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Registros recuperados: 31
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3D Cameras: 3D Computer Vision of Wide Scope InTech
Stefan May; Kai Pervoelz; Hartmut Surmann.
First of all, a short comparison of range sensors and their underlying principles was given. The chapter further focused on 3D cameras. The latest innovations have given a significant improvement for the measurement accuracy, wherefore this technology has attracted attention in the robotics community. This was also the motivation for the examination in this chapter. On this account, several applications were presented, which represents common problems in the domain of autonomous robotics. For the mapping example of static scenes, some difficulties have been shown. The low range, low apex angle and low dynamic range compared with 3D laser scanners, raised a lot of problems. Therefore, laser scanning is still the preferred technology for this use case. Based...
Tipo: 11 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/3d_cameras__3d_computer_vision_of_wide_scope
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A Practical Toolbox for Calibrating Omnidirectional Cameras InTech
Davide Scaramuzza; Roland Siegwart.
In this chapter, we presented a method for calibrating any central omnidirectional camera both dioptric or catadioptric. The method relies on a generalized parametric function that describes the relation between a given pixel point and the correspondent 3D vector emanating from the single effective view point of the camera. We describe this function by means of a polynomial expansion whose coefficients are the parameters to be calibrated. Furthermore, we presented a toolbox for Matlab (named OcamCalib) that implements the mentioned calibration procedure. The toolbox is available on-line. We described the tools and the main features of our toolbox, one of which being the capability to automatically identify the center of the omnidirectional image. The...
Tipo: 17 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_practical_toolbox_for_calibrating_omnidirectional_cameras
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A Real-Time Framework for the Vision Subsystem in Autonomous Mobile Robots InTech
Paulo Pedreiras; Filipe Teixeira; Nelson Ferreira; Luis Almeida Armando Pinho; Frederico Santos.
Computer vision applied to guidance of autonomous robots has been generating large interest in the research community as a natural and rich way to sense the environment and extract from it the necessary features. However, due to the robots motion, vision-based sensing becomes a real-time activity that must meet deadlines in order to support adequate control performance and avoid collisions. Unfortunately, most vision-based systems do not rely on real-time techniques and exhibit poor temporal behavior, with large variations in execution time that may lead to control performance degradation and even sensing blackout periods caused by skipped image frames. In this chapter, the referred problem is identified in the scope of the CAMBADA middle-size robotic...
Tipo: 6 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_real-time_framework_for_the_vision_subsystem_in_autonomous_mobile_robots
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A Visual Based Extended Monte Carlo Localization for Autonomous Mobile Robots InTech
Wen Shang; Dong Sun.
An extended Monte Carlo localization (EMCL) method is proposed in this book chapter by introducing two validation mechanisms to apply a resampling strategy to conventional MCL. Two validation mechanisms, uniformity validation and over-convergence validation, are effectively used to check abnormity of the distribution of weight values of sample set, e.g., observation deviation or over-convergence problem. The strategy of employing different resampling processes is proposed to construct more consistent posterior distribution with observations. This new approach is aimed to improve localization performance particularly with smaller sample size in the non-modeled robot movements, and thus achieve global localization more efficiently. A vision-based extended...
Tipo: 12 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_visual_based_extended_monte_carlo_localization_for_autonomous_mobile_robots
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Active Vision Based Regrasp Planning for Capture of a Deforming Object Using Genetic Algorithms InTech
Ashish Dutta; Goro Obinata; Shota Terachi.
The main contributions of this research are an effective vision based method to compute the optimal grasp points for a 2D prismatic object using GA has been proposed. The simulation and experimental results prove that it is possible to apply the algorithm in practical cases to find the optimal grasp points. In future we hope to integrate the method in a multifinger robotic hand to grasp different types of deforming objects autonomously.
Tipo: 2 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/active_vision_based_regrasp_planning_for_capture_of_a_deforming_object_using_genetic_algorithms
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Algebraic Reconstruction and Post-Processing in Incomplete Data Computed Tomography: from X-rays to Laser Beams InTech
Alexander B. Konovalov; Dmitry V. Mogilenskikh; Vitaly V. Vlasov; Andrey N. Kiselev.
In this chapter we consider two examples of algebraic reconstruction in incomplete data computed tomography: few-view X-ray computed tomography and one-step diffuse optical tomography. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique optimizing the entropy allows the better quality of tomograms to be obtained. It is shown that, to enhance the convergence of iterative reconstruction procedure and to minimize the artifact level on tomograms, the conventional formulas of solution correction should be modified. The presented results of reconstruction demonstrate the efficiency of the following our modifications: (a) To calculate the weight matrix, we use not the lines but the narrow strips which provide the sufficient filling of the reconstruction area. (b)...
Tipo: 26 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/algebraic_reconstruction_and_post-processing_in_incomplete_data_computed_tomography__from_x-rays_to_
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AMR Vision System for Perception, Job Detection and Identification in Manufacturing InTech
Sarbari Datta; Ranjit Ray.
4.1 Analysis of transmission and reconstruction rate for AMR perception Experimental data of image transmission rate and reconstruction rate is recorded using the 100 Mbps Ethernet and 11Mbps WLAN for mono-vision and stereovision cameras. The data is tabulated, analyzed, graphically illustrated and analyzed in this section. A. Image transmission and reconstruction using mono-vision camera: Using the approach discussed above, several processes are tabulated. First, colour images of resolution 768x576 are transmitted frame by frame from a mono-vision camera over 100 Mbps Ethernet and 11 Mbps WLAN and are reconstructed on the client side. The grab rate is around 13 fps, which is hardware dependent, comprising a mono-vision PULNIX-TMC6DSP camera with a Matrox...
Tipo: 27 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/amr_vision_system_for_perception__job_detection_and_identification_in_manufacturing
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An Effective 3D Target Recognition Imitating Robust Methods of the Human Visual System InTech
Sungho Kim; In So Kweon.
We propose a new object recognition paradigm based on the robust properties of the HVS, especially in scene context and 3D shape context information in a bottom-up and a topdown process. Furthermore, we also propose the cooperative feature map binding by utilizing both bottom-up and top-down processes and validate the system performance with various experiments. The test results on several images demonstrate efficiency in optimal matching as well as feasibility of the proposed recognition paradigm. The same paradigm will be extended to the general object recognition problem by changing the model representation.
Tipo: 10 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/an_effective_3d_target_recognition_imitating_robust_methods_of_the_human_visual_system
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Bearing-only Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Vision-Based Mobile Robots InTech
Henry Huang; Frederic Maire; Narongdech Keeratipranon.
In this chapter, we proposed a vision-based approach to bearing-only SLAM in a 2dimensional space. We assumed the environment contained several visually distinguishable landmarks. This approach is inspired from techniques used in stereo vision and Structure From Motion. Our landmark initialization method relies solely on the bearing measurements from a single camera. This method does not require information from an odometer or a range sensor. All the object positions can be estimated in a landmark-based frame. The trade-off is that this method requires the robot to be able to move in a straight line for a short while to initialize the landmarks. The proposed method is particularly accurate and useful when the robot can guide itself in a straight line by...
Tipo: 19 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bearing-only_simultaneous_localization_and_mapping_for_vision-based_mobile_robots
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Bearing-Only Vision SLAM with Distinguishable Image Features InTech
Patric Jensfelt; Danica Kragic; John Folkesson.
For enabling the autonomy of robotic systems, we have to equip them with the ability to build a map of the environment using natural landmarks and to be able to use it for localization purposes. Most of the robotic systems capable of SLAM presented so far in the literature have relied on range sensors such as laser scanners and sonar sensors. For large scale, complex environments with natural landmarks the problem of SLAM is still an open research problem. More recently, the use of cameras and machine vision as the only exteroceptive sensor has become one of the most active areas of research in SLAM. The main contributions presented in this chapter are the feature selection and matching mechanisms that allow for real-time performance even with an EKF...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bearing-only_vision_slam_with_distinguishable_image_features
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Behavior-Based Perception for Soccer Robots InTech
Floris Mantz; Pieter Jonker.
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Tipo: 5 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/behavior-based_perception_for_soccer_robots
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Biologically Inspired Vision Architectures: a Software/Hardware Perspective InTech
Francesco S. Fabiano; Antonio Gentile; Marco La Cascia; Roberto Pirrone.
A Fast Boundary Web Extraction (fBWE) algorithm was presented in this paper as a fixedpoint, data parallel implementation of the BWE. fBWE was mapped on SIMPil-K reconfigurable FPGA based platform. Application components and their mapping details were provided along with a detailed analysis of their performance. Experimental results illustrate the significant gain achieved over the traditional BWE, with execution times allowing ample room for real-time processing of typical subsequent tasks in a complete robot vision system. Experimental results on an extensive data set illustrate the significant gain achieved over the traditional BWE implementation. Execution times are in the order of 170 sec for a 256000 pixel image, thus allowing ample room for...
Tipo: 24 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/biologically_inspired_vision_architectures__a_software_hardware_perspective
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Correlation Error Reduction of Images in Stereo Vision with Fuzzy Method and its Application on Cartesian Robot InTech
Mehdi Ghayoumi; Mohammad Shayganfar.
Here, applying a fuzzy model in stereo vision of a 3p robot is presented. According to the simulation results, correlation error is reduced where the best result in a 3p robot applying neural networks is about 97% of correctness, but using a fuzzy approach, let us to achieve up to 100%. It is obvious that all these results are achieved by simulated software and different kinds of errors could be occurred in real environment. Some of them are discussed in(Korayem et al., 2001).This fuzzy model can be applied to a large class of robotic manipulators.
Tipo: 31 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/correlation_error_reduction_of_images_in_stereo_vision_with_fuzzy_method_and_its_application_on_cart
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Dynamic 3D-Vision InTech
K.-D. Kuhnert; M. Langer; M. Stommel; A. Kolb.
Common state of the art mechanisms for the measurement of the surrounding environment in real time usually pose a trade off between high speed, robustness and accuracy. With applications for mobile robots in mind, this work focuses on the faster methods stereo analysis and PMD camera. Our research aims at the computation of robust and dense depth maps in real time. First, the performance of three standard stereo algorithms is examined with regard to two different measurements of similarity. The subsequent optimisation of the standard methods by using modern SIMD instructions and programming techniques like e.g. recursive subdivision leads to an increase of speed by a factor of four. As a result, for the WinnerTakes-It-All algorithm we achieve a computation...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/dynamic_3d-vision
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Extraction of Roads From Out Door Images InTech
Alejandro Forero Guzman; Carlos Parra.
Even when there has been an extensive development of works on road detection and road following during the last two decades, most of them are focused on well structured roads, making difficult its use for humanitarian demining activities. The present work shows a way to use the natural information in outdoor environment to extract the roads or paths characteristics, which can be used as landmarks for the navigation process. Other important observation is that the information combines of two colors, (i.e. the projection R B, Cb or Cr channels) hence reducing the harmful effect of the changing illumination in natural environment. Good results were also achieved in the path planning process. The robot executes a 2? D trajectory planning, which facilitates the...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/extraction_of_roads_from_out_door_images
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Grasping Points Determination Using Visual Features InTech
Madjid Boudaba; Alicia Casals; Heinz Woern.
We have introduced an approach that combines vision and grasping. Based on the vision, visually determining grasping points is done by transforming the grasping regions into a geometrical optimization problem. The results shown in Figure 6 are obtained from applying the software packages in [20] to our Matlab 6.12 programming environment. In order to compute the feasible region of various grasps, we have integrated other linear programming solvers by providing a set of constraints for optimization procedure. Various grasps with three hard-fingers are tested on 2D original object and the feasible solution of grasps are determined by analysing the polytope region of grasps. The focus point inside the polytope convex and its distance from the object's center...
Tipo: 4 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/grasping_points_determination_using_visual_features
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Image Magnification Based on the Human Visual Processing InTech
Sung-Kwan Je; Kwang-Baek Kim; Jae-Hyun Cho; Doo-Heon Song.
In image processing, the interpolated magnification method brings about the problem of image loss such as the blocking and blurring phenomenon when the image is enlarged. In this paper, we proposed the magnification method considering the properties of human visual processing to solve such problems. As a result, our method is faster than any other algorithm that is capable of removing the blocking and blurring phenomenon when the image is enlarged. The cubic convolution interpolation in image processing can obtain a high-resolution image when the image is enlarged. But the processing is too slow as it uses the average of 16 neighbor pixels. The proposed algorithm is better than the cubic convolution interpolation in the processing time and performance. In...
Tipo: 15 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/image_magnification_based_on_the_human_visual_processing
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Industrial Vision Systems, Real Time and Demanding Environment: a Working Case for Quality Control InTech
J.C. Rodriguez-Rodriguez; A. Quesada-Arencibia; R. Moreno-Diaz jr.
In this paper we studied a series of algorithms based on simple operations performed with fast arithmetic. The restriction on the used operations is due to the stress-producing requests of speed. Unfortunately, the obtained results prove that the series of algorithms mentioned IS NOT SUFFICIENT for the requirements. The problem results in that the processing time for each can is variable and sometimes it is excessive. This is due to the fact that each can can offer different challenges of process complexity. For example cans with a lot of noise generate more flooded zones, and the number of flooded zones enlarges the load of the process. Therefore, some cans are validated more slowly than other cans. It is not possible to delay the processing of every can....
Tipo: 22 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/industrial_vision_systems__real_time_and_demanding_environment__a_working_case_for_quality_control
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Methods of the Definition Analysis of Fine Details of Images InTech
S.V. Sai.
The developed objective methods of the definition analysis of images fine details practically prove to be effective and can be used for adjustment and optimization of codec parameters on high visual sharpness in various vision systems. The main distinctive features of the developed methods should be noted in the summary. 1. The visual sharpness analysis is suggested to be carried out on the test image with low contrast, the initial contrast of fine details being set by a number of minimal color vision thresholds two - three times exceeding the average thresholds values. 2. Reduction in visual sharpness is suggested to be estimated by the normalized to vision thresholds, average value of test image fine details contrast deviation from the initial values of...
Tipo: 16 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/methods_of_the_definition_analysis_of_fine_details_of_images
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Micro Vision InTech
Kohtaro Ohba; Kenichi Ohara.
In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.
Tipo: 1 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/micro_vision
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