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4-Aminopyridine inhibits the neuromuscular effects of nitric oxide and 8-Br-cGMP BJMBR
Queiroz,R.N.; Ramos,E.R.P.; Alves-Do-Prado,W..
The effects induced by nitric oxide (NO) in different tissues depend on direct and/or indirect interactions with K+ channels. The indirect interaction of NO is produced by activation of guanylyl cyclase which increases the intracellular cGMP. Since NO, cGMP and 4-aminopyridine alone induce tetanic fade and increase amplitude of muscular contractions in isolated rat neuromuscular preparations, the present study was undertaken to determine whether or not the neuromuscular effects of NO and 8-Br-cGMP can be modified by 4-aminopyridine. Using the phrenic nerve and diaphragm muscle isolated from male Wistar rats (200-250 g), we observed that L-arginine (4.7 mM) and 8-Br-cGMP (18 µM), in contrast to D-arginine, induced an increase in the amplitude of muscle...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: L-arginine; Nitric oxide; CGMP; Skeletal muscle; Tetanic fade; K+ channel.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2003000700016
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A new model for the immobilization of the rat hind limb BJMBR
Coutinho,E.L.; Gomes,A.R.S.; França,C.N.; Salvini,T.F..
An alternative device for the immobilization of the hind limb of the rat was developed to study the effects of chronic disuse on the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles, maintained for 3 weeks in the shortening and the stretching positions, respectively. The proposed device is made of steel mesh and cotton materials, and has some advantages when compared to cast or plaster cast: it is cheaper, lighter (12 g or 4% of the body weight of the rat) and the same unit can be easily adjusted and used several times in the same animal or in animals of similar size. Immobilization is also useful to restrain the movements of the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Male rats (291 ± 35 g and aged 14 ± 2 weeks) were used to develop and test the model. The soleus muscle of 18...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Muscle immobilization; Muscle shortening; Muscle stretching; Soleus muscle; Tibialis anterior; Skeletal muscle.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2002001100010
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Action of neuwiedase, a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops neuwiedi venom, on skeletal muscle: an ultrastructural and immunocytochemistry study J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Baldo,C; Ferreira,MJ; Lopes,DS; Izidoro,LFM; Gomes,AO; Ferro,EAV; Hamaguchi,A; Homsi-Brandeburgo,MI; Rodrigues,VM.
The damaging effects of neuwiedase, a non-hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase from P-I class, on gastrocnemius muscle are studied herein. Following neuwiedase injection, ultrastructural alterations were detected early showing disarrangement of skeletal muscle fibers (characterized by discontinuity of Z lines), mitochondrial swelling, and disruption of plasma membrane and basal lamina. Degradation of skeletal muscle and the appearance of an amorphous substance, primarily composed of cellular debris, were noted after 24 hours. The presence of neuwiedase at the injection site (detected by immunocytochemistry) revealed highly specific labeling of myofibril components of damaged myocytes. In addition, proteolysis of muscle proteins assayed through...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Skeletal muscle; Neuwiedase; Snake venom metalloproteinases; Bothrops neuwiedi.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992010000300013
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ALT-C, a disintegrin-like Cys-rich protein from Bothrops alternatus, increases skeletal myoblast viability J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Mesquita-Ferrari,RA; Moraes,CK de; Micocci,KC; Selistre-de-Araújo,HS.
ALT-C, an ECD motif (glutamic acid, cysteine, aspartic acid) disintegrin from Bothrops alternatus snake venom, induces α2β1 integrin-mediated signaling and neutrophil chemotaxis. In vitro, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ALT-C induces cell proliferation, thus showing an interesting potential for tissue regeneration studies. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of ALT-C in myoblast viability and differentiation. Myoblasts were obtained from hind limb muscles of 3 to 4-day old Wistar rats. The cells were incubated with ALT-C at different concentrations and incubation periods were followed by total RNA isolation. cDNA synthesis and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed with primers of myoD as well as of both (slow...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Viability; Myosin heavy chain; Myoblast; Disintegrin; Skeletal muscle; Bothrops alternatus.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992009000200013
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An integrative transcriptome analysis indicates regulatory mRNA-miRNA networks for residual feed intake in Nelore cattle. Repositório Alice
OLIVEIRA, P. S. N. de; COUTINHO, L. L.; TIZIOTO, P. C.; CESAR, A. S. M.; OLIVEIRA, G. B. de; DINIZ, W, J. da S.; LIMA, A. O. de; REECY, J. M.; MOURÃO, G. B.; ZERLOTINI NETO, A.; REGITANO, L. C. de A..
Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is an economically relevant trait in beef cattle. Among the molecular regulatory mechanisms, microRNAs (miRNAs) are an important dimension in post-transcriptional regulation and have been associated with different biological pathways. Here, we performed differential miRNAs expression and weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) to better understand the complex interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs expressed in bovine skeletal muscle and liver. MiRNA and mRNA expression data were obtained from Nelore steers that were genetically divergent for RFI (N = 10 [low RFI or feed efficient]; N = 10 [high RFI or feed inefficient]). Differentially expressed and hub miRNAs such as bta-miR-486, bta-miR-7, bta-miR15a, bta-miR-21,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: MicroRNAs; Residual Feed Intake; Gado Nelore; Beef cattle; Nellore; Skeletal muscle.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1102149
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An integrative transcriptome analysis indicates regulatory mRNA-miRNA networks for residual feed intake in Nelore cattle. Repositório Alice
OLIVEIRA, P. S. N. de; COUTINHO, L. L.; TIZIOTO, P. C.; CESAR, A. S. M.; OLIVEIRA, G. B. de; DINIZ, W, J. da S.; LIMA, A. O. de; REECY, J. M.; MOURÃO, G. B.; ZERLOTINI NETO, A.; REGITANO, L. C. de A..
Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is an economically relevant trait in beef cattle. Among the molecular regulatory mechanisms, microRNAs (miRNAs) are an important dimension in post-transcriptional regulation and have been associated with different biological pathways. Here, we performed differential miRNAs expression and weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) to better understand the complex interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs expressed in bovine skeletal muscle and liver. MiRNA and mRNA expression data were obtained from Nelore steers that were genetically divergent for RFI (N = 10 [low RFI or feed efficient]; N = 10 [high RFI or feed inefficient]). Differentially expressed and hub miRNAs such as bta-miR-486, bta-miR-7, bta-miR15a, bta-miR-21,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: RFI; MiRNA; Gado Nelore; Beef cattle; Nellore; Skeletal muscle.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1099755
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Antagonism by hemoglobin of effects induced by L-arginine in neuromuscular preparations from rats BJMBR
Ambiel,C.R.; Alves-Do-Prado,Wilson.
Nitric oxide (NO)-synthase is present in diaphragm, phrenic nerve and vascular smooth muscle. It has been shown that the NO precursor L-arginine (L-Arg) at the presynaptic level increases the amplitude of muscular contraction (AMC) and induces tetanic fade when the muscle is indirectly stimulated at low and high frequencies, respectively. However, the precursor in muscle reduces AMC and maximal tetanic fade when the preparations are stimulated directly. In the present study the importance of NO synthesized in different tissues for the L-Arg-induced neuromuscular effects was investigated. Hemoglobin (50 nM) did not produce any neuromuscular effect, but antagonized the increase in AMC and tetanic fade induced by L-Arg (9.4 mM) in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Skeletal muscle; Nitric oxide; Tetanic fade; L-arginine; D-arginine; Hemoglobin.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000400017
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Antidepressant and skeletal muscle relaxant effects of the aqueous extract of the Prosopis cineraria BJPS
George,Mathew; Joseph,Lincy; Sharma,Abishika.
The aqueous leaves extract of Prosopis cineraria (AEPC) is used traditionally for the treatment of various CNS disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extract for antidepressant and skeletal muscle relaxant activity. The antidepressant effect of the extract was evaluated using Forced swim test (FST). The immobility periods of control and treated mice were recorded. The antidepressant-like effect of tested compound was compared to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg. p.o). Muscle relaxant property was studied using rotarod apparatus and total fall off time for standard and control group was recorded. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds. The leaf extract at...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Proposis cineraria/pharmacognosy; Proposis cineraria/extract; Proposis cineraria/antidepressant effect; Proposis cineraria/extract; Proposis cineraria/relaxant property; Skeletal muscle; Imipramine/comparative study; Diazepam/comparative study.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502012000300025
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Apoptosis in Denervated Skeletal Muscle International Journal of Morphology
Davatz,Giovanna Castilho; Andreo,Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues,Antonio de Castro; Rosa Júnior,Geraldo Marco; Moraes,Luiz Henrique Rapucci.
The apoptosis phenomenon happens in normal tissues and in many pathological conditions as described by several researchers. Most studied in the 70s, this phenomenon remained almost forgotten in the 90s, when, with the advent of more advanced techniques, returned to laboratories. Thus, electronic microscopy, Comet Assays and histochemistry techniques, among others, were utilized in an effort to elucidate in a thorough way, the mechanisms that lead the cell to "suicide". No one can deny the importance of the knowledge of such phenomenon, so as to control its induction or blocking in the treatment of pathologies such as cancer. In this work, the apoptosis study was aimed at denervated muscles in different periods. Furthermore, two types of skeletal striated...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Skeletal muscle; Denervation; Apoptosis; Rat.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022007000300009
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Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats BJMBR
Cruciol-Souza,J.M.; Alves-Do-Prado,W..
Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Atropine; Tetanic fade; Skeletal muscle; Nitric oxide; Muscarinic receptors.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1999001000015
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Beneficial Effects of Exercise Training (Treadmill) on Body Mass and Skeletal Muscle Capillaries/Myocyte Ratio in C57BL/6 Mice Fed High-Fat Diet International Journal of Morphology
Motta,Victor Faria; Mandarim de Lacerda,Carlos Alberto.
C57BL/6 mice develop signals and symptoms comparable at least in part with the metabolic syndrome in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects of exercise training upon skeletal microcirculation in these mice. Animals were fed one of two diets during an eight week period: standard chow (SC) or very high-fat (HF). Afterwards, the exercise training protocol (treadmill) was established and mice divided into SC and HF sedentary (SC-Sed, HF-Sed) or exercised groups (SC-Ex, HF-Ex), respectively. HF/HF-Sed mice had the greatest body mass (plus 65% than SC-Sed; P<0.0001), and exercise reduced it by 23% (P<0.0001). The plasma insulin was higher in the HF-Sed than in the matched ­Ex (P<0.001). The ratio between capillaries/myocytes in...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Aerobic training; Metabolic syndrome; Lipid profile; Skeletal muscle.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022012000100037
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Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) affects the excitable and contractile properties of innervated skeletal muscles Biol. Res.
RAMIREZ,BEATRIZ U; RETAMAL,LEIRA; VERGARA,CECILIA.
The well-established trophic role of CNTF upon neurons led to performing clinical trials in patients of neurodegenerative diseases. However, trials were suspended due to side effects such as severe weight loss, hyperalgesia, coughing, muscle cramps and pain. So far it is not known how CNTF triggers the problems related to skeletal muscle cramps and pain. CNTF has also been described as a myotrophic factor for denervated skeletal muscles, but the possibility that it affects innervated muscles has also been considered. Since a myotrophic factor could be a valuable tool for treatment of several muscle diseases, we studied the effects of low doses of CNTF delivered systemically by an osmotic pump, over the electrical and mechanical properties of innervated and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: CNTF; Contraction and relaxation time; Denervation; EMG; Fibrillation; Skeletal muscle.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602003000300003
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Cyclosporin-A does not affect skeletal muscle mass during disuse and recovery BJMBR
Aoki,M.S.; Miyabara,E.H.; Soares,A.G.; Salvini,T.F.; Moriscot,A.S..
Cyclosporin-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug that acts as an inhibitor of calcineurin, a calcium phosphatase that has been suggested to play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of CsA administration (25 mg kg-1 day-1) on skeletal muscle mass and phenotype during disuse and recovery. Male Wistar rats received vehicle (N = 8) or CsA (N = 8) during hind limb immobilization (N = 8) and recovery (N = 8). Muscle weight (dry/wet) and cross-sectional area were evaluated to verify the effect of CsA treatment on muscle mass. Muscle phenotype was assessed by histochemistry of myosin ATPase. CsA administration during immobilization and recovery did not change muscle/body weight ratio in the soleus (SOL)...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Calcineurin; Immobilization; Recovery; Skeletal muscle; Hypertrophy; Cyclosporin-A.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2006000200011
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Ectopic development of skeletal muscle induced by subcutaneous transplant of rat satellite cells BJMBR
Fukushima,M.G.; Furlan,I.; Chiavegatti,T.; Kiyomoto,B.H.; Godinho,R.O..
The present study analyzes the ectopic development of the rat skeletal muscle originated from transplanted satellite cells. Satellite cells (10(6) cells) obtained from hindlimb muscles of newborn female 2BAW Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal area of adult male rats. After 3, 7, and 14 days, the transplanted tissues (N = 4-5) were processed for histochemical analysis of peripheral nerves, inactive X-chromosome and acetylcholinesterase. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were also labeled with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin. The development of ectopic muscles was successful in 86% of the implantation sites. By day 3, the transplanted cells were organized as multinucleated fibers containing multiple clusters of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Skeletal muscle; Satellite cells; Stem cells; Transplantation; Myogenesis; 2BAW rats.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2005000300007
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Effect of passive stretching on the immobilized soleus muscle fiber morphology BJMBR
Coutinho,E.L.; Gomes,A.R.S.; França,C.N.; Oishi,J.; Salvini,T.F..
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of stretching applied every 3 days to the soleus muscle immobilized in the shortened position on muscle fiber morphology. Eighteen 16-week-old Wistar rats were used and divided into three groups of 6 animals each: a) the left soleus muscle was immobilized in the shortened position for 3 weeks; b) during immobilization, the soleus was stretched for 40 min every 3 days; c) the non-immobilized soleus was only stretched. Left and right soleus muscles were examined. One portion of the soleus was frozen for histology and muscle fiber area evaluation, while the other portion was used to identify the number and length of serial sarcomeres. Immobilized muscles (group A) showed a significant decrease in weight...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Skeletal muscle; Passive stretch; Muscle immobilization; Sarcomere number; Muscle atrophy; Muscle fiber area.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004001200011
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Effect of perimuscular injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom on plasma creatine kinase levels in mice: influence of dose and volume BJMBR
Calil-Elias,S.; Thattassery,E.; Martinez,A.M.B.; Melo,P.A..
The effect of dose and volume of a perimuscular injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom on myonecrosis of skeletal muscle was studied in mice. An increase of the venom dose (0.25 to 2.0 µg/g) at a given volume (50 µl) resulted in an increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels 2 h after injection. Plasma CK activity increased from the basal level of 129.27 ± 11.83 (N = 20) to 2392.80 ± 709.43 IU/l (N = 4) for the 1.0 µg/g dose. Histological analysis of extensor digitorum longus muscle 4 h after injection showed lesion of peripheral muscle fibers, disorganization of the bundles or the complete degeneration of muscle fibers. These lesions were more extensive when higher doses were injected. Furthermore, an increase in volume (12.5 to 100 µl) by dilution of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Bothrops venoms; Myotoxicity; Skeletal muscle; Plasma creatine kinase.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2002001000018
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Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats BJMBR
Abreu,P.; Vitzel,K.F.; Monteiro,I.C.C.R.; Lima,T.I.; Queiroz,A.N.; Leal-Cardoso,J.H.; Hirabara,S.M.; Ceccatto,V.M..
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Exercise; Skeletal muscle; Liver; Blood glucose; Training.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2016001100602
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Effects of L-arginine on the diaphragm muscle twitches elicited at different frequencies of nerve stimulation BJMBR
Queiroz,R.N.; Alves-Do-Prado,Wilson.
In rats, the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase pathway is present in skeletal muscle, vascular smooth muscle, and motor nerve terminals. Effects of NO were previously studied in rat neuromuscular preparations receiving low (0.2 Hz) or high (200 Hz) frequencies of stimulation. The latter frequency has always induced tetanic fade. However, in these previous studies we did not determine whether NO facilitates or impairs the neuromuscular transmission in preparations indirectly stimulated at frequencies which facilitate neuromuscular transmission. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine the effects of NO in rat neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at 5 and 50 Hz. The amplitude of muscular contraction observed at the end (B) of a 10-s...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Skeletal muscle; Nitric oxide; L-arginine; Neuromuscular transmission; Tetanic fade; S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine; Superoxide dismutase.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001000600020
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Erythropoietin reduces the expression of myostatin in mdx dystrophic mice BJMBR
Feder,D.; Rugollini,M.; Santomauro Jr,A.; Oliveira,L.P.; Lioi,V.P.; dos Santos,R.; Ferreira,L.G.; Nunes,M.T.; Carvalho,M.H.; Delgado,P.O.; Carvalho,A.A.S.; Fonseca,F.L.A..
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been well characterized as a renal glycoprotein hormone regulating red blood cell production by inhibiting apoptosis of erythrocyte progenitors in hematopoietic tissues. EPO exerts regulatory effects in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal degenerative disorder of skeletal and cardiac muscle. In this study, we tested the possible therapeutic beneficial effect of recombinant EPO (rhEPO) in dystrophic muscles in mdx mice. Total strength was measured using a force transducer coupled to a computer. Gene expression for myostatin, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Myostatin expression was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Muscular dystrophy; Erythropoietin; Myostatin; Skeletal muscle; Quadriceps.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2014001100966
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Estrogen supplementation failed to attenuate biochemical indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in rat skeletal muscles following ischemia Biol. Res.
TIIDUS,PETER M; DELLER,MIRADA; BOMBARDIER,ERIC; GÜL,MUSTAFA; LIU,X. LINDA.
This study examined the effects of estrogen supplementation on markers of neutrophil infiltration and damage in skeletal muscle of rats following ischemia. Male and female gonad-intact rats, with or without 14 days of estrogen supplementation were subjected to two hours of hind-limb ischemia and sacrificed at 24, 48 or 72 hours post-ischemia. Control animals were sacrificed without ischemia. Plantaris and red and white gastrocneimus muscles were removed and assayed for myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and ß-glucuronidase (<img border=0 width=8 height=15 id="_x0000_i1026" src="http://fbpe/img/bres/v38n2-3/existe.gif" align=absbottom>GLU), as markers of muscle damage. Significant...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Ischemia; Estrogen; Muscle damage; Skeletal muscle; Neutrophils.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602005000200011
Registros recuperados: 43
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