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ECONOMIC ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Harwood, Joy L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Dunahay, Terry; Heisey, Paul W.; Hoffman, Linwood A.; Klotz-Ingram, Cassandra; Lin, William W.; Mitchell, Lorraine; McBride, William D.; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge.
Agricultural biotechnology has been advancing very rapidly, and while it presents many promises, it also poses as many questions. Many dimensions to agricultural biotechnology need to be considered to adequately inform public policy. Policy is made more difficult by the fact that agricultural biotechnology encompasses many policy issues addressed in very different ways. We have identified several key areas — agricultural research policy, industry structure, production and marketing, consumer issues, and future world food demand — where agricultural biotechnology is dramatically affecting the public policy agenda. This report focuses on the economic aspects of these issues and addresses some current and timely issues as well as longer term issues.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Economics; Adoption; Patents; Research policy; Markets; Market segmentation; Identity preservation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33735
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Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development Ecology and Society
Kueffer, Christoph; Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich; kueffer@env.ethz.ch; Underwood, Evelyn; Alliance for Global Sustainability, ETH Zurich;; Hirsch Hadorn, Gertrude; Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich;; Holderegger, Rolf; Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich; WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute;; Pohl, Christian; Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich;; Schirmer, Mario; Eawag;; Stauffacher, Michael; Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich;; Wuelser, Gabriela; Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich;; Edwards, Peter; Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich; Alliance for Global Sustainability, ETH Zurich;.
Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Interdisciplinarity; Knowing-doing gap; Outreach; Participation; Post-normal science; Problem-oriented research; Research partnership; Research policy; Science-policy nexus; Social learning; Transdisciplinarity; Transition management.
Ano: 2012
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HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH IN THE NETHERLANDS: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES FOR 2010 AgEcon
van Oosten, H.J..
Major shifts in world economy, society and technology will cause dramatic changes in Dutch horticulture and in the attitude of the government towards research. The horticulture industry will change from a production-driven to a customer-driven strategy while developing market-oriented product chains. More than ever, knowledge becomes a critical factor in competition. In contrast with the past, the horticulture industry will protect knowledge to increase its profitability. The government will choose to focus on basic sciences, leaving applied research mainly to the industry. This is a major shift since the government used to be responsible for most research. Complete institutional research programmes are no longer state-financed; instead, a system of...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Foresight; Research policy; Strategy development; Horticulture; Netherlands; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12014
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Perspectives on 21st Century Agriculture: A Tribute to Walter J. Armbruster AgEcon
Contents: The enduring legacy of Farm Foundation, by David P. Ernstes; Passing the torch: The generational transition for nonadvocacy public education and outreach, by Otto C. Doering III; Collaboration and institutional innovation, by Mark A. Edelman; The alternatives-consequences approach, by Harold M. Harris; Role of Farm Foundation in policy education, by Charles W. Stenholm; Enhancing small and minority farm profitability and rural community viability through new partnerships, by Walter A. Hill; Will Extension be relevant in the 21st Century? by Edward G. Smith and Roland D. Smith; U.S. agricultural research and technology policy for the 21st Century, by Julian M. Alston and Philip G. Pardey; Agricultural research and extension policy in retrospect:...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Research policy; Extension policy; Policy; Rural conditions; Rural policy; Globalization; Agricultural structure; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36830
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PUBLIC SECTOR PLANT BREEDING IN A PRIVATIZING WORLD AgEcon
Thirtle, Colin G.; Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Heisey, Paul W..
Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector. Several economic factors influence the relative shares of public versus private sector plant breeding activity, with varying results over time, over country, and over crop. The private sector, for example, dominates corn breeding throughout the industrialized world, but public and private activities in wheat breeding differ widely in Western Europe, different regions of the United States, Canada, and Australia. Public sector involvement in plant breeding may have benefits to society that the private sector's activities may not, fostering greater sharing of...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Plant breeding; Economics; Public sector; Private sector; Research policy; Biotechnology; Intellectual property; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33775
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The evolution of local participation and the mode of knowledge production in Arctic research Ecology and Society
Brunet, Nicolas D.; Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University; nicolas.brunet@mail.mcgill.ca; Hickey, Gordon M.; Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University; gordon.hickey@mcgill.ca; Humphries, Murray M.; Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University; murray.humphries@mcgill.ca.
Arctic science is often claimed to have been transformed by the increased involvement of local people, but these claims of a new research paradigm have not been empirically evaluated. We argue that the "new" participatory research paradigm emerging in Arctic science embodies many of the principles of the Mode 2 knowledge production framework. Using the Mode 2 thesis as an assessment framework, we examined research articles appearing between 1965 and 2010 in the journal Arctic to assess the extent to which there has been a paradigm shift toward more participatory approaches. Results suggest that the involvement of local people has increased only slightly over the last half century and continues to vary systematically among disciplines, organizations, and...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Civic science; Community participation; Environmental change; Mode 2; Research policy; Traditional knowledge.
Ano: 2014
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