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Application of Urine as Fuel in a Soil-based Membrane-less Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell CIGR Journal
Simeon, Meshack Imologie; Otache., Matins Yusuf; Ewemojie, Temitayo Abayomi; RAJI, AbdulGaniy Olayinka.
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is a promising bio-technology that utilizes the microorganism in organic wastes to generate electricity. Although human urine has been identified as a suitable substrate in MFCs, its possible utilization in a soil-based Membrane-less Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell (MSCMFC) for constant power generation has, hitherto, not been reported. In this study, a MFC was set up with mud as inoculums in a plastic cylindrical vessel using carbon felt electrodes. It was operated for 19 days (456 hours) without extra substrate. Then, the MFC was treated with human urine (as substrate) four times (Days 19, 24, 32 and 36) each time the MFC output stabilized across external loads. A control MFC (MFCcontrol) was made the same way and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Renewable Energy; Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Soil; Urine; Microorganism; Power; Fuel Cell.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4808
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Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Soil and Hay Matrices in Lactating Goats Inra
Costera, A.; Feidt, C.; Dziurla, M.A.; Monteau, F.; Le Bizec, B.; Rychen, G..
This experiment was aimed at determining the bioavailability of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in goats: phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. A Latin square designprocedure was carried out involving three alpine lactating goats and three PAH-contaminatedmatrices (soil, hay, and oil as a control). Milk and urine samples were collected to assess PAH andhydroxy-PAH excretion kinetics and to compare the carry-over rates for the different matrices. PAHswere found to be excreted mainly in urine; metabolite concentrations were about 20 times higher inurine than in milk. 1-Hydroxypyrene was the major metabolite in both body fluids (8000 ng/mL urineand 450 ng/mL milk); it may be considered as a valuable indicator of the ruminant exposure toPAHs....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: PAHs; 1-hydroxypyrene; Soil; Hay; Bioavailability; Urine; Milk; Goats.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2010b4f85ccc&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/06/
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Canine distemper virus detection by different methods of One-Step RT-qPCR Ciência Rural
Tozato,Claudia de Camargo; Zadra,Vívian Ferreira; Basso,Caroline Rodrigues; Araújo Junior,João Pessoa.
ABSTRACT: Three commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR were evaluated for the molecular diagnosis of Canine Distemper Virus. Using the kit that showed better performance, two systems of Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were tested and compared for analytical sensitivity to Canine Distemper Virus RNA detection: a One-Step RT-qPCR (system A) and a One-Step RT-qPCR combined with NESTED-qPCR (system B). Limits of detection for both systems were determined using a serial dilution of Canine Distemper Virus synthetic RNA or a positive urine sample. In addition, the same urine sample was tested using samples with prior centrifugation or ultracentrifugation. Commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR assays detected canine distemper virus RNA in 10 (100%) urine samples from...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Canine distemper; Molecular diagnosis; One-Step RT-qPCR; Urine; Centrifugation.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782016000901601
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Correlation between sodium and potassium excretion in 24- and 12-h urine samples BJMBR
Mill,J.G.; Silva,A.B.T. da; Baldo,M.P.; Molina,M.C.B.; Rodrigues,S.L..
Low-sodium and high-potassium diets have been recommended as an adjunct to prevention and treatment of hypertension. Analysis of these nutrients in 24-h urine has been considered the reference method to estimate daily intake of these minerals. However, 24-h urine collection is difficult in epidemiological studies, since urine must be collected and stored in job environments. Therefore, strategies for shorter durations of urine collection at home have been proposed. We have previously reported that collecting urine during a 12-h period (overnight) is more feasible and that creatinine clearance correlated strongly with that detected in 24-h samples. In the present study, we collected urine for 24 h divided into two 12-h periods (from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sodium excretion; Urine; Salt intake; Potassium excretion.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2012000900002
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Creatinine excretion and relationship with body weight of Nellore cattle R. Bras. Zootec.
Silva,Luiz Fernando Costa e; Valadares Filho,Sebastião de Campos; Chizzotti,Mário Luiz; Rotta,Polyana Pizzi; Prados,Laura Franco; Valadares,Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Zanetti,Diego; Braga,Jercyane Maria da Silva.
The objective of this study was to estimate the urinary creatinine excretion by the shrunk body weight (SBW). In experiment I, 32 Nellore bulls with initial body weight of 259±24.9 kg and 14±1 months-old were used. The group was divided in four animals to maintenance and twenty eight animals feeding ad libitum and separated in four groups; each group was slaughtered at different times of feedlot (42, 84, 126 and 168 days). The diet was composed of corn silage and concentrate (55:45). Before the slaughters, the total urinary collection was realized during three days. A database of creatinine excretion was collected from other five studies that had been conducted with Nellore cattle. In all the studies, the total urinary collection was realized during at...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crude protein; Muscle tissue; Total collection; Urine.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000300046
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Detection of Leptospira spp. in the semen and urine of bulls serologically reactive to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo BJM
Magajevski,Fernanda Senter; Girio,Raul Jose Silva; Mathias,Luis Antonio; Myashiro,Simone; Genovez,Margareth Élide; Scarcelli,Eliana Pinheiro.
This study evaluated PCR for the detection of leptospires in semen and urine of ten serologically reactive bulls, comparing these results with those obtained with other diagnosis techniques. Two collections of materials were done in alternate days. Semen and urine samples were separated in aliquots for: direct visualization in dark field microscopy; inoculation in hamsters (for semen only); isolation in culture media; and PCR. No hamster was positive by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT); kidney and liver fragments from the hamsters were used in an isolation attempt in culture media, with one positive isolation from the kidney of a hamster inoculated with semen of one bull, and from liver of hamsters inoculated with semen of three bulls. Isolation in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Semen; Urine; PCR.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822005000100009
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Development and validation of a modified TaqMan based real-time PCR assay targeting the lipl32 gene for detection of pathogenic Leptospira in canine urine samples BJM
Miotto,Bruno Alonso; Hora,Aline Santana da; Taniwaki,Sueli Akemi; Brandão,Paulo Eduardo; Heinemann,Marcos Bryan; Hagiwara,Mitika Kuribayashi.
Abstract A modified TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting a 138 bp fragment within the lipl32 gene was developed to identify exclusively pathogenic Leptospira spp. in dog urine samples. Thirty-five samples from dogs with suspected clinical leptospirosis and 116 samples from apparently healthy dogs were tested for presence of leptospiral DNA using the TaqMan-based assay. The results were compared with those from a well-established conventional PCR targeting the 16S RNA encoding gene associated with nucleotide sequencing analysis. The overall agreement between the assays was 94.8% (confidence interval [CI] 95% 88-100%). The newly developed assay presented 91.6% (CI 95% 71.5-98.5%) relative sensitivity (22[+] lipl32 PCR/24[+] 16S RNA and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Leptospirosis; Dog; Urine; QPCR; Lipl32.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822018000300584
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Effects of addition of fluorine in diets differing in protein content on urinary fluoride excretion, clinical chemistry and thyroid hormones in calves R. Bras. Zootec.
Lohakare,Jayant; Pattanaik,Ashok Kumar.
In order to compare the effects of addition of fluorine (F) in diets differing in protein content on the urinary F excretion, blood profile and thyroid hormones, 30 crossbred calves (6-8 months) initially exposed to different protein levels were allotted into six groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The factors included three different levels of protein: normal (NP; 100%), low (LP; 75%), and high (HP; 125%) besides two levels of supplemental fluorine (as sodium fluoride) at 0 or 200 mg/kg diet. The animals were fed a wheat straw-based diet for 210 d. Feeding NP diets decreased urinary fluoride excretion, measured at 42 d intervals, compared with LP diets. Blood levels of hemoglobin and haematocrit, measured at 70 d intervals, were not affected by either...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Blood; Cattle; Concentrate; Fluorosis; Sodium fluoride; Urine.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982013001000009
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Evaluation of a nested-pcr for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples BJM
Cruz,Heidi Lacerda Alves da; Montenegro,Rosana de Albuquerque; Lima,Juliana Falcão de Araújo; Poroca,Diogo da Rocha; Lima,Juliana Figueirêdo da Costa; Montenegro,Lílian Maria Lapa; Crovella,Sergio; Schindler,Haiana Charifker.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine) when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine), regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Nested-PCR; Blood; Urine; Molecular diagnosis; IS6110 insertion sequence.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822011000100041
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Monitoring of ochratoxin a exposure of the Portuguese population through a nationwide urine survey – Winter 2007 IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Duarte, S.; Bento, J.; Pena, A.; Lino, C.M.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Oliva-Teles, T.; Morais, S.; Correia, M.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Alves, M.R.; Pereira, J.A..
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of fungi, such as Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillium spp., which has been found to have a wide number of potentially deadly toxic effects, and can enter the human organism through a variety of means. It then finds its way into the bloodstream and, after a lengthy process, is eventually excreted through the urine. It can thus be detected in its original form not only in blood samples but also in this biological medium. As such, and in an attempt to evaluate the exposure of the Portuguese population to this mycotoxin, morning urine samples were collected during the Winter of 2007, from each of five geographically distinct Portuguese locations — Bragança, Porto, Coimbra, Alentejo, and Algarve — and...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Ochratoxin A; Urine; National survey; Portugal; LC-FD.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/3114
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Niveis de fosforo para caprinos: perda endogena fecal e exigencia liquida para mantenca. Repositório Alice
BUENO, M.S.; VITTI, D.M.S.S..
Foram utilizados, no experimento, nove caprinos machos castrados, da raca Alpina, em dois periodos. Os animais permaneceram 28 dias em dieta experimental composta de feno e concentrado, sem suplementacao de P, ou com 1g ou 2g de P, na forma de fosfato bicalcico. No 21 dia os animais receberam injecao de 7,4 MBq de 32P na jugular, e coletaram-se amostras de sangue, fezes e urina, por sete dias, com o objetivo de avaliar o metabolismo do P. O aumento do consumo de P levou a aumento linear significativo do P excretado nas fezes, do P absorvido, do P endogeno fecal, da eficiencia de absorcao, e dos teores de P nas fezes e no plasma. O aumento do P endogeno fecal (Y) em funcao do consumo de P (X) pode ser descrito pela equacao Y=10,36 + 0,58X (r=0,94); a perda...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Fezes; Fosforo radioativo; Plasma; Saliva; Urina; Feces; Radioactive phsophorus; Urine.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/94150
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Regulation of nephron acidification by corticosteroids BJMBR
The present paper reviews work from our laboratories evaluating the importance of adrenal cortical hormones in acidification by proximal and cortical distal tubules. Proximal acidification was determined by stationary microperfusion, and measurement of bicarbonate reabsorption using luminal pH determination was performed with H+-ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) 48 h before the experiments, and corticosteroids (aldosterone (A), corticosterone (B), and 18-OH corticosterone (18-OH-B)) were injected intramuscularly 100 and 40 min before the experiments. In ADX rats stationary pH increased significantly to 7.03 as compared to sham-operated rats (6.78). Bicarbonate reabsorption decreased from 2.65 ± 0.18 in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Aldosterone; Corticosterone; Bicarbonate reabsorption; Amiloride; Urine; PCO2.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1997000400008
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Sheep Excreta as Source of Nitrous Oxide in Ryegrass Pasture in Southern Brazil Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo
Tomazi,Michely; Magiero,Emanuelle Cavazini; Assmann,Joice Mari; Bagatini,Tatiane; Dieckow,Jeferson; Carvalho,Paulo Cesar de Faccio; Bayer,Cimélio.
ABSTRACT Livestock urine and dung are important components of the N cycle in pastures, but little information on its effect on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions is available. We conducted a short-term (39-day) trial to quantify the direct N2O-N emissions from sheep excreta on an experimental area of ryegrass pasture growing on a Typic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Four rates of urine-N (161, 242, 323, and 403 kg ha-1 N) and one of dung-N (13 kg ha-1 N) were applied, as well as a control plot receiving no excreta. The N2O-N emission factor (EF = % of added N released as N2O-N) for urine and dung was calculated, taking into account the N2O fluxes in the field, over a period of 39 days. The EF value of the urine and dung was used to estimate the emissions of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Climate change; Emission factor; Urine; Dung; Crop-livestock system.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832015000501498
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Species-specific nested PCR as a diagnostic tool for Brucella ovis infection in rams Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Costa,L.F.; Nozaki,C.N.; Lira,N.S.C.; Antunes,J.M.A.P.; Xavier,M.N.; Costa,E.A.; Paixão,T.A.; Santos,R.L.; Megid,J..
The aim of the present study was to evaluate a species-specific nested PCR based on a previously described species-specific PCR for detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples of experimentally infected rams. The performance of the species-specific nested PCR was compared with the results of a genus-specific PCR. Fourteen rams were experimentally infected with the Brucella ovis REO 198 strain and samples of semen and urine were collected every week up to 180 days post infection. Out of 83 semen samples collected, 42 (50.6%) were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, and 23 (27.7%) were positive for the genus-specific PCR. Out of 75 urine samples, 49 (65.3%) were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, whereas 11 (14.6%) were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Brucella ovis; Species-specific; Nested PCR; Semen; Urine.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352013000100009
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Urinary creatinine as a nutritional and urinary volume marker in sheep fed with tropical or temperate forages Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
David,D.B.; Poli,C.H.E.C.; Savian,J.V.; Amaral,G.A.; Azevedo,E.B.; Jochims,F..
To test the accuracy of creatinine as a marker for estimating urinary volume and its use as a nutritional index, the possible interference of forage intake and forage quality over creatinine excretion was evaluated. For this, sheep were fed different levels of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum(L) Leeke) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam). The experiment consisted of a compilation of digestibility trials (n=6) with pearl millet or Italian ryegrass in completely randomized designs with four replications and four forage levels: 1.5, 2.0, 2.5% (kg dry matter (DM)/ 100 kg of live weight (LW)). The trials were repeated at different periods to evaluate how stable the average metabolic excretion of creatinine is. In each trial, total urine collection...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Digestible organic matter intake; Microbial protein synthesis; Urine.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352015000401009
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Use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect Mycobacterium leprae in urine BJMBR
Caleffi,K.R.; Hirata,R.D.C.; Hirata,M.H.; Caleffi,E.R.; Siqueira,V.L.D.; Cardoso,R.F..
Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied to detect M. leprae in different clinical samples and urine seems to be attractive for this purpose. PCR was used to improve the sensitivity for diagnosing leprosy by amplifying a 151-bp PCR fragment of the M. leprae pra gene (PCR-Pra) in urine samples. Seventy-three leprosy patients (39 males and 34 females, 14 to 78 years old) were selected for leprosy diagnosis at a reference laboratory in Maringá, PR, Brazil. Of these, 36 were under anti-leprosy multidrug therapy with dapsone and rifampicin for tuberculoid (TT) and dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine for borderline (BB) and lepromatous (LL) forms. The control group contained 50 healthy...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: PCR; Leprosy; Mycobacterium leprae; Urine; TT leprosy; LL leprosy.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2012000200010
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