Sabiia Seb
PortuguêsEspañolEnglish
Embrapa
        Busca avançada

Botão Atualizar


Botão Atualizar

Ordenar por: RelevânciaAutorTítuloAnoImprime registros no formato resumido
Registros recuperados: 55
Primeira ... 123 ... Última
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Adjust of regression models to estimate the rectal temperature of broilers for the first 14 days of life REA
Ponciano,Patrícia F.; Yanagi Junior,Tadayuki; Lima,Renato R. de; Schiassi,Leonardo; Teixeira,Vitor H..
The broiler rectal temperature (t rectal) is one of the most important physiological responses to classify the animal thermal comfort. Therefore, the aim of this study was to adjust regression models in order to predict the rectal temperature (t rectal) of broiler chickens under different thermal conditions based on age (A) and a meteorological variable (air temperature - t air) or a thermal comfort index (temperature and humidity index -THI or black globe humidity index - BGHI) or a physical quantity enthalpy (H). In addition, through the inversion of these models and the expected t rectal intervals for each age, the comfort limits of t air, THI, BGHI and H for the chicks in the heating phase were determined, aiding in the validation of the equations and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Thermal environment; Poultry; Thermal comfort; Mathematical modeling; Physiological responses.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162012000100002
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Assessment of body and scrotal thermoregulation and semen quality of hair sheep rams throughout the year in a tropical environment. Repositório Alice
KAHWAGE, P. R.; ESTEVES, S. N.; JACINTO, M. A. C.; BARIONI JUNIOR, W.; MACHADO, R.; ROMANELLO, N.; PASSERI, L. F.; MENDONÇA, K. L. de; GARCIA, A. R..
The present study was carried out to assess the capacity of Morada Nova (MON) and Santa Inês (SIN) hair sheep breeds to maintain homeothermy and its relation with semen quality in a tropical climate. Sixteen rams (MON=7 and SIN=9) were assessed for 12 months. During summer and spring, the Temperature-Humidity Index values surpassed the level indicative of thermal stress, and sweating, respiratory and heart rates increased (P < .05). Those responses allowed animals to dissipate heat, maintain rectal temperature in the physiological range and efficiently avoid thermal stress. Scrotal temperatures rose during summer and spring, but, unlike what occurs in wool breeds of sheep, the thermal gradient between poles of testis increased, which shows efficient...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Tropical climate; Thermal comfort; Adaptability; Sperm; Clima Tropical; Esperma; Ovis Aries; Sheep.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1095409
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Assessment of broiler surface temperature variation when exposed to different air temperatures Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Nascimento,GR; Nääs,IA; Pereira,DF; Baracho,MS; Garcia,R.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of the air temperature variation on the mean surface temperature (MST) of 7- to 35-day-old broiler chickens using infrared thermometry to estimate MST, and to study surface temperature variation of the wings, head, legs, back and comb as affected by air temperature and broiler age. One hundred Cobb® broilers were used in the experiment. Starting on day 7, 10 birds were weekly selected at random, housed in an environmental chamber and reared under three distinct temperatures (18, 25 and 32 ºC) to record their thermal profile using an infrared thermal camera. The recorded images were processed to estimate MST by selecting the whole area of the bird within the picture and comparing it with the values obtained...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Image analysis; Poultry; Thermal comfort.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2011000400007
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for different broiler chicken strains R. Bras. Zootec.
Nascimento,Sheila Tavares; Silva,Iran José Oliveira da; Mourão,Gerson Barreto; Castro,Ariane Cristina de.
The objective of this investigation was to estimate ideal bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for broiler chicken strains during the rearing period and to evaluate the influence of time of exposure on bird physiological variables under different thermal stress conditions. The research was conducted in a climatic chamber during the six weeks of the rearing period, with Avian and Cobb strains exposed to two climatic conditions (comfort and stress), in three distinct times of exposure, in three conditions (before going to the chamber; at the end of exposure time; 30 minutes after the end of exposure), in four treatments: comfort with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 30 minutes of exposure; stress with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 90...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Poultry; Physiological variables; Thermal comfort.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000500033
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Behaviour of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) at two temperatures in captivity Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Carvalho,T.S.G.; Zangeronimo,M.G.; Saad,C.E.P.; Alvarenga,R.R.; Assis,V.D.L.; Pereira,V.M.; Scalon,J.D.; Silva,J.P..
Behavioural studies with cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) in captivity are scarce. Due to the need for appropriate management of these animals, this study was performed to examine the behaviour of cockatiels kept in captivity at two temperatures. Sixteen cockatiels were individually housed in cages (62cm high x 43cm long x 27cm wide) and fed with a commercial ration and seed mixture for psittacids. Water was provided ad libitum. The eight-day experiment was divided into two stages of four days each. In the first stage, the birds were kept at room temperature (25°C) with 70% relative humidity during 24 hours. In the next stage, they were kept at 35°C from 06:00 to 18:00h and 25°C from 18:00 to 06:00h, also at 70% relative humidity. The behaviour of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Birds; Psittaciformes; Parrot; Thermal comfort; Captivity; Animal welfare.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352015000601669
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Benefits of automated acclimatization during the pre-milking phase of lactating girolando cows REA
Silva,Irenilson M. da; Pandorfi,Héliton; Almeida,Gledson L. P.; Guiselini,Cristiane; Henrique,Hugo M..
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the automated acclimatization effects during pre-milking of cows on thermal conditioning, physiology, milk production and cost-benefit of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system (AECS). The treatments 20; 30; 40 min and control consisted of exposure time of pre-milking cows to the automated AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk yield of 19 kg, distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey's test (P<0.05) was used to compare the means. The environmental variables, dry bulb temperature (DBT, ºC) and relative humidity (RH, %), were recorded every minute, which allowed the determination of the system efficiency through the Temperature and Humidity Index (THI). The respiratory rate...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Thermal comfort; Automation; Dairy cattle; Evaporative cooling system.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162011000500002
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Broiler breeder hen performance and egg hatchability during rainy season in Brazilian semi-arid region REA
Furtado,Dermeval A.; Tota,Laura D. C. A.; Nascimento,José W. B.; Guimarães,Mércia C. da C.; Lopes Neto,José P..
Henhouse thermal comfort and bird age influence broiler breeder hen productivity; this way, the present research aimed to assess thermal comfort indexes and broiler breeder hen performance during winter in North East semi-arid region from Brazil, using a Cobb Avian 48 broiler strain at the age of 38 and 50 weeks. We measured the following bioclimatic indexes: air temperature and relative humidity, black globe temperature and humidity, CO2 concentration and sound pressure levels at henhouse facility. Data analysis design was complete randomized in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme with three treatments (months) and three replications (week number of collection by month). A number of 25 climatic data were observed. Bioclimatic indexes at the most warm hours...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ambience; Thermal comfort; Egg-laying; Noise.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162014000300001
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Broiler surface temperature distribution of 42 day old chickens Scientia Agricola
Nääs,Irenilza de Alencar; Romanini,Carlos Eduardo Bites; Neves,Diego Pereira; Nascimento,Guilherme Rodrigues do; Vercellino,Rimena do Amaral.
Broiler chickens in Brazil are generally reared from 1 to 42 days when they are exposed to procedures such as fasting, harvesting, crating and transport to slaughter. Maintaining homeostasis is of great importance for broiler survival under harsh environment especially prior to slaughter. Heat loss varies in the distinct parts of the body during the growth period, and it is related to the air temperature of the environment and to the amount of feather covering. This research aimed to study the surface temperature distribution using infrared thermographic image processing to characterize 42 day old broiler chicken surface temperature prior to slaughter. Broilers were reared for 42 days and prior to harvest and transport to slaughter the infrared surface...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Thermal comfort; Heat loss; Thermoregulation; Infrared thermography.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162010000500001
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
CLOACAL AND SURFACE TEMPERATURES OF BROILERS SUBJECT TO THERMAL STRESS REA
Abreu,Lucas H. P.; Yanagi Junior,Tadayuki; Campos,Alessandro T.; Bahuti,Marcelo; Fassani,Édison J..
ABSTRACT: The cloacal and surface temperatures are important physiological parameters to quantify the thermal comfort of animals, its variations may occur as a function of thermal variables. In this context, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the cloacal (tclo) and surface (tsur) temperatures of Cobb 500® broilers, in the second week of life, subjected to different air dry-bulb temperature (24, 27, 30 and 33 °C) and stress durations (1, 2, 3 and 4 days). The experiment was carried out in four climate-controlled wind tunnels. Air relative humidity and air velocity were set at 60% and 0.2 m s-1, respectively. The tclo and tsur were measured daily through digital thermometer and thermographic camera, respectively. Analysis of variance and Scott...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Animal environment; Aviculture; Thermal comfort; Thermographic image; Physiologic parameters.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162017000500877
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês, de diferentes pelagens, em pastejo - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.9974 Animal Sciences
Santos, Merilene Maria dos; UFRPE; Azevedo, Marcílio de; UFRPE; Costa, Lígia Alexandrina Barros da; UFRPE; Silva Filho, Florisval Protásio da; UFRPE; Modesto, Elisa Cristina; UFRRJ; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; UFMG.
O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o comportamento de ovinos da raça Santa Inês, de diferentes pelagens em condições de pastejo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três cores de pelame (branco, castanho e preto), representando os tratamentos e 7 repetições, em um arranjo de parcela subdividida com cor do pelame na parcela e período na sub-parcela. As observações das variáveis analisadas foram realizadas em quatro períodos experimentais, onde cada período conteve três dias de observações comportamentais. Sendo as variáveis analisadas: tempo de pastejo, tempo de ruminação, tempo em ócio, outras atividades e bebendo água. As observações foram realizadas a cada 10 min., das 6 às 17h. Não houve interação significativa (p >...
Tipo: Pesquisa de campo Palavras-chave: 5.04.00.00-2 Adaptação; Clima; Conforto térmico; Etologia 5.04.01.00-9 Adaptation; Climate; Thermal comfort; Ethology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/9974
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) APPLICATION FOR VENTILATION STUDIES IN BROILER HOUSES REA
Curi,Thayla M. R. de C.; Moura,Daniella J. de; Massari,Juliana M.; Mesquita,Márcio; Pereira,Danilo F..
ABSTRACT With the recent increase in the number of acclimatized broiler houses in Brazil, design and adaptation of facilities to withstand the tropical weather conditions enabling the maintenance of ideal conditions without increasing costs have been major challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ventilation system in solid-wall broiler houses using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The research was carried out in the city of Amparo - SP (Brazil). The facility consisted of a broiler house enclosed by masonry sidewalls with tunnel ventilation equipped with exhaust fans (air outlet) and cooling pads (air inlet). The following variables were collected: wind speed and dry bulb temperature over 27 equidistant points inside the house at bird...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Broiler house; Computational modeling; Environmental control; Poultry; Thermal comfort.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162017000100001
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulating heated air from wood burning inside a poultries barn REA
Coradi,Paulo C.; Martins,Márcio A.; da Costa,Douglas R.; Vigoderis,Ricardo B.; Tinôco,Ilda de F. F..
ABSTRACT Animal welfare is essential for livestock yield gains, which has been ethically justifiable and socially acceptable. Thus, our research aimed to test computational fluid dynamics model (CFD) to simulate heated air within a poultry barn. Data were simulated in CFD software based on Navier-Stokes equations (geometry of 3 m x 6 m, considering a symmetric mesh). As boundary conditions, a temperature of 38ºC was considered for walls where heating pipe outlets are, to the west side, besides a heat flow of zero, in symmetry to the same side. As for the sides east, south and north, walls were taken as isolated, i.e. heat flow equals to zero. The aviary heating system did not achieve a homogeneous temperature distribution, heat flow, heated air pressure...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Environment; Animals; Thermal comfort; Airflow.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000500768
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Determination of thermal comfort zone for early-stage broilers REA
Cândido,Márcia G. L.; Tinôco,Ilda De F. F.; Pinto,Francisco de A. de C.; Santos,Nerilson T.; Roberti,Ricardo P..
ABSTRACT Environmental temperatures currently considered within comfort zone for broiler rearing may be misleading or even obsolete from actual values. Some factors such as animal genetics, nutrition and poultry management, mainly acclimatization to tropical and subtropical conditions, influence in determining the comfort zone for birds. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of five different thermal environments on animal welfare and rearing performance of broiler chickens, setting an ideal temperature range (comfort zone) for each of the first three weeks of poultry breeding. The chicks (375) were randomly placed into five climatic chambers set to distinct thermal conditions, being: one as recommended by the literature, another as stated by Cassuce...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Poultry; Thermal comfort; Animal performance; Cold stress.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000500760
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Diagnosis and validation by computational fluid dynamics of poultry house with negative pressure ventilation AGRIAMBI
Cunha,Gisele C. de A.; Lopes Neto,José P.; Furtado,Dermeval A.; Borges,Valéria P.; Freire,Elias A.; Nascimento,José W. B. do.
ABSTRACT Negative pressure ventilation in poultry houses has been used to enable the correction of their internal microclimates, and studies point to the heterogeneous distribution of air along the aviaries and the inadequacy of the environmental variables to the recommended ranges for thermal comfort of adult birds, especially in the hottest hours of the day. This study aimed to diagnose the facilities of a poultry house in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, regarding the distribution of environmental variables and thermal comfort; develop a computational model and validate it for Computational Fluid Dynamic - CFD simulations. Air temperature (Tair), air relative humidity (RH) and air velocity (Vair) data allowed characterizing the internal environment by...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Thermal comfort; Thermal index; Simulations.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-43662019001000761
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Efeito da ventilacao natural e mecanica sobre o desempenho de porcas em lactacao. Repositório Alice
PERDOMO, C.C.; FERNANDES, L.C. de O.; GUIDONI, A.L.; FIALHO, F.B..
O controle efetivo da ventilacao e fundamental para maximizar o bem-estar, o desempenho e a saude dos suinos. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de sistemas de ventilacao natural atraves de janelas basculantes (com e sem exaustor eolico) e mecanica, dimensionados para a retirada da carga termica incidente, nas condicoes de verao, sobre o condicionamento ambiental e desempenho de porcas em lactacao, em Concordia, SC, no periodo de 1991/92. Embora tenha sido observado efeito da estacao do ano (P<0,05) sobre as variaveis ambientais, nao houve alteracoes significativas na resposta animal (P>0,05). O condicionamento termico no verao foi considerado estressante em todos os sistemas, com temperaturas (Ti) elevadas (>22,0 graus C.), taxas de ventilacao (Vi)...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Conforto termico; Maternidade; Sistemas de ventilacao; Tipos de fechamento; Thermal comfort; Farrowing housing; Opening forms.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/89478
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Effect of floor type (dirt or concrete) on litter quality, house environmental conditions, and performance of broilers Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Abreu,VMN; Abreu,PG de; Jaenisch,FRF; Coldebella,A; Paiva,DP de.
This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the use of concrete or hard-packed dirt floor in broiler houses. This experiment was carried out in two different phases. The following performance parameters were studied: live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. Litter moisture, pH and temperature were measured. Litter residual contamination after cleaning and disinfection was also evaluated. A dry bulb thermometer, a wet bulb thermometer, and a black bulb thermometer were placed inside each broiler house at bird height and outside the broiler house for data collection. Environmental data were collected at 3h intervals from 00:00 to 24:00 hours during weeks 4, 5, and 6 of the grow-out. Based on the collected data, air...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Coliforms; Litter pH; Litter temperature; Live performance; Thermal comfort.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2011000200007
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Energy balance in the poultry-shed system and its influence on broiler performance REA
Silva,Tatiana P. N. da; Pandorfi,Héliton; Guiselini,Cristiane.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the energy balance of the poultry-shed system and its effect on broiler performance during the production cycle. The experimental design was completely random with sub-divided blocks. The blocks were composed of five different types of sheds and the sub-blocks of the evaluation times (00:00 h to 23:00 h), allowing an analysis of variance and a comparison between means with the Tukey test. There were no significant differences between the mean values of the exchanges of sensible, latent and total heat between the poultry sheds but the differences for the evaluation times were significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between sheds 1 and 4 for broiler productive performance regarding...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Broiler industry; Thermal comfort; Thermography.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162015000400613
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Estimating mortality in laying hens as the environmental temperature increases Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Pereira,DF; do Vale,MM; Zevolli,BR; Salgado,DD.
Layer mortality due to heat stress is an important economic loss for the producer. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality pattern of layers reared in the region of Bastos, SP, Brazil, according to external environment and bird age. Data mining technique were used based on monthly mortality records of hens in production, 135 poultry houses, from January 2004 to August 2008. The external environment was characterized according maximum and minimum temperatures, obtained monthly at the meteorological station CATI in the city of Tupã, SP, Brazil. Mortality was classified as normal (£ 1.2%) or high (> 1.2%), considering the mortality limits mentioned in literature. Data mining technique produced a decision tree with nine levels and 23 leaves,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Data mining; Layer production; Mortality; Thermal comfort.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2010000400008
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Evaluation of recycled tiles and OSB ceiling materials in closed broiler house prototypes Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Cravo,JCM; Fiorelli,J; Lahr,FAR; Fonseca,R da; Cruz,VC da.
This study aimed at evaluating the thermal performance of a modular ceiling system for poultry houses. The reduced- and distorted-scale prototypes used ceiling modules made of reforested wood and were covered with recycled long-life package tiles. The following parameters were measured for 21 days: tile internal surface temperature (ST), globe temperature and humidity index (WBGT), and radiant heat load (RHL). Measurements were made at times of highest heat load (11:00 am, 13:00 pm, and 03:00 pm). Collected data were analyzed by "R" statistics software. Means were compared by multiple comparison test (Tukey) and linear regression was performed, both at 5% significance level. The results showed that the prototype with the ceiling was more efficient to...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Broiler house environment; Recycled tiles; Thermal comfort.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2009000400002
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Evaluation of reflective painting of the roof and artificial ventilation on performance and carcass yield of broilers R. Bras. Zootec.
Passini,Roberta; Araújo,Maria Angélica Gonçalves de; Almeida,Eduardo Alves de; Yasuda,Vinícius Melo.
This study was developed with the objective of evaluating reflective paint on covering and artificial ventilation on performance of broilers (males and females). A randomized design with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used, as follows: 2 external management systems (coverage with and without reflective paint), 2 internal management systems (with and without artificial ventilation) and 2 sexes (male and female), totalizing 8 treatments. A total of 480 1-day old chicks of the Cobb strain were distributed randomly, according to sex, to treatments. Each treatment consisted of 4 pens - two pens for males and two for females - with 30 birds each. Six birds/pen were sampled. The studies were conducted at IFG-Urutaí Campus. For the performance...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aviculture; Poultry environment; Thermal comfort.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000700029
Registros recuperados: 55
Primeira ... 123 ... Última
 

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa
Todos os direitos reservados, conforme Lei n° 9.610
Política de Privacidade
Área restrita

Embrapa
Parque Estação Biológica - PqEB s/n°
Brasília, DF - Brasil - CEP 70770-901
Fone: (61) 3448-4433 - Fax: (61) 3448-4890 / 3448-4891 SAC: https://www.embrapa.br/fale-conosco

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional