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Accounting for Product Substitution in the Analysis of Food Taxes Targeting Obesity AgEcon
Miao, Zhen; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H..
We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. First, we incorporate the implicit substitution between sugar and fat nutrients implied by a complete food demand system and by conditioning on how food taxes affect total calorie intake. Second, we propose a methodology that accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. This substitution is integrated into a demand system in addition to substitution among food groups. Simulations of a tax on added sugars show that the impact of the tax on consumption patterns is understated and the effect on welfare loss overstated when abstracting from this substitution within food groups.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Discretionary calories; Fat; Food demand; Health policy nutrition; Low-fat; Low-sugar substitutes; Obesity; Sugar; Sweeteners; Tax; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; I18; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103320
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AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THOROUGHBRED BREEDER/OWNER INCENTIVE POLICIES AgEcon
Neibergs, J. Shannon; Thalheimer, Richard.
Thoroughbred incentive programs are subsidy policies funded from state parimutuel tax revenue designed to promote regional race horse breeding and ownership. At issue is an ongoing debate concerning the effectiveness of alternative policies. Empirical results indicate that incentive programs have a positive economic effect, but gains to Thoroughbred breeders can be obtained by reallocating tax revenue to non-restricted purses. A policy allocating tax revenue ton non-restricted purses shifts yearling demand and increases prices, while breeder subsidies shift only the supply function and therefore lower prices. Consequently, breeder revenues increase in response to a policy that favors non-restricted purses over subsidies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Incentive programs; Parimutual horse racing; Subsidy; Tax; Thoroughbred; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15157
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Análise da repercussão económica e ambiental da reserva legal: estudo de caso. Repositório Alice
BORLACHENCO, N. G. C.; HOEFLICH, V. A.; SCHAITZA, E. G.; URBANO, E..
O trabalho teve como objetivo identificar a viabilidade económica e ambiental da reserva legal em 11 municípios localizados na zona de influência do arenito Caiuá no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo no qual se utilizou o Imposto sobre a Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços (ICMS) e o crescimento do Valor Bruto de Produção (VBP) nos municípios através de mudanças nos padrões de uso da terra para a criação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente (APP) e de Reserva Legal (RL). De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a entrada da floresta no local da pecuária demonstrou que o valor bruto dos municípios decresceria anualmente até ao sétimo ano, quando as primeiras florestas começariam a ser colhidas. O valor bruto da produção aumenta quando é...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Código florestal; Impostos; Áreas de preservação; Forestry code; Tax; Preservation areas.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1071109
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CONSISTENCY AND OPTIMALITY IN A DYNAMIC GAME OF POLLUTION CONTROL I: COMPETITION AgEcon
Batabyal, Amitrajeet A..
I model the interaction between a regulator and polluting firms as a Stackelberg differential game in which the regulator leads. The firms create pollution, which results in a stock externality. I analyze the intertemporal effects of alternate pollution control measures in a competitive industry. The principal issue here concerns the dynamic inconsistency of the optimal solution. Inter alia, I compare the steady state levels of pollution under optimal and under time consistent policies. Forthcoming in Environmental and Resource Economics
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental; Regulation; Tax; Dynamic; Game; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; H32; D62.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28351
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Distribution of Local Government Revenue Sources and Citizen Well-Being AgEcon
Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Zereyesus, Yacob Abrehe; Ross, Kara L..
The paper aims at examining how sources and distribution of revenue at the local government level influence the economic well-being of citizens. The results of this study help to illuminate the effect of revenue sources on local government efforts on economic development and their capacity to influence the well-being of their citizens. We hypothesized that the distribution of local government revenue influenced the wealth status of its citizens. Three empirical proxy measures for citizen well-being were used in the estimation of three different panel data models. Results from the estimations suggest that local government revenue generated from its citizens (e.g., taxes, insurance and charges) have more influence on citizen well-being than non-citizen...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Local government; Revenues; Tax; Citizen well-being; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46828
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Economic Factors and Body Weight: An Empirical Analysis AgEcon
Schroeter, Christiane; Lusk, Jayson L..
With this study, we investigate the effects of changes in economic factors on body weight by constructing a utility theoretic model. The model is empirically estimated by combining data on individuals’ body weight, demographic and physical activity information, and statelevel measures pertaining to the prices of food away from home, food at home, and wages. By combining these data sources, we aim to estimate directly the weight effects of price and income changes. The empirical analysis suggests that decreasing the price of food at home could decrease body weight, a finding which has important public policy implications.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Body mass index; Body weight; Obesity; Subsidy; Tax; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; D11; D12; I18; H20; R22.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46991
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Environmental tax reform: experiences in Europe and possibilities in Hungary AgEcon
Sipos, Nikoletta.
Due to aggravating environmental problems and the continued high rate of unemployment, the introduction of environmental tax reform has become a pressing issue. Adjustments in existing taxes are expected to have a positive impact on the environment and on employment figures. Several European countries have put the concept into practice. Hungary needs to step up as well and take part in the prevention of global environmental problems and slow down the depletion of natural resources.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental protection; Tax; Budget; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48098
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Equity Redemption: Issues and Alternatives for Farmer Cooperatives [This report is now at http://purl.umn.edu/180969] AgEcon
Cobia, David W.; Royer, Jeffrey S.; Wissman, Roger A.; Smith, Dennis Paul; Davidson, Donald R.; Lurya, Stephen D.; Mather, J. Warren; Brown, Phillip F.; Krueger, Kenneth P..
This report is now at http://purl.umn.edu/180969
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Cooperatives; Finance; Equity redemption; Law; Tax; Agribusiness.
Ano: 1982 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56160
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Improving Environmental Quality in South Florida through Silvopasture: An Economic Approach AgEcon
Stainback, G. Andrew; Alavalapati, Janaki R.R.; Shrestha, Ram K.; Larkin, Sherry L.; Wong, Grace.
A dynamic optimization model is used to compare the profitability of silvopasture with traditional cattle ranching in south Florida. Silvopasture can reduce phosphorus runoff from cattle ranching-a major environmental concern for Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. Silvopasture can also sequester carbon, thereby offsetting global climate change. The effectiveness of phosphorus runoff taxes and carbon sequestration payments for inducting landowners to adopt silvopasture is investigated. We find that phosphorus taxes alone would not induce landowners to adopt silvopasture. However, payments to landowners to sequester carbon, alone or in conjunction with phosphorus runoff taxes, can make silvopasture financially competitive with traditional ranching.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Cattle ranching; Faustmann model; Global climate change; Phosphorus runoff; Silvopasture; Slash pine; Tax; Q57; Q23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43396
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In vivo fluctuation of Tax, Foxp3, CTLA-4, and GITR mRNA expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy BJMBR
Cartier,L.; Rodriguez,L.; Alberti,C.; Valenzuela,M.A..
HTLV-1 Tax expression exerts an inhibitory effect on the Foxp3 transcription factor in CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells (Treg). For a better understanding of the role of Tax mRNA in the gene expression of cellular markers we measured Tax, Foxp3, CTLA-4, GITR, TGF-β, and IL-10 mRNA in Treg cells of 50 patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP; 27 women and 23 men; mean age: 56.7 years). The control group consisted of 23 non-infected subjects (12 women and 11 men) with a mean age of 51.3 years. Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA of Tax proteins and several cellular markers of Treg function. Determinations revealed a high level of Tax mRNA in HAM/TSP (124.35 copies/100 CD4+CD25+ T...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis; Tax; Foxp3; CTLA-4; GITR mRNA expression.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2010001100014
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NORTH DAKOTA LAND VALUATION MODEL AgEcon
Aakre, Dwight G.; Saxowsky, David M.; Vreugdenhil, Harvey G..
North Dakota agricultural land is valued for property tax purposes as the capitalized value of the landowner's share of gross revenue. This paper describes the data sources, assumptions, and current issues relative to operating the model. Note: Machine readable file does not include the 4 appendix pages-- contact authors for more information.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural land; Cropland; Tax; Assessed value; Valuation; Capitalization; Land value Note; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23083
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Optimal alcohol taxes for Australia AgEcon
Fogarty, James Joseph.
Objective: To estimate welfare maximising tax rates for beer, wine, and spirits using a mathematical model that considers both the welfare loss alcohol taxes impose on non-abusive consumers and the welfare gains due to alcohol taxes reducing externality costs. Results: Optimal per litre of pure alcohol (LAL) tax rates are substantially different to both current alcohol tax rates and the uniform tax rate recommended as part of the 2010 Australian Government Tax Review. Given an individual consumer utility decision model, the best estimate values of the welfare maximising LAL tax rates are: $37 for beer, $11 for wine, $50 for spirits, and $77 for ready-to-drink spirits. Conclusion: As externality costs and the responsiveness of consumers to price changes are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tax; Alcohol; Externalities; Demand and Price Analysis; Health Economics and Policy; I18; H23; H21.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108669
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Regulating Stock Externalities Under Uncertainty AgEcon
Newell, Richard G.; Pizer, William A..
Using a simple analytical model incorporating benefits of a stock, costs of adjusting the stock, and uncertainty in costs, we uncover several important principles governing the choice of price-based policies (e.g., taxes) relative to quantity-based policies (e.g., tradable permits) for controlling stock externalities. Applied to the problem of greenhouse gases and climate change, we find that a price-based instrument generates several times the expected net benefits of a quantity instrument. As in Weitzman (1974), the relative slopes of the marginal benefits and costs of controlling the externality continue to be critical determinants of the efficiency of prices relative to quantities, with flatter marginal benefits and steeper marginal costs favoring...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Stock; Externality; Regulation; Policy; Uncertainty; Price; Quantity; Tax; Tradable permit; Pollution; Climate change; Greenhouse Gas; Instrument choice; Risk and Uncertainty; Q28; D81; C61.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10471
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Socially Optimal Taxation of Alcohol: The Case of Czech Beer AgEcon
Janda, Karel; Mikolasek, Jakub; Netuka, Martin.
The proposed paper belongs to the literature on food demand and optimal taxation and to the literature dealing with economics of alcohol production and consumption. We investigate the question of optimal taxation for the commodity whose consumption has positive and negative features both for individual consumer and for the society. The commodity we analyze is the Czech beer.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Almost Ideal Demand System; Alcohol; Beer; Brewing industry; Consumption; The Czech Republic; Elasticity; Price; Spirits; Tax; Wine.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Health Economics and Policy; Public Economics; D12; L66; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61464
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The Impact of a Carbon Tax on International Tourism AgEcon
Tol, Richard S.J..
A simulation model of international tourist flows is used to estimate the impact of a carbon tax on aviation fuel. The effect of the tax on travel behaviour is small: a global $1000/tC would change travel behaviour to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from international aviation by 0.8%. This is because the imposed tax is probably small relative to the air fare. A $1000/tC tax would less than double air fares, and have a smaller impact on the total cost of the holiday. In addition, the price elasticity is low. A carbon tax on aviation fuel would particularly affect long-haul flights, because of high emissions, and short-haul flights, because of the emission during take-off and landing. Medium distance flights would be affected least. This implies that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Tourism; Tax; Carbon Dioxide; Aviation; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; L83; L93; Q54.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9327
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