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A Composite Fuzzy Indicator for Assessing Farm Household Potential for Non-farm Income Diversification AgEcon
Fritzsch, Jana.
European politicians encourage the income diversification of rural households through various measures. Although being aware of farm households’ potential for non-farm income diversification seems important for finely-targeting such policy measures, no attempt has thus far been made to summarise the various determinants of income diversification in a single figure. This contribution aims to close this gap. A composite fuzzy indicator that measures farm household potential for non-farm income diversification is developed and applied to 1,053 farm households in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. The indicator summarises the incentives of and capacities for non-farm income diversification on the individual household member level, and on the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Composite indicator; Fuzzy logic; Rural non-farm income diversification; Transition countries; Consumer/Household Economics; C65; J24; Q12; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114349
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A contribuição de P&D Agropecuário para Convergência e Crescimento da Renda Agropecuária no Brasil AgEcon
Barreto, Ricardo Candéa Sá; Almeida, Eduardo Simões de.
Este artigo estuda o crescimento econômico e a convergência de renda Agropecuária dos estados Brasileiros de 1986 a 2004. Para este fim, utiliza-se um modelo econométrico de efeitos fixos, controlando-se a dependência espacial. Além de comprovar convergência condicional, o modelo econométrico revelou que o crescimento do PIB per capita agropecuário foi afetado por variáveis como capital físico agropecuário, infra-estrutura telefônica, infra-estrutura de armazenagem, crédito rural, número de trabalhadores rurais, e por externalidades espaciais. Além disso, ficou evidenciada a importância de P & D agropecuário para o crescimento e convergência de renda per capita no setor agropecuário e ainda a geração de externalidades espaciais...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Convergência de renda agropecuária; Nova geografia econômica; Modelo de efeitos fixos com dependência espacial; Income convergence; New economic geography; Fixed effect model with spatial dependence; Agricultural Finance; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O18; O47; R11; R23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108170
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A Theory of Migration as a Response to Occupational Stigma AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Fan, C. Simon.
Drawing on the literature of occupational status and social distance, a theory is developed of labor migration that is prompted by a desire to avoid “social humiliation.” A closed-economy general equilibrium model that incorporates occupational status and examines the interaction between the goods market and the labor market is constructed. This framework is then extended from a closed, single economy to an open economy setting in a world that consists of two countries or two regions. It is shown that as long as migration can reduce humiliation sufficiently, migration will occur even between two identical economies. Hence, a new model of migration is presented in which migration arises from a wish to reap social exposure gains. The model shows that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Migration; Social distance; Occupational status; Social exposure gains; General equilibrium; Consumer/Household Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; F22; J61; R23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55363
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Adult Obesity and Food Stores’ Density – Evidence from State-Level Panel Data AgEcon
Bonanno, Alessandro; Goetz, Stephan J..
The association between types of food access and rising adult obesity rates is increasingly recognized, as a complement to the effects of declining physical activity. Previous studies have examined the effects on obesity of only a limited set of store types, such as grocery stores, fast food restaurants and big-box retailers, and they have ignored that certain behavioral factors, such as could play a role in the relationship between food access and obesity. This analysis includes a comprehensive array of food-providing establishments, including limited- and full-service restaurants controlling for fruit-and-vegetables (F&V) consumption (lagged temporally) using a panel data set for the continental U.S. states covering the period 1997-2005. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Adult Obesity; Food Access; Eating Habits; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; D12; I18; R23.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61341
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Agglomeration, Migration and Agricultural Growth: A Regional CGE Analysis for Uganda AgEcon
Dorosh, Paul A.; Thurlow, James.
CGE Analysis; Development Strategy; sub-Saharan Africa;
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural-urban linkages; Internal migration; Regional development; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Q18; R13; R23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50775
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Brain Drain in Rural America AgEcon
Waldorf, Brigitte S..
The paper aims at understanding changes in the distribution and accumulation of intellectual capital by analyzing migrants' educational profiles across a sample of 303 U.S. counties. The results suggest that newcomers are better educated than the resident population, and the education gap is most pronounced for newcomers from other states. The results further suggest that the educational status of newcomers "in-migrants" is positively related to the educational status of the resident population "stayers", thus implying a further agglomeration of human capital across space. However, for interstate migrants the effect is context-dependent, playing a greater role in urban than in rural settings.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Human Capital; Migration; Brain Drain; Community/Rural/Urban Development; J24; R23.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9866
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Causes and Impact of Labour Migration: A Case Study of Punjab Agriculture AgEcon
Kaur, Baljinder; Singh, J.M.; Garg, B.R.; Singh, Jasdev; Singh, Satwinder.
In Punjab, the influx of migrant labour particularly in agriculture sector started with the green revolution and picked up subsequently. Due to monoculture in the cropping pattern, the state has become largely dependent on migrant labourers for various agricultural operations. The influx of seasonal as well as permanent labour from outside has led to various socio-economic problems in Punjab. In the wake of this, the present study was purposively conducted in the Central Zone of Punjab for the year 2011 to find the causes and impact of labour in-migration in Punjab. A total of 105 respondents belonging to the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Nepal constituted the sample frame. The results have revealed that better income and...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Labour migration; Long-term migration; Short-term migration; Remittances; In-migration; Agricultural and Food Policy; J61; J62; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119397
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Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Konkan Region of Maharashtra AgEcon
Thorat, V.A.; Dhekale, J.S.; Patil, H.K.; Tilekar, S.N..
The study has identified the factors responsible for rural-urban migration based on 120 sample respondents each of migrants and non-migrants spread over two districts, viz. Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg of Konkan region of Maharashtra by employing the logit model. The study has highlighted the importance of rural development programs like MGNREGA that are being implemented by the government with a view to provide employment and income to the rural population in the country. It has also shown that for both migrant and non-migrant households,, agriculture was the major source of income, and their consumption expenditure was more than the production expenditure. It has also been observed that migration has a positive impact on income, expenditure and net savings...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Migration; Logit; Variable inflation factor; Odds ratio; Agricultural and Food Policy; J11; J61; C13; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119399
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Determination of Key Correlates of Agricultural Labour Migration in Less Resources Endowed Areas of Tamil Nadu AgEcon
Sundaravaradarajan, K.R.; Sivakumar, P.; Jahanmohan, K.R..
This study has been conducted in the backward district of Perambalur, which is a less resource-endowed district of Tamil Nadu, with the following objectives: (i) to identify the major causes and empirically determine the key correlates of agricultural labour migration in the study area, and (ii) to identify the causes for rural out-migration. The study has been conducted by taking landless (group I) and landed (group II) respondents. The Garatte ranking of the causes of migration has revealed that of the ten push factors and ten pull factors (both economic and non-economic), lack of continuous employment at place of origin is at the first rank with mean score of 77 and 78 per cent for group I and group II, respectively, followed by low wages at place of...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural labour; Labour migration; Tamil Nadu; Agricultural and Food Policy; J61; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119401
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Differential Migration Prospects, Skill Formation, and Welfare AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Zakharenko, Roman.
This paper develops a one sector, two-input model with endogenous human capital formation. The two inputs are two types of skilled labor: “engineering,” which exerts a positive externality on total factor productivity, and “law,” which does not. The paper shows that a marginal prospect of migration by engineers increases human capital accumulation of both types of workers (engineers and lawyers), and also the number of engineers who remain in the country. These two effects are socially desirable, since they move the economy from the (inefficient) free-market equilibrium towards the social optimum. The paper also shows that if the externality effect of engineering is sufficiently powerful, everyone will be better off as a consequence of the said prospect of...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Heterogeneous human capital; Differential externality effects; Migration of educated workers; Human capital formation; Efficient acquisition of human capital; Beneficial brain drain; Labor and Human Capital; F22; J61; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119111
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Disentangling Access and View Amenities in Access-Restricted Coastal Residential Communities AgEcon
Morgan, O. Ashton; Hamilton, Stuart E..
In coastal communities with uniform flood risk, amenity value is comprised of two components – view and access. Having controlled for view, it is assumed that any residual amenity value represents the benefit derived from accessing the beach for leisure/recreational purposes. However, as properties closer to the beach typically have improved viewsheds, the two amenities are highly correlated, and disentangling view and access is problematical. A spatial autoregressive hedonic model captures ease of beach access via a network distance parameter that varies independently from property viewshed, collinearity effects are mitigated, and access and view can be disentangled.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beach access; Property viewshed; Spatial hedonic model; Willingness to pay; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q51; R12; R21; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104620
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DOES NON-FARM INCOME DIVERSIFICATION IN NORTHERN ALBANIA OFFER AN ESCAPE FROM RURAL POVERTY? AgEcon
Meyer, Wiebke; Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
The paper uses up-to-date household data from two Northern-Albanian regions. It summarises socio-economic facts on taking up remunerative non-farm employment and identifies the determinants of non-farm income diversification at the farm household level based on a binary logistic regression. Furthermore, the paper provides insight in the northern-Albanian farming structure, migration patterns, attitudes towards and reasons for income diversification into the non-farm sector. Income diversification indeed has a positive impact on the welfare of the households: A statistically significant increasing trend in incomes with rising diversification level was observed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Non-farm income diversification; Farm households; Migration; Albania; Ausserlandwirtschaftliche Einkommensdiversifizierung; Landwirtschaftliche Haushalte; Migration; Albanien; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Q12; R23; F22; P36.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91912
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Emigration and Wages: The EU Enlargement Experiment AgEcon
Elsner, Benjamin.
This paper studies the impact of a large emigration wave on real wages in the source country. Following EU enlargement in 2004, a large share of the workforce of the Central and Eastern Europe emigrated to Western Europe. Using data from Lithuania for the calibration of a factor demand model I show that emigration had a significant short-run impact on real wages in the source country. In particular, emigration led to a change in the wage distribution between young and old workers. The wages of young workers increased by 6%, whereas the wages of old workers decreased by around 1%. On the contrary, I find no effect on the wage distribution between workers of different education levels.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Emigration; EU Enlargement; European Integration; Wage Distribution; Labor and Human Capital; F22; J31; O15; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119098
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Essays on Regional Differences in Time Preferences and Attachment to Place AgEcon
Yi, Dale.
Data from a national telephone survey of working-aged adults in the continental US is combined with US Census 2000 data to explore the determinants of attachment to place and time preferences for jobs, natural amenities, and financial assets. Five regions in the US were delineated so that regional differences in the determinants of the dependent variables of interest could be parsed out. The regions are the Great Plains, Borderlands, Appalachia, the Plantation Belt, and the rest of the continental US. The first essay that explores time preferences for jobs, natural amenities, and money. Each was embedded with a ten percent rate of return. In aggregate, the nation as a whole demonstrated that the discount rate for jobs, natural amenities, and financial...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Great Plains; Migration; Time preference; Survey; Community attachment; Social capital; Natural amenity; Economic development; Community; Census; Zip code; Policy; Native American; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; R11; R23; R53; R58; Q51; Q52; O13; O15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56009
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Farming Exit Decision by Age Group: Analysis of Tobacco Buyout Impact in Kentucky AgEcon
Pushkarskaya, Helen N.; Vedenov, Dmitry V..
This article analyzes factors that affected the decision to exit tobacco production in the wake of the tobacco buyout program using the data collected through a survey of Kentucky tobacco farmers. Using the Heuristic logistic regression model, we find that the decision to exit tobacco growing was affected by efficiency considerations, availability of off-farm employment, and exit barriers. Availability of off-farm employment had the strongest effect on farmers younger than 46, while the effect of variables measuring efficiency and exit barriers seemed to be more uniform across age groups. Based on the results we suggest several policy interventions.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Age group; Industry exit; Tobacco buyout; Tobacco farming; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Marketing; Production Economics; C25; D21; E24; J00; J11; J24; J43; Q18; R23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56653
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Fiscal Trends: Implications for the Rural South AgEcon
Henry, Mark S.; Barkley, David L.; Li, Haizhen.
Key demographic trends in the rural South over the next decade-the aging of the population as baby boomers enter retirement, continued migration to the South, and rapid increases in shares of Hispanic residents-may have profound consequences for the financing of rural community public services. In this paper, we provide an overview of demographic and economic trends that are expected to influence the ability of rural communities to provide essential public services. In addition, we provide econometric evidence on the impacts that these trends are likely to have on the financing of K-12 education in South Carolina.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demographic trends; Fiscal trends; Government services; Rural South; R11; R23; R51.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37958
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Friction and the Multiplicity of Equilibria AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Paul, Thierry.
In familiar models, a decrease in the friction facing mobile factors (e.g., lowering their adjustment costs) increases a coordination problem, leading to more circumstances where there are multiple equilibria. We show that a decrease in friction can decrease coordination problems if, for example, a production externality arises from a changing stock of knowledge or a changing environmental stock. In general, the relation between the amount of friction that mobile factors face and the likelihood of multiple equilibria is non-monotonic.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indeterminacy; Multiple equilibria; Coordination games; Factor reallocation; Environmental externality; Learning-by-doing; Costs of adjustment; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C61; J21; O13; R23.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25120
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Halting the rural race to the bottom: an evolutionary model of rural development to analyse neo-endogenous policies in the EU AgEcon
Petrick, Martin.
The article contributes to the understanding of neo-endogenous rural development policies from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. Rural development is modelled as the increasing realisation over time of gains from interaction by rural stakeholders. The model exhibits two dynamically stable equilibria, which depict declining and prospering regions. Neo-endogenous policies are interpreted as stimuli emerging from an external government authority which help decentralised actors to coordinate on the superior of the two equilibria. External intervention may thus be possible and desirable without giving up the autonomy of local decision makers. However, because initial conditions matter, outcomes cannot be planned or engineered from the outside.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural governance; Neo-endogenous policies; Evolutionary game theory; Collective action; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C73; R23; R58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94897
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Halting the Rural Race to the Bottom: An Evolutionary Model of Rural Development to Analyse Neo-endogenous Policies in the EU AgEcon
Petrick, Martin.
The article contributes to the understanding of neo-endogenous rural development policies from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. Rural development is modelled as the increasing realisation over time of gains from interaction by rural stakeholders. The model exhibits two dynamically stable equilibria, which depict declining and prospering regions. Neo-endogenous policies are interpreted as stimuli emerging from an external government authority which help decentralised actors to coordinate on the superior of the two equilibria. External intervention may thus be possible and desirable without giving up the autonomy of local decision makers. However, because initial conditions matter, outcomes cannot be planned or engineered from the outside.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural governance; Neo-endogenous policies; Evolutionary game theory; Collective action.; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C73; R23; R58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114764
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Income Segregation and Local Progressive Taxation: Empirical Evidence from Switzerland AgEcon
Schmidheiny, Kurt.
Swiss metropolitan areas are comprised of a system of communities with considerable fiscal autonomy. This study investigates how the income tax differentials across communities in an urban area affect the households` location decisions. Data from the urban agglomeration of Basel for the year 1997 is used. This unique data set contains tax information from all households that moved either within the city center of Basel or from the city center to the outskirts. The community choice of the households is investigated within the framework of the random utility maximization model (RUM). A theoretical model with progressive income taxation is developed to identify the household preferences applied in the RUM. Different econometric spezifications of the error...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Location Choice; Discrete Choice; Multinomial Probit; Mixed Logit; Spatial Autocorrelation; Income Segregation; Public Economics; H71; H73; R20; R23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26217
Registros recuperados: 48
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