQs increased market access to imports, but some have preserved pre-Agreement levels of protection. The World Trade Organization's intent as to the administration of TRQs is open to interpretation. This report analyzes seven administrative methods in light of the principle of nondiscrimination. We conclude that auctions are the best way to administer a TRQ. First-come, first-served and license-on-demand methods present a moderate risk of biased trade. State trading organizations and producer groups that directly...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff-rate quotas; Quantitative restrictions; Trade barriers; Tariffs; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33576
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India's Reform of External Sector Policies and Future Multilateral Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
I evaluate India's transition from an inward-oriented development strategy to greater participation in the world economy. While tariff rates have decreased significantly over the past decade, India is still one of the more autarkic countries. Despite improvement over the past in export performance, India continues to lag behind its South- and East Asian neighbors. Second, official debt flows have been largely replaced by foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment in the 1990s. India's ability to attract FDI would be greatly enhanced by further reforms. I argue that India's participation in a future round of multilateral trade negotiations would benefit India. I outline the further reforms most needed: reform of labour and bankruptcy laws,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Antidumping; Developing countries; Economic reform; Export performance; Foreign direct investment; Intellectual property rights; Multilateral trade negotiations; Quantitative restrictions; Real exchange rate; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; F21; F35; H54; K31; O34; O38; O53; P11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28428
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