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A Simple Measure for Agricultural Trade Distortion AgEcon
Roningen, Vernon O.; Dixit, Praveen M..
A simple measure is proposed that estimates the volume of trade distortion caused by the agricultural policies of trading countries. The index, called a TDS (Trade Distorted by support), would be useful for trade analysts to compare the trade impact of agricultural support policies across countries and commodities. The TDS index can be calculated largely from existing information on agricultural support. A TDS index might also be used to assess damages in trade dispute settlement cases.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indicators; Producer subsidy equivalent; Trade distortion; Trade models; Trade negotiations; Trade policy; GATT; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51137
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AGRICULTURAL TRADE AND THE DOHA ROUND: LESSONS FROM COMMODITY STUDIES AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Aksoy, Ataman.
While global analytical approaches to agricultural trade liberalization yield large gains for most economies, there are substantial variations in the policy regimes across commodities. To clarify the multiplicity of distortions and impacts, the World Bank's Trade Department undertook a series of commodity studies. The studies highlight the important challenges faced by negotiating countries in the Doha Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) trade negotiations. The studies provide a sharper look at the North-South dimensions of the agricultural trade debate, with the North's trade barriers, domestic support, and tariff escalation. They also underscore the South-South challenges on border protection and the reduced rural income opportunities for the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Commodities; Doha Round; Trade negotiations; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18301
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CHALLENGES IN AGRICULTURAL TRADE UNDER CUSTA: HIGHLIGHTS AgEcon
Koo, Won W.; Mattson, Jeremy W..
The report summarizes highlights of papers presented in the conference entitled "Challenges in Agricultural Trade under CUSTA" held in Fargo, North Dakota on October 26-27, 2000. The main objective of the conference was to analyze emerging issues in agricultural trade between the United States and Canada under the U.S./Canada Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA). Specific themes include: (1) changes in trade patterns under CUSTA, (2) CUSTA's impact on bilateral agricultural trade, (3) recent evolution of the U.S. and Canadian marketing systems, (4) major issues for future commercial integration, and (5) trade disputes and negotiations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Free trade agreement; Wheat; Barley; Cattle; Beef; Trade disputes; Trade negotiations; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23552
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CONCLUDING THE DOHA ROUND: AN IMPERATIVE AgEcon
Rosario, Joe A..
Much water has flowed under the bridge since ministers failed to conclude world trade negotiations in July 2009. The world underwent an historical recession brought about by the U.S. financial toxic asset scandal. Global trade has declined sharply and is forecasted to decline by 9% in real terms in 2009. World economic growth rates have declined dramatically. There have been several cases of covert (and some overt) protectionism by both developed and advanced economies. Despite declarations from world leaders on several occasions for the need to refrain from protectionist measures and the need for the resumption and conclusion of the Doha Round of trade negotiations over the past nine months, no such action has materialized. The two major contestants in...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: WTO; International trade; Doha Round; Trade negotiations; India; Agriculture; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; Public Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60427
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Eight Years of Doha Trade Talks: Where Do We Stand? AgEcon
Bouet, Antoine; Laborde, David.
In 2001 the World Trade Organization launched a highly ambitious program of multilateral liberalization. Eight years later, concluding the negotiations is uncertain, though an opportunity still exists. Since 2001, many proposals on market access have been brought to the negotiating table by the European Union, the United States, and the G20. Because it is politically and economically acceptable to many parties, the final December 2008 package could be the basis of an agreement. An evaluation of these various proposals shows how trade negotiations have been following countries’ strategic interests. In eight years, the ambition of the formula in agricultural market access tariff reduction has increased, but additional flexibilities designed to accommodate...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Computable general equilibrium modeling; Least developed countries; Trade negotiations; Financial Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93256
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MODELING TARIFF RATE QUOTAS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT: THE CASE OF SUGAR MARKETS IN OECD COUNTRIES AgEcon
van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Beghin, John C.; Mitchell, Don.
We use mixed-complementarity-problem programming to implement tariff rate quotas (TRQs) in the global computable general equilibrium (CGE) Linkage model. We apply the approach to TRQs in sugar markets in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. We calibrate the model on 2000 policy levels for OECD countries to reflect the full implementation of their World Trade Organization commitments. We look at reforms of TRQ and TRQ-like schemes in the European Union, the United States, and Japan, as well as multilateral trade liberalization. We derive the impact of reforms on welfare, bilateral trade flows, and terms of trade. A 33 percent multilateral decrease of ad valorem tariffs, combined with a 33 percent increase in imports under...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CGE model; Doha; Liberalization; Sugar; Tariff rate quota; Trade negotiations; TRQ; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18612
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OPENING GLOBAL MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURE: THE NEXT WTO ROUND AgEcon
Sumner, Daniel A..
More open international markets benefit the economy as a whole, as well as most U.S. agricultural producers. The Uruguay Round Agreement laid out a useful framework. Specifically addressed here is why the key to further liberalizing agricultural trade is reduction of tariffs as comprehensively and rapidly as politics will allow. Other issues such as export subsidies, tariff-rate quota quantities, and developing-country relationships are also important, especially while tariffs are coming down. Internal support rules have much less potential to liberalize trade. Finally, as the December 1999 World Trade Organization ministerial meeting in Seattle demonstrated, delay in the negotiation process threatens liberalization.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Agricultural trade; Commodity trade; Tariff-rate quotas; Tariffs; Trade negotiations; WTO; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14709
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Politically Acceptable Trade Compromises Between The EC and The US: A Game Theory Approach AgEcon
Johnson, Martin; Mahe, Louis Adrien Pascal; Roe, Terry L..
A model is developed to quantify the special status of agriculture in the US and the EC trade negotiations. The role of special interests are measured by a policy goals function (PGF) whose weights are estimated for each special interest group. The analysis searches for mutually acceptable, mutually advantageous trade agreements between the US and the EC using a partial equilibrium world trade model coupled with game theory. Results suggest that it is in the best interest of the US (resp. EC) 'for the EC (resp. US) to liberalize whi1e the other follows the status quo policies of 1986. Mutual gains in PGF values to both countries pursuing "large" liberalizations are unlikely to exist, although "small" liberalizations may give rise to "small" mutual gains....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Game theory; Trade liberalization; Trade negotiations; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51154
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Sensitive Product Treatment in Agricultural Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Wailes, Eric J.; Sharp, Misti.
The fact that trade, and especially agricultural trade, remains far from free is puzzling, since the superiority of free trade receives overwhelming support among economists (Gawande and Krishna, 2003; Rodrik, 1994). International trade scholars have devoted significant resources to forecasting the impact of trade policy reforms (for a survey of these studies see Congressional Budget Office, 2005), and their findings are relevant inputs for officials negotiating a trade agreement as well as for politicians in charge of ratifying it. The perceived gains and losses attached to different outcomes have been identified as a significant factor shifting the outcome of a trade agreement negotiation (McMillan, 1990). Less well-known are the factors that would...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade negotiations; Agricultural trade; Free trade agreements; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F59; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103835
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The Doha Agenda and Agricultural Trade Reform: The Role of Economic Analysis AgEcon
Martin, William J.; Anderson, Kym.
This paper shows that research on international agricultural trade reform can make much greater contributions to understanding than was feasible in earlier trade negotiations. Part of this is due to improvements in the basic data on production, consumption and trade associated with the development of the GTAP database and part due to the greater availability of disaggregated data on applied and bound rates of protection. Unfortunately, the framework in which we operate means that we are reduced to measuring gains that are substantially less than one percent of GDP. New developments in theory and method provide the potential for our quantitative analysis to be improved in at least six areas, including improvements in: the measurement of protection;...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade negotiations; Multilateral; Agricultural trade; Welfare evaluation; WTO; International Relations/Trade; F13; F11; F12.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25628
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Trade and Welfare Effects of State Trading Enterprises AgEcon
McCorriston, Steve; MacLaren, Donald.
Much of the analysis of market access issues in the Doha Round negotiations involves clearly defined instruments of government policy covering inter alia subsidies, tariffs and tariff rate quotas. State trading enterprises are also on the negotiating agenda though there is comparatively little analysis of their impact on trade and welfare despite the fact that they will be addressed in the forthcoming negotiations. This paper addresses these issues and highlights that STEs both distort trade and reduce welfare. The extent of these effects depend not only on the monopoly/monopsony status of the enterprises but the nature of the pay-off function.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: State trading enterprises; Trade negotiations; International Relations/Trade; F12; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24523
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