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Registros recuperados: 11
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A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON UNDERINVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURAL R&D AgEcon
Roseboom, Johannes.
During the past 40 years, the returns to agricultural R&D have been on average in the range of 40-60% (Alston, et al 2000, Evenson 2001). Many agricultural economists see this high average as convincing evidence that there is significant underinvestment in public agricultural R&D (Ruttan 1980, Pinstrup-Andersen 2001). This paper sheds new light on the underinvestment hypothesis by introducing a simple model of the selection of R&D projects and confronting it with the rate-of-return evidence accumulated over the years worldwide. The model assumes that the distribution of all possible R&D projects on an expected rate-of-return (ERR) scale declines asymptotically. Under the neoclassical conditions of full information and profit maximization,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural R&D; Underinvestment; Rate of return; Research intensities; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19648
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A STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO ESTIMATING RATE OF RETURN EXPECTATIONS OF FARMERS AgEcon
Ahrendsen, Bruce L..
A dual cost function approach is developed as an alternative to time series and simplistic approaches for estimating farmers' expected operating rates of return on assets. A translog restricted cost function is estimated using data provided by 152 North Carolina dairy farmers over the period 1976 through 1986. The predicted costs from the fitted restricted cost function are used to construct estimates of farmers' expected operating rates of return on assets. The estimates from this structural approach explain more of the variation in observed rates than do time series estimates or sample mean observed rates.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Estimating expectations; Rate of return; Translog cost function; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15042
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Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983-94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location AgEcon
Duraisamy, P..
There is hardly any estimate of the returns to schooling in India based on a national level representative data for the recent period. This paper provides estimates of the returns to education in India by gender, age cohort and location (by rural-urban) for the most recent period 1993/4, and also evaluates the changes in returns over a period of time from 1983-94 using a large national level household survey data. The data show that the returns to education increases up to the secondary level and declines thereafter. There is evidence of substantial gender and rural-urban differences in the returns to schooling. The returns to women's education for the primary and middle levels have declined while those for secondary and college levels have increased...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rate of return; Human capital; India; Labor and Human Capital; J31; I21.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28505
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Costing the Ex Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources: Maize and Wheat at CIMMYT AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Koo, Bonwoo; Wright, Brian D.; Van Dusen, M. Eric; Skovmand, Bent; Taba, Suketoshi.
Worldwide, the number of genebanks and the amount of seed stored in them has increased substantially over the past few decades. Most attention is focused on the likely benefits from conservation, but conserving germplasm involves costs whose nature and magnitude are largely unknown. Because more resources spent on conserving germplasm often means less spent on characterizing the collection or using the saved seeds in crop-improvement research, knowledge of the costs of germplasm conservation has important, possibly long run, R&D management, policy, and food-security consequences. Moreover, these costs place a lower bound on the benefits deemed likely to justify the expense of saving this seed. In this paper we compile and use a set of cost data for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Germplasm conservation; Gene banks; Plant; Maize -- Breeding; Wheat -- Breeding; Rate of return; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97509
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Difusão de tecnologia: uma visão neoclássica. Repositório Alice
ALVES, E. R. de A..
Neste trabalho discute-se a difusao do ponto de vista da analise neoclassica. Por essa analise, a adocao de tecnologia, decorrido tempo suficiente para que os agricultores possam avaliar a tecnologia, depende basicamente da taxa de retorno da nova tecnologia comparada com as velhas. Distingue-se a velocidade de adocao do numero de adotantes. Aquela relaciona-se com a taxa de retorno e com as variaveis comumente discutidas nos modelos de difusao. O numero de adotantes e apenas funcao da taxa de retorno. Mostra-se que a escolha de tecnologia depende, em geral, da relacao de precos. Mas ha tecnologias que sao robustas a variacao de precos: serao adotadas mesmo que os precos sofram grandes variacoes.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Velocidade de adocao; Taxa de retorno; Escolha de tecnologia; Speed of adoption; Rate of return; Technology choice.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/89056
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Economic nitrogen rate for fertigation of green corn crop in the Brazilian semiarid PAB
Souza,Ênio Gomes Flôr; Cruz,Ellen Abreu da; França,Rafaela Felix da; Silva,José Madson da; Barros Júnior,Aurélio Paes; Bezerra Neto,Francisco.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the nitrogen rate for fertigation associated with the maximum productivity of green corn (Zea mays) with a lower production cost, in two harvest seasons in the Brazilian semiarid region. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates, and the treatments consisted of four N rates (0, 80, 160, and 240 kg ha-1) in form of urea, applied via drip irrigation. The used cultivar was the Bt Feroz hybrid. The evaluated characteristics were: number and mass of marketable ears, gross income, net income, and rate of return. The greatest amounts of marketable ears were reached with 152.52 kg ha-1 N in summer (41,183.84 ears per hectare) and 190.31 kg ha-1 N in winter (53,291.25 ears per...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Zea mays; Production costs; Rate of return.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2019000101800
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Has the Return on Australian Public Investment in Agricultural Research Changed? AgEcon
Binenbaum, Eran; Mullen, John D.; Wang, Chang Tao.
We examine whether there has been a decline in the returns from Australian public investment in research on broadacre agriculture. Complementing a forthcoming paper by Mullen, we use alternative specifications for the regression equation, which employs the log of total factor productivity (TFP) as the dependent variable. The rate of return is computed on an annual basis rather than by using multi-year averages. In contrast to Mullen’s earlier preliminary analysis, we have now found some evidence of a decline in the rate of return on public R&D investment, lending some support to recently voiced concerns on this matter.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: R&D; Rate of return; Agricultural productivity; Public investment; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6016
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Price and Profit Regulation in Developing and Transition Economies, Methods Used and Problems Faced: A Survey of the Regulators AgEcon
Kirkpatrick, Colin; Parker, David; Zhang, Yin-Fang.
Rate of return or cost of service regulation was the traditional means by which governments, especially in the USA, regulated profitability and prices in privately-owned public utility businesses. However, rate of return regulation was associated with efficiency disincentives. Hence, in 1983 Professor Stephen Littlechild recommended the use of a price cap to regulate British Telecom when it was privatised. Price caps were later introduced for other privatised utilities in the UK, namely gas, airports, water, electricity and the railways. Similarly, other countries that privatised their utility sectors in the 1980s and 1990s often introduced price cap regimes. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey of the methods used to regulate profits...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developing economies; Transition economies; Regulation; Rate of return; Price cap.; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30596
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Rates of Return in the Farm and Nonfarm Sectors: How Do They Compare? AgEcon
Erickson, Kenneth W.; Moss, Charles B.; Mishra, Ashok K..
This study examines the return on agricultural assets relative to nonfinancial corporate assets in the general economy using aggregate bureau of Economic Analysis data. Our results indicate that the rate of return on nonfarm assets dominates the rate of return on agricultural assets. The average rate of return on nonfarm assets is higher than the average rate of return on farm assets, and the variance of the rate of return on nonfarm assets is lower than the variance of the rate of return on farm assets. Furthermore, the rate of return on agricultural assets only exceeds the rate of return in the nonfarm sector in 1992.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm sector accounting; Nonfarm income; Nonfarm sector; Rate of return; Returns to farm assets; Q14; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43477
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Risk analysis and probability of return on invested capital in an intensive beef cattle production system in Minas Gerais, Brazil R. Bras. Zootec.
Santana,Ronan Aparecido Valadares; Barbosa,Fabiano Alvim; Andrade,Venício José de; Molina,Patrícia Caires; Maia Filho,Geraldo Helber Batista; Leão,Juliana Mergh.
ABSTRACT The study evaluated the average return on invested capital (ROIC) in function of the variations in the historical prices of beef cattle and the odds of return on that capital gain within the system of beef cattle fattening on a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007. To calculate the risk of ROIC, monthly data of beef cattle prices (BM&F) were used from July 1997 to December 2013, revised by the General Price Index of the Fundação Getúlio Vargas in December 2013. The corrected data were divided into five classes that correspond to the risk scenarios. In light of these classes, the observed frequencies and their respective probabilities were calculated. The cumulative and updated ROIC were -3.02 and 0.24%, respectively....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Economic; Profitability; Rate of return.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016001200788
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The Role of Mathematical and Verbal Skills on the Returns to Graduate and Professional Education AgEcon
Song, Moohoun; Orazem, Peter F.; Wohlgemuth, Darin.
Students in majors with higher average quantitative GRE scores are less likely to attend graduate school while students in majors with higher average verbal GRE scores are more likely to attend graduate school. This sorting effect means that students whose cognitive skills are associated with lower earnings at the bachelor’s level are the most likely to attend graduate school. As a result, there is a substantial downward bias in estimated returns to graduate education. Correcting for the sorting effect raises estimated annualized returns to a Master’s or doctoral degree from about 5% to 7.3% and 12.8% respectively. Estimated returns to professional degrees rise from 13.9% to 16.6%. These findings correspond to a large increase in relative earnings received...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Postgraduate; Rate of return; Demand for schooling; Quantitative skills; Qualitative skills; Sorting; Labor and Human Capital; J3.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7346
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