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Registros recuperados: 44
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Amélioration de la résistance des stratifiés pour bateaux ArchiMer
Hildebrand, M.
The material properties of over 50 different laminates made by a group of Finnish boat-yards have been measured in a large test project. Tension, compression, bending, interlaminar shear and impact tests have been carried out for all the laminates. Among others, different polyester resins, different woven and non-woven fabrics, chopped strand mat and unidirectional roving were used as basic ply materials. The effect of various parameters has been determined not only on the maximum failure strength, but also on the strain level at which the first failure occurs. Main differences between the ratio of static and impact test results of the different materials have been determined. The results show that by choosing certain material parameters efficiently,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Strength; Ship technology; Composite materials; Résistance mécanique; Bateaux; Stratifiés; Matériaux composites.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1084.pdf
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Analyse par elements finis d'un catamaran sur coussin d'air en sandwich ArchiMer
Hermundstad, O; Moan, T; Nordal, H.
This paper deals with the structural analysis of transverse frames and bulkheads in sandwich catamarans. Finite element analyses of a frame and a bulkhead have been carried out, and the results are compared to those obtained from a finite element model of the entire craft. The frame and the bulkhead have been analysed with five different boundary conditions. Four idealized load combinations have been applied, and it is demonstrated that transverse frame models can give quite inaccurate results. This is due to the difficulty in deciding the relevant support springs to represent the interaction between the actual frame and the other part of the structure. When designing a new type of vessel, it is recommended to carry out a global finite element analysis...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hovercraft; Ship technology; Composite materials; Analyse par éléments finis; Structure sandwich; Catamaran à coussin d'air.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1076.pdf
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Application of multiaxial reinforcements in the marine industry. ArchiMer
Taby, J; Hoyning, B.
Knitted multiaxial reinforcement are today more and more commonly used in the production of marine vessels. This is due to superior strength compared to traditional reinforcements such as woven roving and chopped strand mat. Strength properties in different resins are documented, and multiaxial and woven reinforcements are compared. Special attention is paid to interlaminar properties, and it is apparent that no intermediate layers of chopped strand mat are necessary when using multiaxial reinforcement. Methods of analysis are discussed, the influence of fibre orientation on strength and stiffness of structures is described, and a case study reveals considerable weight and cost saving potential.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Matériaux composites; Renforts multiaxiaux; Tissus cousus.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1061.pdf
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Applications de la thermographie infrarouge au controle non destructif des materiaux composites utilises en construction navale ArchiMer
Lesbre, F; Potet, P; Artiga, F.
Composite materials used in naval construction use mainly glass fibres and fabrics and epoxy resins for monolithic structures and syntactic foams or balsa wood for the core of sandwich structures. Traditional non destructive testing (NDT) methods such as ultrasonics or radiography do not always ensure a complete check of the structure, principally due to the strong heterogeneity of these materials. In order to improve this situation the DCN has developed a test method based on the use of active infrared thermography. The technique consists of illuminating the structure with a powerful lamp and observing the cooling of the surface with an infrared camera. Defects present act as obstacles to heat transmission in the material and cause thermal anomalies on...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Epoxy resins; Fibre glass; Ship technology; Composite materials; Sous marin; NDT; Infrarouge; Thermographie.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1050.pdf
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Applications marines des composites a matrice metallique d'aluminium assembles par collage (MMC) ArchiMer
Davies, R; Ritchie, M; Trumper, R.
Metal matrix composites (MMC) offer a unique combination of properties that make this class of material ideally suited to the fabrication of components subjected to complex loads, such as marine structures. In many marine applications the dominant requirement is for a reduction in structural weight, and where failure occurs by elastic buckling stiffness is critical. MMC's encompass a very broad class of materials which may be subdivided into three main groups: particulate, whisker and continuous fibre reinforced metals. These materials offer improvements in stiffness and the strength to weight ratio over conventional alloys. However, the ability to construct efficient marine structures is constrained by the ability to join these materials both to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Adhesion; Adhesives; Ship technology; Composite materials; Traitement de surface; Collage; Structures marines; Composites à matrice métallique.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1079.pdf
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Approche experimentale du comportement d'une plaque composite sous effet d'un choc perforant ArchiMer
Paris, P; Genin, D; Hamelin, P.
Our purpose in this paper is to study the behaviour of composite materials reinforced by glass satin weave 8 fabric under the impact of a projectile. The first part of this paper deals with experimental tests carried out using a servo-hydraulic machine. The hydraulic ram can be programmed to impact the specimen at any desired velocity between a few tenths of a millimetre per minute and 20 m/s. In the second part, these experimental results are compared with the numerical results of bidimensional finite difference code AUTODYN. This program allows the numerical simulation of the penetration of composite plates by projectiles.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ship technology; Collisions; Materials testing; Simulation; Mathematical models; Numerical analysis; Composite materials; Essai de choc; Réponse dynamique; Simulation numérique; Plaque composite; Impact.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1045.pdf
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Aspects de conception et de construction d'un bateau d'assaut en composites ArchiMer
Kader, A; Yaakob, O; Samian, Y.
To help spur the defence industry in Malaysia, the Government is encouraging indigenous research and development effort. This paper describes the development of a prototype fibreglass assault boat at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The boat, designed for riverine and coastal water operations was modelled on aluminium boats currently used by the Malaysian Armed Forces. The completed boat has been evaluated and some minor modifications will be made on the final prototype to be built soon.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Malaysia; Ship technology; Fibre glass; Ship design; Glass reinforced plastics; Composite materials; Conception; Fibre de verre; Construction; Bateau d'assaut.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1057.pdf
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Atlas de fractographie des composites ArchiMer
Jeannetaud, P; Krawczak, P; Bequignat, R; Pabiot, J; Bord, C; Vancon, M; Bard, M; Lemascon, A.
Fractography deals with the microscopic study of the fracture surfaces of a structure in order to define the initiation and the propagation of the damage and then the failure history of the structure (stress, environment ...). Today, we are able to identify the causes of the failure of metallic parts based on pictures of typical fracture surfaces, but there is nothing similar for composite materials. However, the increasing amount of literature devoted to fractography, as well as the constitution of "brain storming" groups on a European level confirm scientific interest in this fracture analysis mode that permits a better understanding of the existing relationship between the material's microscopic structure and its macroscopic mechanical behaviour. In...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fractures; Damage; Failures; Ship technology; Composite materials; Endommagement; Rupture; Défaillance; Analyse d'avaries; Fractographie.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1060.pdf
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Contribution a l'usinage des materiaux composites ArchiMer
Guegan, P; Lemaitre, F; Hamann, J.
While machining is generally to be avoided in the fabrication of components with composite materials, nevertheless many parts require some machining, drilling or milling after moulding. Machining of these materials involves the risk of damage in the machined region. It is therefore important to study the possible sources of damage and to quantify their extent for different drilling and milling operations.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Damage; Drilling; Ship technology; Composite materials; Usinage; Matériau composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1080.pdf
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Correlation essais-calcul pour materiaux composites en application marine ArchiMer
Choqueuse, Dominique; Davies, Peter; Bigourdan, Benoit.
The use of finite element calculations is valuable in the design of composite structures, but few examples of correlations between measured behaviour and finite element calculations are currently available. After definition of a representative type of structure (a stiffened sandwich boat hull), and construction of a test set-up allowing the loading of such panels (uniform pressure loading of 1 m by 2 m panels), modelling was performed in four laboratories using different finite element codes. The results obtained (deflections and strains) have been correlated with test results. A satisfactory correlation is obtained for deflections (differences around 20% for the central deflection) but the correlation between measured and calculated strains is less...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Tests; Materials testing; Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Raidisseur; Mousse PVC; Panneau sandwich; Clément fini; Pression répartie.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1046.pdf
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Dégradation de matériaux composites dans un environment marin: Nouveaux materiaux et methodes d'essais ArchiMer
Pomies, F; Carlsson, L; Choqueuse, Dominique; Davies, Peter.
The change in composite material properties when these are exposed to a marine environment is of considerable importance to both designers and users of these materials. In this paper new materials are first studied, composites composed of a glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic PPS matrix. It is shown that their poor interfacial resistance to moisture ingress compromises severely the advantage of using a matrix which does not absorb moisture. In the second part of the paper the application of two non-destructive test techniques for following damage development, based on ultrasonic wave propagation and vibration (modal) analysis, are described. These are complemented by first results from a study using fracture mechanics tests to characterise delamination...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fractures; Vibration; Epoxy resins; Tests; Materials testing; Mechanical properties; Ultrasonics; Moisture; Ship technology; Composite materials; Mécanique de la rupture; Vibration; Ultrasonique; Thermoplastique; Epoxyde; Humidité.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1064.pdf
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Dommage composites pendant l'expertise de bateaux en matériaux composites ArchiMer
Barnouin, Bruno; Renaud, P.
The main conclusions drawn from examinations made by an expert over the last twelve years on boats in the Bay of Arcachon, including both motor and sailing boats, are presented. The different types of damage most frequently observed in different areas of the boats are described, with distinctions made between superstructures, areas below the water-line and other components. The damage is defined, common repair methods are described and simple design modifications to avoid the problems are discussed. In conclusion, it is apparent that the problems related specifically to aging of the material are rare or very rare. With improved fabrication methods and mastery of the design process in-service experience fully justifies the position of composite materials as...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Motor boats; Inspection; Accidents; Yachts; Damage; Ship technology; Composite materials; Plaisance; Réparation; Accident; Dommage; Avarie.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1066.pdf
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Elements sur le comportement experimental et numerique de la structure d'un voilier de 7m70 en cours de navigation ArchiMer
Baley, C; Cailler, M.
The experimental sailing boat "Mesure Z," has been designed and built on behalf of F.I.N., (the French marine industry association). This research project has been managed in close collaboration with Bureau Veritas, Ifremer and the CEA. The GRP hull is similar to that of a production sailing boat, but it has been designed as a transducer-hull, i.e. a hull sufficiently sensitive to allow measurements (hull strains, acceleration, spar loads, etc), due to its structure and mechanical characteristics. This paper presents different aspects of the experimental boat, the materials and structure of the transducer-hull, and the behaviour of the central and bow regions of the hull during sailing.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Finite element method; Navigation; Measurement; Boating; Sailing ships; Mechanical properties; Ship technology; Composite materials; Navigation; Comportement mécanique; Eléments finis; Mesure; Matériau composite; Voilier.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1073.pdf
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Endommagement mecanique de materiaux composites. Role sur les proprietes hygrothermiques ArchiMer
Perreux, D; Suri, C; Varchon, D; Oytana, C.
The mechanical behaviour of polymer based glass fibre composites depends on the damage level and the amount of moisture present. Two anelastic damage models, both adapted to the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyester matrix polymers, are proposed. A coupling effect between the kinetics of damage and moisture level is shown.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Moisture; Damage; Modelling; Ship technology; Mechanical properties; Composite materials; Humidité; Endommagement; Modélisation; Comportement; Matériau composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1062.pdf
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Essai de caractérisation sous pression de panneaux en composites pour structures marines ArchiMer
Reichard, R.
Traditional testing of FRP sandwich panels using uniaxial loading provides useful data for structural designers, but these tests do not work well for multiaxially reinforced laminates or for sandwich laminates. Sandwich laminates are generally used to increase the flexural properties of a panel. Flexural testing of sandwich beams does not address panel membrane effects, which can be significant. As a result, a number of different methods have been developed for testing panels. Experiments with multiaxial FRP sandwich panels have been conducted to evaluate the behavior of panel laminates with various fiber orientations and core materials under both static pressure loading and hydrodynamic shock loading. The test apparatus and methods are described, and the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Test equipment; Loads (forces); Pressure effects; Pressure; Materials testing; Ship technology; Composite materials; Panneau composite; Pression répartie; Choc; Sandwich; Essais.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1086.pdf
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Etude du vieillissement de composites verre resine en milieu marin ArchiMer
Gutierrez, J; Lelay, F; Hoarau, P.
Evolution of glass fibre-resin composites (polyester, epoxy and vinylester) after 30 years in a marine environment has been anticipated by the compilation of the Naval Construction Direction test results. This study showed that 120 degree C epoxy prepreg, in spite of improved initial performance, was more affected by water environment aging than other composites. Post-curing of epoxy and vinylester composites does not significantly improve resistance to water degradation except in the case of high temperature aging (60-70 degree C).
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ship technology; Age; Aging; Composite materials; Fibre glass; Vieillissement accéléré; Vieillissement naturel; Composite verre résine.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1056.pdf
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Evaluation expérimentale et théorique du comportement de panneaux de superstructures en composites ArchiMer
Damonte, R; Iaccarino, R; Puccini, G; Rizzuto, E; Tedeschi, R.
Composite materials represent for shipbuilding industries a possible way to improve the competitiveness of products, particularly in the field of high technology vessels where high strength and stiffness to weight ratios allow increased payload capacity to be obtained, improved performances and lower propulsion costs. In fact with these materials the designer can obtain considerable saving in structural weights, easier production and assembly techniques for complex shapes structures, and better long term performances of the structures when exposed to the marine environment. Unfortunately potentially wide application of F.R.P. structures is restrained by a general lack of knowledge on the mechanical and physical behaviour of these structures. In this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Evaluation; Ship design; Numerical analysis; Glass reinforced plastics; Ship technology; Composite materials; Etude expérimentale; Etude numérique; Panneaux sandwich; Superstructures navales.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1085.pdf
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Flambement global et local des materiaux composites: Application aux mats de voiliers ArchiMer
Devaux, H.
The mast-rigging combination of a yacht is the structural element which transmits the aerodynamic forces on the sails to the yacht's structure. This load transmission element is in general made up of a mast, a long, thin tube, and the rigging which is a collection of cables linking the mast to the deck. These elements are long, often longer than the hull, with a high centre of gravity and it is essential to obtain as low a mass as possible, both for safety and performance. This search for weight gain imposes the use of lighter and lighter materials: wood, then aluminium alloys and most recently, since the early 1980's, composite materials. The use of the latter is the subject of this paper.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Composite materials; Deformation; Ship design; Ship technology; Eléments finis; Gréement; Mât; Flambement.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1078.pdf
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Innovations and technical-economic aspects of structural and non-structural applications of composite materials on large passenger vessels and merchant ships. ArchiMer
Maccari, A; Farolfi, F.
Considerable interest is presently being shown in research, design and practical application of composite materials within Fincantieri Merchant Shipbuilding Division. This paper is intended to discuss the state-of-the-art and the innovations in hull, outfitting and accommodation applications, where traditional steel or light alloy can be successfully replaced by composites. The impact on design and production is outlined, with an overview of the economic effects of these materials on technology, production and safety requirements, which remain an open subject for the future possible developments.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Safety devices; Accommodation; Ship technology; Ship design; Ship hulls; Composite materials; Economie; Sécurité; Cabine; Equipement; Coque; Matériau composite.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1053.pdf
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La conception de structures navales en sandwich: Un probleme inverse ArchiMer
Holm, D; Esping, B; Romell, O; Campion, F.
An integrated approach is introduced for the solution of the inverse problem: which are the lamina orientation, laminate constitution, core quality and thickness combination ensuring specified objective(s) to be reached? The optimal solution is obtained using mathematically stringent optimization methods (the Method of Moving Asymptotes, MMA) coupled with finite element analysis, interactive graphic pre- and post-processing and parametric modelling, as implemented in OASIS-ALADDIN. This approach has been applied to the optimal design of the hull structure of a Surface Effect Ship made of GRP-sandwich. The objective was to minimize the weight of the ship by determining the optimum skin and core thicknesses of structural members of the hull as well as web...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Finite element method; Glass reinforced plastics; Ship hulls; Safety devices; Ship technology; Ship design; Composite materials; Sandwich; Composite; Problème inverse; Sensibilité; Optimisation.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-1054.pdf
Registros recuperados: 44
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