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Accounting for Social Spending Escalation in Rural China AgEcon
Chen, Xi.
It has been widely recognized that the poor spends a significant proportion of their income on social spending even at the expense of basic consumption. What are the motives behind the observed lavish social spending among the poor? We attempt to test three competing explanations at the social link level, risk pooling, peer effect, and status concern, via a uniform framework based on a unique primary dataset. The data set include household information from a three wave census type household survey as well as a long term gift record for all households in three villages in a poor region in rural China. Our dyadic estimations confirm the prevalence of peer influence and the status seeking motive in shaping gift spending and its rapid growth, while...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Social Network; Peer Effect; Risk pooling; Status Seeking; Ceremony; Agribusiness; D63; D85; R20.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115516
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Are The Poverty Effects of Trade Policies Invisible? AgEcon
Verma, Monika; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Hertel, Thomas W..
With the advent of the WTO’s Doha Development Agenda, as well as the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce poverty by 50 percent by 2015, poverty impacts of trade reforms have attracted increasing attention. This has been particularly true of agricultural trade reform due to the importance of food in the diets of the poor, relatively higher protection in agriculture, as well as the heavy concentration of global poverty in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. Yet some in this debate have argued that, given the extreme volatility in agricultural commodity markets, the additional price and poverty impacts due to trade liberalization might well be undetectable. This paper formally tests this “invisibility hypothesis” via...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy reform; Agricultural trade; Computable general equilibrium; Developing countries; Poverty headcount; Volatility; Stochastic simulation; Non-parametric hypothesis testing; Financial Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; C68; F17; I32; Q17; R20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61793
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BIOREFINERIES AND BIOBASED PRODUCTS FROM THE CONSUMER'S POINT OF VIEW AgEcon
Kurka, Stefan; Menrad, Klaus.
Paper prepared for presentation at the 13th ICABR International Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology: “The emerging bio-economy” Ravello (Italy), 18th to 20th June 2009
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Industrial biotechnology; Biorefinery; Consumer behaviour; Demand and Price Analysis; M39; R20.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91330
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Crecimiento económico y exclusión social en la agricultura familiar argentina AgEcon
Lattuada, Mario; Estrada, Eduardo Moyano.
RESUMEN: En este artículo, sus autores analizan el proceso de crecimiento económico experimentado por Argentina en la década de los noventa y sus efectos sobre la agricultura de la región pampeana. Este trabajo pretende contribuir, desde una perspectiva sociológica, al debate sobre las posibilidades y limitaciones de reproducción de la agricultura familiar en un contexto marcado por la aplicación de programas de ajuste estructural y de retirada del Estado de muchas de sus tradicionales áreas de actuación. Para ello, en primer lugar, se describen los indicadores productivos y económicos que dan cuenta de la evolución del sector agropecuario argentino en la última década. En segundo lugar, se exponen los distintos factores que contribuyeron al deterioro del...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farming policy; Rural society; Social exclusion; Family agriculture.; Farm Management; Q18; R20; R11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28743
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Factors influencing nutritional status of rural low income elderly in Trinidad AgEcon
Francis-Granderson, Isabella; Pemberton, Carlisle A..
Bridgetown, Barbados 6th – 10th July, 2009
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Isabella Francis-Granderson; Dr. Carlisle Pemberton; Nutritional Status; Nutritional Assessment; Healthy Eating Index.; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Health Economics and Policy; R20; I18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122660
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FARMERS’ SURVIVAL STRATEGIES IN THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND AgEcon
Bergmann, Holger; Thomson, Kenneth J..
Small and medium-sized farms all over Europe guarantee their survival by a broad range of strategies and different income sources. In remoter areas of highly developed countries such as the UK, such strategies may be expected to have their own characteristics, both legislative and socio-economic. This paper reports results from a socio-economic survey carried out among 40 Scottish agricultural households in the Caithness and Sutherland region of the North of Scotland, focussing specifically on the diversification strategies of (larger) farms and (smaller) crofts related to the multifunctionality of agriculture. After analysing the land, labour and capital use of farm/croft households in the region, the paper analyses why farms/crofts in this remote area...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm households; Scottish Highlands; Income sources; Diversification; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Q12; Q15; R20; R10.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52832
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Income Segregation and Local Progressive Taxation: Empirical Evidence from Switzerland AgEcon
Schmidheiny, Kurt.
Swiss metropolitan areas are comprised of a system of communities with considerable fiscal autonomy. This study investigates how the income tax differentials across communities in an urban area affect the households` location decisions. Data from the urban agglomeration of Basel for the year 1997 is used. This unique data set contains tax information from all households that moved either within the city center of Basel or from the city center to the outskirts. The community choice of the households is investigated within the framework of the random utility maximization model (RUM). A theoretical model with progressive income taxation is developed to identify the household preferences applied in the RUM. Different econometric spezifications of the error...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Location Choice; Discrete Choice; Multinomial Probit; Mixed Logit; Spatial Autocorrelation; Income Segregation; Public Economics; H71; H73; R20; R23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26217
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Inter-sectoral Water Use in South Africa: Efficiency Versus Equity AgEcon
Juana, James S.; Kirsten, Johann F.; Strzepek, Kenneth M..
While water supply sources are dwindling in South Africa, the demand for the scarce water resource is increasing. This situation requires a switch from supply to demand management of water in the country. The study updates the 1999 social accounting matrix for South Africa, using the Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) time series data, STATSA's 2001 census report and 2000 water accounts, the 2002 national income accounts, published by the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) and the Water Resource Management Strategy (WRMS) registration data. Using the updated SAM, the contribution of water to economic development in South Africa is estimated through the traditional SAM multiplier analysis. The paper then investigates the impact of reallocating...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: SAM multipliers; Output growth; Factor remuneration; Income generation; Efficiency; Equity; R20; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C67; D57; L60; Q25.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25486
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Local Impacts of a Global Crisis - Food Price Transmission and Poverty Impacts in Ghana AgEcon
Cudjoe, Godsway; Breisinger, Clemens; Diao, Xinshen.
This paper takes a local perspective on global food price shocks by analyzing food price transmission between regional markets in Ghana. It also assesses the impacts of food price increases on various household groups. Taking the recent global food crisis as an example, we find that prices for domestic staples are highly correlated with prices for imported rice. However, price transmission between pairs of domestic regional markets is limited; it is complete for local rice and maize only when more rigorous cointegration analysis is applied. Our findings also show the important role of seasonality in the determination of market integration and price transmission. The welfare effect for households as consumers appears relatively modest at the aggregate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crisis; Price transmission; Cointegration analysis; Household model; Ghana; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q13; R20.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51089
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MOTIVE FÜR DEN KAUF EINER HEIZUNG - ERGEBNISSE EINER VERBRAUCHERBEFRAGUNG MIT DEM SCHWERPUNKT "HOLZPELLETHEIZUNGEN" AgEcon
Decker, Thomas.
Paper prepared for presentation at the 7th Industrieforum Pellets Stuttgart (Germany), 10th October 2007
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer behaviour; Germany; Heating systems; Demand and Price Analysis; Q41; R20; M39.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91299
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Poverty, Livestock and Household Typologies in Nepal AgEcon
Maltsoglou, Irini; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi.
Agriculture and livestock are key components of the livelihoods of the poor. Livestock make a substantial contribution to household livelihood's’ and currently sustain the livelihoods of an estimated 700 million rural poor in developing countries. In Nepal, poverty levels are extremely high and more than 80% of the population relies on the agriculture sector for employment and income generation. In this context, it is important to be able to understand the link between poverty and livestock and the possible impact of livestock policies on the poor. The aim of the analysis presented in this paper is twofold: firstly, to gain an in-depth understanding of the features that characterize the poor in Nepal so as to determine the role livestock plays in and for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nepal; Livestock; Household Typologies; Poverty Reduction; Rural Livelihoods and Income Sources.; Food Security and Poverty; Q12; R20; O12.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23808
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PREFERENCE HETEROGENEITY AMONG GERMAN CONSUMERS REGARDING GM RAPESEED-OIL AgEcon
Zapilko, Marina; Klein, Agnes; Menrad, Klaus.
Paper prepared for presentation at the Fourth International Conference on Coexistence between Genetically Modified (GM) and non-GM based Agricultural Supply Chains (GMCC) Melbourne (Australia), 10th to 12th November 2009
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Genetic engineering; Consumer behaviour; Germany; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; M39; R20.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91302
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Public greenspace and life satisfaction in urban Australia AgEcon
Ambrey, Christopher L.; Fleming, Christopher M..
This paper examines the influence of public greenspace on the life satisfaction of residents of Australia’s capital cities. A positive relationship is found between the percentage of public greenspace in a resident’s local area and their self-reported life satisfaction. On average, it is found that a resident has an implicit willingness-to-pay of $1,168 in annual household income for a one per cent (143m2) increase in public greenspace. The relationship between public greenspace and life satisfaction however, is non-linear. Additional results suggest that the value of greenspace increases with population density and that lone parents, the less educated and those living in high rise dwellings benefit to a greater extent from the provision of public...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Happiness; Household; Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA); Geographic Information Systems (GIS); Greenspace; Life Satisfaction; Non-market Valuation.; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C21; Q51; R20.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124302
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PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO HEATING SYSTEMS IN GERMANY WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION OF CONSUMERS' ECOLOGICAL ATTITUDES AgEcon
Decker, Thomas; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus.
Paper prepared for presentation at the Energy Engineering, Economics and Policy (EEEP) Conference Orlando (USA), 13th July 2009
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer behaviour; Germany; Heating systems; Demand and Price Analysis; Q41; R20; M39.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91300
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SOURCES AND UTILIZATION OF FOODSTUFFS IN BELARUSIAN HOUSEHOLDS: RESULTS OF THE GRODNO HOUSEHOLDS SURVEY AgEcon
Schmitz, Susanne; Brosig, Stephan; Degtiarevich, Josif J.; Degtiarevich, Irina J.; Grings, Michael.
The paper is a documentation of a (non-representative) survey on the food situation of households in the Grodno region, Belarus. It covers the year between September 2000 and August 2001. The focus of the survey was on the sources of food in the households (purchase, own production, and receipt in non-monetary transactions between households) and on the utilization (consumption, feed use, sale, unpaid transfers to other households, and spoilage). The paper describes the survey design and the scope and quality of the compiled data set and it presents results of descriptive analyses. The survey households consume a well balanced diet based on potatoes and vegetables as the main staple food. 75 percent of the households use small land plots for food...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Belarus; Grodno; Foodstuffs; Food; Nutrition; Diet; Household survey; Weissrussland; Belarus; Grodno; Ernährung; Nahrungsmittel; Haushaltsbefragung; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use; R20; I30.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92018
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The persistence of small dairy farms in Austria from an economic perspective AgEcon
Kirner, Leopold; Hambrusch, Josef; Ortner, Karl M..
In the international comparison the structure of milk production in Austria is small scale. The present study presents two theoretical approaches to explain the persistence of small dairy farms in Austria: the opportunity cost principle and the theory of the agricultural household. With regard to the first one it is debatable whether the flat rates really can represent the costs of own production factors in their alternative uses in small enterprises. An illustration on the basis of production cost accounts shows that small dairy farms with no possibilities for the utilization of their own production factors (especially for labour) can cover the production costs by revenues only. Secondly it is argued that agricultural production is likely to continue in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Small dairy farms; Production costs; Farm household; Opportunity costs; FADN; Consumer/Household Economics; Q12; R20.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52850
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THE ROLE OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AMONG IMMIGRANTS IN U.S. METROPOLITAN AREAS AgEcon
Waldorf, Brigitte S.; Beckhusen, Julia; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; de Graaff, Thomas.
Segregation by race, ethnicity and income is a persistent feature of U.S. cities and communities, and ethnic enclaves have formed ever since immigration became more diverse. For low-skilled immigrants in particular, settling in an ethnic enclave may offer important opportunities and facilitate coping with the new environment. However, immigrant enclaves may also foster occupational segregation and retard assimilation, with the willingness to invest in language acquisition playing a key role. This paper expands on earlier work focusing on the linkage between spatial segregation and language acquisition. Using data from the 2000 U.S. Census the study stratifies immigrants by their location in one of four metropolitan areas by educational attainment and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Immigration; Human capital; Language acquisition; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Public Economics; I21; J10; R20.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48643
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The role of rural off-farm employment in agricultural development among farm households in low-income countries: Evidence from Zimbabwe AgEcon
Chikwama, Cornilius.
This study examines the widely held view that earnings from rural wage employment can help farm households overcome constraints on farm investments. It uses a panel dataset of 359 randomly selected farm households from three resettlement areas in Zimbabwe over the period 1996/97 to 1998/99. It finds no evidence to support the hypothesis that income from rural wage employment contributes towards increasing farm investment for the sampled households, and it attributes this to very low savings rates on rural wage employment income. Further, it finds that levels of farm investment increase with the amount of labor and land used in farm production in the previous year, and for households with male and/or older household heads. It also finds an inverse relation...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural off-farm wage employment; Farm investment; Agricultural development; Sub-Saharan Africa; Zimbabwe; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O12; O18; J40; R20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93874
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Understanding Vulnerability to Food Insecurity Lessons from Vulnerable Livelihood Profiling AgEcon
Lovendal, Christian Romer; Knowles, Marco; Horii, Naoko.
The Food Security and Agricultural Projects Analysis Unit (ESAF) of FAO has undertaken a number of pilot studies to develop a methodology for understanding why certain groups of people are vulnerable to becoming food insecure. The studies use the sustainable livelihoods approach adopted for food security analysis and are primarily based on qualitative information collection. The objective of these studies is to inform policy and programming decisions for reducing vulnerability to food insecurity. Drawing from these experiences and those of other FAO units involved in similar work, this paper identifies key lessons learnt and makes recommendations for strengthening future work on food security and vulnerability analysis.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Vulnerability; Vulnerable groups; Food security; Livelihoods; FIVIMS; Food Security and Poverty; Q12; R20; O20.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23794
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Who Eats Yellow Maize? Preliminary Results of a Survey of Consumer Maize Preferences in Maputo, Mozambique AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Santos, Ana Paula.
During April and May, 1994, the questionnaire was completed with the person in each household who was responsible for food purchases. At this time, white maize availability was increasing due to the recent harvest, while yellow maize availability was beginning to decline after a long period of great oversupply and very low prices. The questionnaire included sections on family structure; supply sources of maize grain and meals; purchase behavior for maize grain, maize meals, and rice; two "price games" in which consumers were asked to make choices between products at differing prices; and a series of sections meant to quantify household income, including agricultural production and remittances. This brief paper presents some preliminary results from this...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Maize; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Downloads May 2008-July 2009: 29; R20.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54697
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