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Registros recuperados: 22
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A study of the abilities in oral language comprehension of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination - Portuguese version: a reference guide for the Brazilian population BJMBR
Mansur,L.L.; Radanovic,M.; Taquemori,L.; Greco,L.; Araújo,G.C..
We analyzed the performance of 162 normal subjects, subdivided into groups according to age and schooling, in the oral comprehension tasks of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese to obtain a profile of performance for the Brazilian population, as well as cut-off scores for each task, and to determine the best combination of tasks that distinguish normal from aphasic subjects, as a guide for clinicians. The normal subjects were compared to 69 aphasics. Age alone influenced the performance in the designation of actions (subjects above 70 years showing the worst performance); schooling alone influenced the comprehension of forms, colors and numbers (subjects with less than four years of education showing a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Oral comprehension; Age; Schooling; Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; Brazilian Portuguese.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2005000200017
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Acoustic observations in the Bay of Biscay: Schooling, vertical distribution, species assemblages and behaviour ArchiMer
Masse, Jacques.
Eight acoustic surveys were carried our in the Bay of Biscay, during 1989-94, to study the distribution and abundance of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) in that area. Acoustic data were stored using the INES/MOVIES acquisition and processing system. Species-specific distribution patterns were confirmed through complementary sampling with a mid-water trawl. This paper summarises the combination of technical procedures used for acoustic assessments, and the results of acoustic surveys in the Bay of Biscay that pertain to the dynamics of this stock. Information is presented on the distribution and abundance of anchovy and co-occuring species, and on the movement patterns detected within the pelagic fish community, in relation to environmental conditions....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Acoustic; Anchovy; Engraulis encrasicolus; Schooling; Pelagic; Behaviour; Bay of Biscay.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00191/30265/28719.pdf
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AN OVERVIEW OF IMMIGRATION AND THE CHANGING FACE OF RURAL CALIFORNIA: THE CENTRAL SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines the aggregate performance of California agriculture relative to Florida and U.S. agriculture, 1960-1993, the economics of the California raisin grape industry which uses large quantities of migratory labor for the grape harvest, and schools and schooling of farm workers'’ children in the Parlier area. The major conclusions are that the labor intensity of California (and Florida) agriculture has fallen much less than for the whole U.S., the raisin grape industry of the Central San Joaquin Valley is struggling due to labor availability and prospects of greater foreign competition, and schooling is one of the most promising routes to a better life for the children of adult farm workers.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Immigration; Raisin grapes; Farm workers; Schools; Schooling; Small town; California; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18249
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Determining factors for an increase in consumption of fresh vegetable by habitants in the Caribbean region of Colombia Acta Agron. (Palmira)
Martínez-Reina,Antonio María.
Abstract The aim of this study was to establish elements to understand the consumers reasons to increase the quantities of fresh vegetables consumed in the Caribbean Region of Colombia. With information from 308 surveys applied randomly in seven cities of the Caribbean Region and using a structured survey that included variables such as age, family composition, prices, income, a Logit econometric model was formulated. Furthermore, with the contingent valuation method, parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood; moreover, the reasons that explain the possibility that families increase vegetable consumption were identified. Results allow us to appreciate first that 53 % of the surveyed respondents would be willing to increase consumption. The...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Preferences; Decisions; Prices; Income; Age; Schooling; Quantity; Quality; Vegetable consumption.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-28122019000100001
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Diet, Epidemiological Factors and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Elderly Population BABT
França,Vivian Francielle; Azzolini,Thairine; Pissaia,Ediane; Bortoloti,Durcelina Schiavoni; Signorini,Taise; Costa,Lediana Dalla; Souza,Marília Moraes Queiroz; Lívero,Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis; Lovato,Evellyn Claudia Wietzikoski.
ABSTRACT Purpose Population aging is one of the great achievements of humanity. However, with aging, the incidence of chronic diseases and those related to cognition deficits increase. In this way, strategies aimed at preventing or delaying cognitive deficit are extremely necessary. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between cognitive deficits, schooling and eating habits in a Brazilian elderly population. Methods The dietary habits of 400 older adults were investigated through structured questionnaires. Unhealthy eating habits such as low consumption of fruits, vegetables and beans, consumption of fatty meats and whole milk, adjusted for other variables, were evaluated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aging; Cognitive; Diet; Fruits; Schooling; Vegetable.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132018000100327
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Economic Growth, Comparative Advantage, and Gender Differences in Schooling Outcomes: Evidence from the Birthweight Differences of Chinese Twins AgEcon
Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Zhang, Junsen.
Data from two surveys of twins in China are used to contribute to an improved understanding of the role of economic development in affecting gender differences in the trends in, levels of, and returns to schooling observed in China and in many developing countries in recent decades. In particular, we explore the hypothesis that these phenomena reflect differences in comparative advantage with respect to skill and brawn between men and women in the context of changes in incomes, returns to skill, and/or nutritional improvements that are the result of economic development and growth.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Schooling; Gender; Twins; China; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis; J24; J16; I15; I25; O15.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121672
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Female Household-Headship in Rural Bangladesh: Incidence, Determinants and Impact on Children's Schooling AgEcon
Joshi, Shareen.
This paper uses data from Matlab, Bangladesh to examine the characteristics of female-headed households and estimate the impact of female-headship on children’'s schooling. Female householdheads in Matlab fall into two broad groups: widows and married women, most of whom are wives of migrants. These women differ from each other not only in their current socio-economic circumstances, but also in their backgrounds and circumstances prior to getting married. To identify the effects of female-headship on children’'s outcomes, I use a two-stage least squares strategy that controls for the possible endogeneity of both types of female-headship. Results indicate that children residing in households headed by married women have stronger schooling attainments than...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Female-headed Households; Widowhood; Migration; Schooling; Labor and Human Capital; J12; J13; J16; I21; O15.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28424
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Gender, Labor, and Prime-Age Adult Mortality: Evidence from South Africa AgEcon
Yamauchi, Futoshi; Buthelezi, Thabani; Velia, Myriam.
This paper examines the impact of prime-age adult mortality on the transition from school to the labor market of adolescents and on decisions by female adults to participate in the labor force in South Africa. The analysis focuses on that period— 1998–2004—when South Africa experienced excess mortality due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We find, first, that deaths of prime-age adults significantly increase both male and female adolescents’ labor force participation because they stop their schooling in order to help support their families. Female school enrollment may also decrease because girls are required to stay at home to take care of the sick. Therefore, the total negative impact on schooling is larger among female adolescents than among male adolescents....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Prime-age adult mortality; Schooling; Labor supply; Gender; South Africa; Health Economics and Policy; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55893
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HUMAN CAPITAL: EDUCATION AND AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
This chapter presents a review and synthesis of effects of education in agriculture, summarizes major contributions, and suggests major research gaps in the literature. Although growth in knowledge enables skill acquisition and specialization of labor, which generally raises labor productivity, and technical change, the dominant effect on agriculture has been technical change. A puzzle remains why schooling does not have broader direct impacts in agriculture. Furthermore, as we proxy education or general intellectual achievement by schooling in our empirical research, this has led to biased interpretations of impacts when general intellectual achievement of school graduate changes over time and perhaps in nonlinear ways.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Education; Schooling; Agriculture; Human capital; Impact analysis; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18264
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HUMAN CAPITAL, EDUCATION, AND AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
Education is widely recognized as the most important form of human capital, and health as the second most important form. The primary focus is on schooling where private and social real rates of return remain high in low and middle income countries for elementary and secondary schooling. The paper reviews broad effects of education in agriculture, and examines some of the prospects and potential for the future. Conclusions include: (i) schooling cannot be viewed as unconditionally productive in agriculture. It s impact is conditioned by the price and technology environment and options for off-farm work and migration. (ii) With rapid advances and fall prices of communication and information technologies, farm people of the future will need strong basic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Schooling; Education; Human capital; Agriculture; Information technologies; Training; Global agriculture; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18269
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Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy AgEcon
Pitt, Mark M.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Hassan, Md. Nazmul.
We use a model of human capital investment and activity choice to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments. These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness on schooling for females relative to males. The model incorporates gender differences in the level and responsiveness of brawn to nutrition in a Roy-economy setting in which activities reward skill and brawn differentially. Empirical evidence from rural Bangladesh provides support for the model and the importance of the distribution of brawn.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Brawn; Health; Schooling; Gender; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O1; J1; J2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93916
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Human Capital, Schooling and Health Returns AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population’s child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Health; Productivity; Human capital; Schooling; Returns; Labor and Human Capital; J24; I12; I21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28475
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Labor Supply, Schooling and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania AgEcon
Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Nyshadham, Anant.
We estimate the effects of higher quality healthcare usage on health, labor supply and schooling outcomes for sick individuals in Tanzania. Using exogenous variation in the cost of formal sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that using better quality care improves health outcomes and changes the allocation of time amongst productive activities. In particular, sick adults who receive better quality care reallocate time from non-farm to farm labor, leaving total labor hours unchanged. Among sick children, school attendance significantly increases as a result of receiving higher quality healthcare, but labor allocations are unaffected. We interpret these results as evidence that healthcare has heterogeneous effects on marginal productivity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor supply; Health shocks; Schooling; Tanzania; Health Economics and Policy; Labor and Human Capital; I10; J22; J43; O12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107260
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Marriage, Schooling, and Excess Mortality in Prime-Age Adults: Evidence from South Africa AgEcon
Yamauchi, Futoshi.
The institution of marriage plays some role in determining one’s risk of exposure to HIV. Since the transmission of HIV in the population is mainly through sexual activity, avoiding infection depends on risk-avoiding behavior. Consistently, empirical results show that excess mortality is concentrated in not-yet married adults aged 20-39 among both men and women. Therefore, the choice of when and who to marry appears to be related to risk of exposure. The objective of this paper is to determine the effect that schooling has on HIV/AIDS excess mortality, using panel data from South Africa. This paper tests the hypothesis that schooling affects when and who one marries and thus impacts the risk of mortality from HIV/AIDS. The effect could be negative or...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Marriage; Schooling; Excess mortality; HIV/AIDS; South Africa; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42423
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Microeconomic Approaches to Development: Schooling, Learning, and Growth AgEcon
Rosenzweig, Mark R..
I illustrate the variety of approaches to development issues microeconomists employ, focusing on studies that illuminate and quantify the major mechanisms posited by growth theorists who highlight the role of education in fostering growth. I begin with a basic issue: what are the returns to schooling? I discuss microeconomic studies that estimate schooling returns using alternative approaches to estimating wage equations, which require assumptions that are unlikely to be met in low-income countries, looking at inferences based on how education interacts with policy and technological changes in the labor and marriage markets. I then review research addressing whether schooling facilitates learning, or merely imparts knowledge, and whether there is social...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Schooling; Development; Growth; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O11; O15; O33; J24.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59442
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Normative data for the Brazilian population in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: influence of schooling BJMBR
Radanovic,M.; Mansur,L.L.; Scaff,M..
In Neurolinguistics, the use of diagnostic tests developed in other countries can create difficulties in the interpretation of results due to cultural, demographic and linguistic differences. In a country such as Brazil, with great social contrasts, schooling exerts a powerful influence on the abilities of normal individuals. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of schooling on the performance of normal Brazilian individuals in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE), in order to obtain reference values for the Brazilian population. We studied 107 normal subjects ranging in age from 15 to 84 years (mean ± SD = 47.2 ± 17.6 years), with educational level ranging from 1 to 24 years (9.9 ± 4.8 years). Subjects were compared...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; Schooling; Brazilian population.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004001100019
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Schooling behaviour of small pelagic fish: phenotypic expression of independent stimuli ArchiMer
Brehmer, Patrice; Gerlotto, François; Laurent, Charline; Cotel, Pascal; Achury, Alina; Samb, Birane.
We compared echo sounder measurements of fish schools on Venezuelan and Senegalese coastal shelves. In both areas Sardinella aurita was the predominant aggregative species; the stocks are known to be genetically independent. Persistent school typology is described by analysing 7 acoustic surveys in Venezuela and comparing with pioneer observations in Senegal. The echo types encountered in both countries were comparable, with S. aurita and their associated species having comparable schooling behaviour. School morphology appears to be more related to species than to global characteristics of their ecosystems, as fish school descriptors were similar for both stocks. Nevertheless, S. aurita may adopt different school morphologies. Differentiation between day...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Small pelagic fish; Schooling; Phenotypic expression; In situ observations; Echo type; Diel cycle; Behaviour.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2536.pdf
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The Effect of Parents' Occupation on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil AgEcon
Parikh, Anokhi; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
This paper investigates how child labor and schooling are responsive to opportunities to work, in particular to opportunities provided by children's own parents. The paper demonstrates that after controlling for household, parental, regional, and child characteristics, children whose parents are self-employed or employers are more likely to work than children of employees, irrespective of the sector of parent activity. Furthermore, the paper also confirms a recent finding that children from areas with high average adult employment rates are more likely to work than children from areas with low average adult employment rates. Finally, since twice as many children of the self-employed and employers both work and go to school as those of employees, the paper...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child labor; Schooling; Latin America; Brazil; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25045
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The Long-Term Impacts of Orphanhood on Education Attainment and Land Inheritance among Adults in Rural Kenya AgEcon
Yamano, Takashi.
The long-term economic impacts of the AIDS epidemic on orphans have been major concerns in countries hit by the epidemic. Responding to these concerns, previous studies have investigated the schooling of orphans. Yet, few studies have investigated the impacts of orphan status into adulthood. Therefore, this paper examines the education attainment and land inheritance of former orphans, who have lost at least one parent before reaching 15, by using a survey of 889 households in Kenya in 2004. In the survey, we have asked the ages of household members when they lost their parents, if they have suffered such a loss, and identified former orphans. Among individuals who started schooling before the Free Education Program introduced in 1974, we find about a one...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Orphans; Land Inheritance; Schooling; Kenya; Labor and Human Capital; I0; I3; J1; O1; Q15.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25263
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The Socioeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Outcomes in Uganda: School Enrolment and the Schooling Gap in 2002/03 AgEcon
Kasirye, Ibrahim; Hisali, Eria.
Due to high prime-age mortality in Uganda, a result of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the number of children who have lost at least one parent continues to rise in the country. The increase in numbers of orphans has challenged the overall socio-protection mechanisms and in particular threatens the country’s ability to achieve education development targets. Using the 2002/03 Uganda National Household Survey, this study investigates the impact of parental death—from HIV/AIDS as well as causes on the school enrollment and grade for age school progression. We find that HIV/AIDS orphans are not significantly less likely to continue schooling but are by far more likely to fall below their appropriate grade. On the other hand, we find that all orphans—regardless of cause...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Education; Schooling; EPRC; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113624
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