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Registros recuperados: 18
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42nd plenary meeting report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-13-01). 8-12 April 2013, Brussels ArchiMer
STECF.
The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 42nd plenary on 8-12 April 2013 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics dealt were inter alia assessments of Mediterranean Sea stocks, future EU data collection, and technical measures
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Fisheries policy; EC technical committee; Data collection; Conservation of fish stocks; Structural adjustment; Mediterranean Sea; Research report.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00165/27671/25864.pdf
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A Choice Model with Systematic Structures in Decision Weights AgEcon
Hu, Wuyang.
This article introduces a discrete choice model which incorporates a nonlinear structural adjustment to the standard utility coefficients or decision weights. The proposed model is theoretically and empirically appealing when compared to several alternative approaches, and it can be estimated by conventional maximum likelihood. Application of the proposed model in a case study shows that it outperforms two competing approaches in model fit. Given its simplicity, this model is also capable of revealing consumers' heterogeneous choices. It is shown that based on consumers' different characteristics, their product choice and its welfare implications are also potentially different.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Logit models; Stated choice; Structural adjustment; Weights; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7076
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Adjustment Capacity of Korean Farm Household AgEcon
Kim, Hanho; Kim, Jae-Kyung.
Structural adjustment is defined as the farm household’s behavior of changing its existing farm asset distribution toward more specialized or diversified directions. Farm households are classified into agricultural or non-agricultural based ones. Estimated expected income through switching regression model reveals that higher revenue is expected when adjustment paths toward more specialization and more non-agricultural based activities are chosen.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy reform; Structural adjustment; Expected income; Switching regression model; Farm household; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q100; Q180.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52839
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Adjustment to Salinity in Irrigation Regions: Ex Post Evaluation of the Tragowel Plains Plan AgEcon
Baird, Catherine A.; Gyles, Oliver.
An early-mid project evaluation of the benefits and costs of the Tragowel Plains Salinity Management Plan estimated the net cost after six years at A$ 5.5 million. The cumulative cash flows for the water transfer, drainage and halophyte programs were all positive with benefit to cost ratios (BCRs) of 3.2, 1.3 and 1.1. Inclusion of estimated future benefits and costs to year 30 gave BCRs of 13.7, 1.3 and 4.0 with net present values (NPVs) of A$ 18.8 million, 2.5 million and 0.4 million respectively. Net costs for other integrated programs including salinity survey, whole farm planning, facilitation of structural adjustment, revegetation and coordination of implementation reduced the NPV of the first six years of implementation to A$ 12.1 million. The water...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Salinity; Structural adjustment; Water transfer; Water market; Tragowel Plains; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123760
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Agricultural Policy Reform and Structural Adjustment in Korea and Japan AgEcon
Kim, Hanho; Lee, Yong-Kee.
Despite many common features in agricultural sector, Korea and Japan have passed through quite different paths of structural adjustment. An important consequence of the different structural adjustment paths is full-time vs. part-time based farming system. As far as policy reforms are concerned, full-time based Korean agriculture has much more barriers to smooth policy reform mainly due to the income-related problems. With high level of off-farm income, farm household income problem is not a great concern to Japan. In addition to the income problem, other barriers to smooth policy reform in Korea are pointed out and discussed.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Direct payment; Full-time farming system; Market price support(MPS); Part-time farming system; Policy reform; Producer support estimate(PSE); Rice-monoculture; Structural adjustment; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15768
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Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Adjustment in Developing Countries AgEcon
Abbott, Philip C..
Agricultural trade liberalization offers the possibility of substantial income gains and poverty reduction in the developing world. For those gains to be realized, institutional innovations and realizations of export opportunities are crucial. Adjustment policies to foster gains from trade include initiatives to compensate losers, institutional reforms to integrate into the global trading system, and policies which facilitate resource reallocations and especially enhance investment activity, both foreign and domestic. Much can be learned from experience with structural adjustment reforms, in which substantial trade liberalization by developing countries was accompanied by numerous other reforms when successful. Agriculture is important in reforms because...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade liberalization; Developing countries; Structural adjustment; Institutional innovation; Good governance; Investment; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15731
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COPPER CRISIS AND AGRICULTURAL RENAISSANCE IN ZAMBIA: AN ECONOMY-WIDE ANALYSIS AgEcon
Lofgren, Hans; Robinson, Sherman; Thurlow, James.
Zambia's strong dependence on copper exports has suppressed other tradables sectors, indicative of a Dutch disease phenomenon. The current copper crisis will have strong economic effects, possibly reversing such Dutch disease effects. We use a computable general equilibrium model built around a 1995 social accounting matrix to simulate the short- and long-run effects of two scenarios that reflect the current crisis, a 20 percent reduction in world copper prices and a complete collapse of copper mining. Compared to the short run, the long run is characterized by more flexibility in production technology and capital allocation. Both scenarios require a significant reduction in the "non-copper" trade deficit, absorption, and household consumption. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Zambia; Copper; Structural adjustment; Agriculture; General equilibrium; International Development; C68; O55; Q17; Q32.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25805
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¿Crisis real o crisis de expectativas?: el empleo en el Perú antes y después de las reformas estructurales AgEcon
Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime.
En esta investigación se analizan los mecanismos de ajuste del mercado de trabajo entre 1986 y 1997. Luego de un estancamiento del empleo entre 1988 y 1992, periodo recesivo en el cual el mercado de trabajo se ajustó a través de una reducción en los ingresos reales y una menor tasa de participación laboral, a partir de 1993, el empleo empezó a crecer junto con el nivel de actividad económica. El mercado de trabajo fue capaz de absorber el aumento de la oferta de empleo en ese periodo. El aumento del empleo fue generado íntegramente por el sector privado, ya que el empleo público se redujo. Sin embargo, hay grupos demográficos específicos, como los hombres de mayor edad, para quienes el crecimiento del empleo ha sido muy pequeño, y las probabilidades de...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Empleo; Desempleo; Ingreso; Mercado de trabajo; Sector informal; Ajuste estructural; Employment; Unemployment; Income; Labour market; Informal sector; Structural adjustment; Peru; Labor and Human Capital; E24; D31; J2; J4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37981
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Disparidades de la agricultura espanola entre la modernizacion y las nuevas funciones del territorio. Repositório Alice
RAMOS, E.; GALLARDO, R.; ARAUJO, J. L. P..
En esta ponencia se aborda el problema de las disparidades de la agricultura espanola y los problemas a que estas dan lugar. En primer lugar se analizan los principales elementos de disparidad en relacion con las limitaciones del sector agrario espanol. A partir del enfoque actual de modernizacion agraria se presentanlas disparidades existentes entre las agriculturas de las diferentes comunidades autonomas. La comparacion entre la agricultura espanola y la de los paises de la Union Europea se utiliza para profundizar en la dimension de aquellas disparidades en relacion con el papel de la Politica Agraria Europea como posible instrumento de convergencia. En ultimo lugar, las nuevas exigencias de competitividad y el proceso de negociacion abiertos con la...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Disparidade; Agenda 2000; Ajuste estrutural; Espanha; Agrarian policy; Disparities; Modernisation; Structural adjustment; Desenvolvimento Rural; Modernização; Política Agrária; Rural development.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/133781
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Factors affecting farm productivity in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovenia after the EU-accession and likely structural impacts AgEcon
Campos, Monica; Jaklic, Tina; Juvancic, Luka.
The paper is investigating the recent evolution of farm productivity in five EU New Member States (NMS): Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Slovenia. More precisely, the paper deals with determinants influencing farm productivity in a changing market and policy environment brought by their full integration to the CAP. With a combination of multivariate statistics and econometric techniques, it attempts to identify and explain the patterns of agricultural labour productivity change in the period 2003-2005. Results suggest that adjustment patterns are diverging and are region-specific, depending mainly on the initial farm structural conditions, and availability of non-farm jobs. Policy implications of the paper suggest that agricultural policy should...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Structural adjustment; Farm productivity; Farming types; EU-accession; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Q12; R11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95315
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La tipologia de las explotaciones en funcion de su viabilidad economica y demografica: aplicacion a las explotaciones de bovino en Galicia AgEcon
Garcia, Francisco Sineiro; Iglesias, Edelmiro Lopez; Fernandez, Roberto Lorenzana; Pacos, Bernardo Valdes.
RESUMEN En este artículo se elabora una tipología de las explotaciones de bovino en Galicia en función de su viabilidad económica y demográfica, empleando como fuente las bases de datos anonimizadas de los censos agrarios de 1989 y 1999. Los resultados así obtenidos son utilizados en una triple dirección: ofrecer una radiografía de la estructura actual del sector, interpretar sus transformaciones recientes y proyectar las tendencias para la próxima década (1999-2009). El análisis permite concluir que el sector está integrado por tres grandes grupos de explotaciones, con unas características y unas perspectivas muy diferentes: aquéllas con viabilidad económica y demográfica, sólo 1/5 pero que concentran ya la mayor parte del output; las que están en manos...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Viability of farms; Agrarian structures; Bovine livestock; Galicia; Structural adjustment; Livestock Production/Industries; C81; Q12; Q15; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28775
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Macroeconomics and Forest Sustainability in the Developing World AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A..
Governments often use fiscal, exchange rate, monetary policy as well as export promotion tax increases, privatization, and land reform as part of comprehensive adjustments packages for addressing economic imbalances, balance of payments, and structural weaknesses. Such approaches, however, have come under heavy criticism for failing to recognize the social and environmental costs associated with them. Critics have argued that economic growth, trade liberalization, and increased primary product exports increase pressure on many sectors, including the agricultural and forestry land use sectors. This paper examines a number of these types of external shocks. This paper makes two arguments. First, from a theoretical economic perspective, although in many cases...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Forests; Sustainability; Macroeconomics; Trade; Exchange rates; Structural adjustment; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10458
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Productivity and farm size in Australian agriculture: reinvestigating the returns to scale AgEcon
Sheng, Yu; Zhao, Shiji; Nossal, Katarina.
Higher productivity among large farms is often assumed to be a result of increasing returns to scale. However, using farm-level data for the Australian broadacre industry, it was found that constant or mildly decreasing returns to scale is more typical. On examining the monotonic change in marginal input returns as farm operating size increases, it was found that large farms achieve higher productivity through changes in production technology rather than through changes in scale. The results highlight the disparity between ‘returns to scale’ and ‘returns to size’ in Australian agriculture. They also suggest that improving productivity in smaller farms would depend more on their ability to access advanced technologies than their ability to simply expand....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Returns to scale; Returns to size; Production function; Technology progress; Structural adjustment; Australian agriculture; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100711
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STABILIZATION AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT IN MOZAMBIQUE: AN APPRAISAL AgEcon
Arndt, Channing.
This paper outlines the complex historical legacy and structural adjustment efforts in Mozambique in addition to reviewing recent economic developments. An in-depth analysis of new and more reliable national accounts data show that macroeconomic stabilisation has occurred through recovery from a suppressed outset. Yet, easy import substitution has now been used up, and structural transformation on the export side remains to be addressed. Moreover, a coherent development strategy geared towards poverty reduction is still to be implemented. The government budget also remains problematic, and aid dependency continues. Accordingly, fundamental development challenges lie ahead.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Structural adjustment; Mozambique; Historical analysis; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28657
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Structural Change in Transition Economies: Does Foreign Aid Matter? AgEcon
Fardmanesh, Mohsen; Tan, Li.
This paper addresses whether the initial declines in the manufacturing and real wages in transition economies were anything unexpected to justify policy reversal, and whether the “often-recommended” foreign aid would have helped them curb these declines in any significant way. It answers these questions with the help of a two-sector three-factor small open economy model and simulation exercises. It concludes that, given the relative price distortions and the market disequilibria that transition economies inherited from their planning era, the initial declines in their manufacturing and real wages are to be mostly expected. Foreign aid, whose impact is noticeable only when it is in excess of 5% of GDP, does not curb the decline in their real wages in any...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Structural adjustment; Transition economies; East European economies; Soviet Republics; Foreign aid; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; P2.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56754
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Successes and Failures of Development Experience Since the 1980s AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper reviews the development experience since the 1980's and finds room for guarded optimism about what we can learn from it. Firstly, a global consensus is emerging on the need for macro-economic stability through prudent fiscal, monetary and foreign exchange policies. However, at the micro or structural level, while governments need to decentralize their decision-making authority more fully than they have thus far, in reaction to the recent reappraisal of the East Asian model there is some danger that development policy will swing too far in rejecting liberalization and returning to government intervention. Secondly, the paper points out that, while there exists a well-recognized causal nexus between exports and growth, the reverse causation also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development; Structural adjustment; Stabilization; Multi-lateral development banks; East Asian miracle; International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28529
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The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy AgEcon
Dimitri, Carolyn; Effland, Anne; Conklin, Neilson C..
The structure of farms, farm households, and the rural communities in which they exist has evolved markedly over the last century. Historical data on a range of farm structure variables—including the value of agricultural production, commodity specialization, farming-dependent counties, and off-farm work—offer a perspective on the long-term forces that have helped shape the structure of agriculture and rural life over the past century. These forces include productivity growth, the increasing importance of national and global markets, and the rising influence of consumers on agricultural production. Within this long-term context of structural change, a review of some key developments in farm policy considers the extent to which farm policy design has or has...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm policy; Farm structure; Policy adjustment; Structural adjustment; Mechanization; Productivity growth; Global markets; Consumer stakeholders; Price and income support; Farm policy history; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59390
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Wage and Price Control Policies in Socialist Transitional Economies AgEcon
Fardmanesh, Mohsen; Tan, Li.
This paper studies the structural impact of wage and price control policies in socialist transitional economies using a two-sector three-factor small open economy model. It illustrates the results quantitatively via simulation exercises. At the earlier stage of the transition when labor is immobile, a strict control on the price of the non-tradables and the wage rate minimizes the fall in employment and output. Also, a more severe control on the price of the non-tradables than on the wage rate alleviates the fall in the real wage at negligible costs in lost employment and output. At the later stage of the transition when labor becomes mobile, the liberalization of the price of the nontradables can proceed faster than that of the wage rate. This policy...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Structural adjustment; Price policy; Wage policy; Socialist transitional economies; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28515
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