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An assessment of the impact of possible CAP reform scenarios on Romanian agriculture AgEcon
Alexandri, Cecilia; Luca, Lucian.
Using a simplified model, with key-variable the prices of two different possible scenarios of CAP reform after 2013 (moderate and radical), this paper present a comparison between the price effects of implementation of each reform scenario at 2015 horizon on Romanian agriculture. This short analysis shows that, under the presented hypotheses, the net welfare effect, due to the price changes, for the selected products, is positive in both reform scenarios, yet greater in the case of the radical reform. Integrated in the large context of Romanian development, it seems that the influence of CAP reform upon agriculture and rural areas will be most likely a gradual one: an interpenetration between the two scenarios is foreseeable, starting with the moderate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP reform; Romania; Welfare effects; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44022
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FAT TAX: A POLITICAL MEASURE TO REDUCE OVERWEIGHT? THE CASE OF GERMANY AgEcon
Thiele, Silke.
Using an Almost Ideal Demand System food price elasticities for German households are calculated. These elasticities serve as a basis to simulate the effect of the substitutions of different food types due to a tax on saturated fat. The change of food structure causes effects on the energy and nutrient supply of individuals as well as, on consumer welfare. These effects are analyzed for different German household groups. It is found that decreases in energy and fat intake are small but potentially effective especially for low-income households. However, due to the collateral decrease of nutrients which Germans have deficient supply of, the total health effects of a fat tax remain unclear. Furthermore the results show that low-income groups would bear...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Fat tax; Foods; Nutrients; Welfare effects; Almost Ideal Demand System; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; D12; Q18; P46; I12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116393
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Implications of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) regulations on the EU – U.S. Corn Trade Sector and the Case of the ‘Agenda 2000’ Reforms AgEcon
Chintawar, Sachin; Westra, John V..
Corn trade between the European Union (EU) and the United States has undergone substantial changes over the past decade. EU Reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), beginning with the Mac Sharry Reforms of 1992 and continuing with the Agenda 2000 Reforms, were directed at bringing EU agricultural policy into compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) provisions. These reforms have brought about considerable changes in the market structure in corn trade. However, while trade has been facilitated by decoupling payments and removing levies and tariffs on imported corn, EU’s Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures have negated some of the progress in trade between EU countries and the United States. Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), in the form...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures; Technical Barriers to Trade; Common Agricultural Policy; Agenda 2000 Reforms; Genetically Modified corn; Welfare effects; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56455
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Is Pay-As-You-Drive Insurance a Better Way to Reduce Gasoline than Gasoline Taxes? AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
Gasoline taxes are widely perceived as the most efficient instrument for reducing gasoline consumption because they exploit all behavioral responses for reducing fuel use, including reduced driving and improved fuel economy. At present, however, higher fuel taxes are viewed as a political nonstarter. Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) auto insurance, which involves replacing existing lump-sum premiums with premiums that vary in proportion to miles driven, should be more practical, since they do not raise driving costs for the average motorist. We show that when impacts on a broad range of motor vehicle externalities are considered, PAYD also induces significantly higher welfare gains than comparable gasoline tax increases, for fuel reductions below 9%. The reason is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Gasoline tax; Pay-as-you-drive insurance; Mileage tax; Welfare effects; Motor vehicle externality; Risk and Uncertainty; H21; H23; R48.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10465
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Labeling Policies in Food Markets: Private Incentives, Public Intervention, and Welfare Effects AgEcon
Zago, Angelo M.; Pick, Daniel H..
This study considers the welfare impact of labeling policies of agricultural commodities with specific characteristics. Using a model of vertical differentiation, the effects on equilibrium and welfare levels are calculated. The introduction of the regulation and the emergence of two differentiated competitive markets leaves consumers and high-quality producers better off, while low-quality producers are worse off. With high costs and low quality differences, the total welfare impact of the regulation can be negative. Findings show that when high-quality producers can exercise market power, the regulation could be more easily accepted by producers, but it would have a negative effect on consumers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Food markets; Labeling; Market power; Vertical differentiation; Welfare effects; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31143
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Localizing Demand and Supply of Environmental Services: Interactions With Property Rights, Collective Action and the Welfare of the Poor AgEcon
Swallow, Brent M.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; van Noordwijk, Meine.
Payments for environmental services (PES) are increasingly discussed as appropriate mechanisms for matching the demand for environmental services with the incentives of land users whose actions modify the supply of those environmental services. While there has been considerable discussion of the institutional mechanisms for PES, relatively little attention has been given to the inter-relationships between PES institutions and other rural institutions. This paper presents and builds upon the proposition that both the function and welfare effects of PES institutions depend crucially on the co-institutions of collective action (CA) and property rights (PR). Experience from around the developing world has shown that smallholder land users can be efficient...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Payment for environmental services; Poverty reduction; Collective action; Property rights; Rural institutions; Smallholders; Welfare effects; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42488
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Market and Welfare Impacts of COOL on the U.S.-Mexican Tomato Trade AgEcon
Johnecheck, Wendy A.; Wilde, Parke E.; Caswell, Julie A..
A two-country, comparative static partial equilibrium model is used to simulate the ex ante market and welfare outcomes of U.S. country-of-origin labeling for the U.S.-Mexico fresh tomato trade. In all scenarios where consumers show a relative preference for U.S. tomatoes, Mexican tomato exports decline and U.S. production increases. Mexican trade losses using low- to mid-range consumer preference assumptions are 14% to 32% of the value of Mexican tomato exports to the United States and 1% to 3% of the total value of agricultural produce exports, partially negating the market access gains of NAFTA. Consumer effects are small and sometimes negative. Producer impact is the big effect, with transfer from Mexican to U.S. tomato producers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Country-of-origin labeling; Food labeling; Trade-related food regulations; Welfare effects; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99117
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Multinational Activity in a Macroeconomic Model of the Small Open Economy AgEcon
Otto, Alkis Henri.
We study the effects of FDI and increasing multinational activity utilizing a macroeconomic two-sector model of the small open economy with flexible exchange rates and perfect capital mobility. The focus is on horizontal greenfield investment and its impact on production, exchange rates, trade, and welfare. In the host country, an increase in multinational activity harms the established industries. Nevertheless it increases welfare. In the home country, an increase in multinational activity lowers domestic output of the established industries too and, thereby, decreases welfare.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Foreign Direct Investment; Multinational activity; Welfare effects; Macroeconomic effects; International Relations/Trade; F21; F41.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26242
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On the Efficiency of Public and Private Health Care Systems: An Application to Alternative Health Policies in the United Kingdom AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
Health policy will be a major issue in Britain's next general election. The Labour government is committed to a substantial increase in funds for the National Health Service (NHS) and has eliminated tax relief for private health insurance. The Conservative Opposition party favors subsidizing private health insurance, though it has pledged to match the government's funding increases for the NHS. This paper develops and implements a methodology for estimating the welfare effects of increasing public and private health care in the United Kingdom, when these policies are financed either by distortionary taxes or by user fees for the NHS. User fees are currently minimal, and the national health market "clears" by creating waiting costs. In the private sector we...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: National Health Service; Private health care; Rationing; Subsidies; Welfare effects; Health Economics and Policy; I18; I11; H42.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10822
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Optimum Level and Welfare Effects of Export Taxes for Cocoa Beans in Indonesia: A Partial Equilibrium Approach AgEcon
Permani, Risti; Vanzetti, David; Setyoko, Nur Rakhman.
Aiming to support downstream processing, the Indonesian government announced an export tax in May 2010. Using a partial equilibrium approach, this paper therefore attempts to analyse: (i) whether the Indonesian government has imposed optimal taxes on cocoa beans; (ii) the impacts of cocoa export taxes on domestic welfare. In particular, it attempts to develop a two-stage partial equilibrium welfare analysis in which effects of policy for upstream sectors may affect downstream sectors. The study also presents thorough econometric estimates of import demand, export supply, Armington and cross elasticities using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to deal with cointegration and simultaneity issues. A literature search suggests that existing studies not...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cocoa; Indonesia; Export taxes; Partial equilibrium analysis; Welfare effects; Vector error correcting method.; International Relations/Trade; F17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100695
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Policy Analysis in a Second-Best World AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H.; Oates, Wallace E..
This paper first describes the new literature in environmental economics on the socalled "double dividend" and then explores its implications for a broad range of economic issues. The basic finding in this literature is that in a second-best, general equilibrium setting, environmental measures raise costs and prices and thereby reduce the real wage. This rise in the cost of living reduces slightly the quantity of labor supplied in an already highly distorted labor market, giving rise to losses in social welfare that can be large relative to the basic welfare gains from improved environmental policy. These losses may be offset to some extent by using revenues (if any) from the environmental programs to reduce existing taxes on labor. This same line of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regulatory policies; Welfare effects; Pre-existing taxes; General equilibrium; Environmental Economics and Policy; L51; H23; D52.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10687
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Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H.; Bento, Antonio M..
This paper explores the interactions between taxes on work-related traffic congestion and pre-existing distortionary taxes in the labor market. A congestion tax raises the overall costs of commuting to work and discourages labor force participation at the margin, when revenues are returned in lump-sum transfers. We find that the resulting efficiency loss in the labor market can be larger than the Pigouvian efficiency gains from internalizing the congestion externality. In contrast, if congestion tax revenues are used to reduce labor taxes the net impact on labor supply is positive, and the efficiency gain in the labor market can raise the overall welfare gains of the congestion tax by as much as 100 percent. Recycling congestion tax revenues in public...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Externalities; Congestion taxes; Pre-existing tax distortions; General equilibrium; Welfare effects; Public Economics; R41; H21; H23.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10548
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Tax Deductible Spending, Environmental Policy, and the "Double Dividend" Hypothesis AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H.; Bento, Antonio M..
A number of recent studies have shown that the general equilibrium welfare effects of externality-correcting policies depend importantly on pre-existing taxes in the economy, particularly those that distort the labor market. This paper extends the prior literature by allowing for consumption goods that are deductible from labor taxes. These "goods" represent medical insurance, other less tangible fringe benefits, mortgage interest, and so on. The initial tax system effectively subsidizes tax-favored consumption relative to other consumption, in addition to distorting the labor market. We find that incorporating tax-favored consumption may overturn key results from earlier studies. In particular, a revenue-neutral pollution tax (or auctioned pollution...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental policies; Distortionary taxes; Tax deductions; Welfare effects; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; Q28; L51.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10737
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THE IMPACT OF CAP REFORM ON ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Alexandri, Cecilia; Luca, Lucian.
The paper attempts to evaluate, on the basis of two scenarios (moderate and radical), the effects of CAP reforming compared to the situation of current CAP scenario and its effects upon welfare. Direct payments for the large farms, some of them operating on thousands of hectares, cannot contribute to the objective of supporting farmers’ incomes. The solution for the modernization of rural areas seems to be their “urbanization”, through investments in infrastructure, development of community services and a move away from farming to other economic sectors.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP reform; Welfare effects; Direct payments; Rural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy; Q10; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44858
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The Welfare Effects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in German Pork Production AgEcon
Heinrich, Barbara; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are an externality of the pork production process. To respond to climate change concerns and reduce GHG emissions, internalizing this external effect using a market-based economic instrument would be economically efficient. We calculate the welfare effects of GHG emissions using a partial equilibrium model of the German pork market. Sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the impacts of emission prices and emission rates on the welfare effects of reducing GHG emissions. Potential overall welfare gains amount to roughly € 360,000 in the base setting and increase to roughly € 3 million when emission prices are tripled. This sensitivity highlights the need for more dependable estimates of key parameters such as emission...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Welfare effects; Greenhouse gas emissions; Pork production; Partial equilibrium model; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; H23; Q18; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108793
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Trade Policy Reforms in the Cereals Sector of the SADC Region: Implications on Food Security AgEcon
Mutambatsere, Emelly.
This study evaluates the welfare implications of tariff reforms in the cereals sector of the SADC region. Applying the global simulation model (GSIM), a multi-country partial equilibrium model, to the cereals industries of thirteen SADC countries, the study computes price and welfare effects of tariff reforms on different economic groups in each coun try, and evaluates responsiveness to external supply shocks. Results indicate that on net, elimination of intra-regional tariffs is welfare reducing for the region - a robust result as ind icated by the sensitivity tests. South Africa emerges as the sole beneficiary of intra-regional tariff elimination, with positive net welfare gains attained through higher producer surplus; whereas the rest of SACU...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Tariff reforms; SADC; Cereals markets; GSIM model; Welfare effects; Trade diversion; Food security; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25380
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When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Distorted Factor Markets AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H.; Williams, Roberton C., III; Goulder, Lawrence H..
This paper employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to assess the efficiency impacts of two policies to reduce U.S. carbon emissions - a revenue-neutral carbon tax and a non-auctioned carbon quota - taking into account the interactions between these policies and pre-existing tax distortions in factor markets. We show that tax interactions significantly raise the costs of both policies relative to what they would be in a first-best setting. In addition, we show that these interactions put the carbon quota at a significant efficiency disadvantage relative to the carbon tax: for example, the costs of reducing emissions by 10 percent are more than three times as high under the carbon quota as under the carbon tax. This disadvantage reflects...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon tax; Carbon quota; Pre-existing taxes; Welfare effects; Environmental Economics and Policy; L51; H23; D52.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10514
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Who are the Real Gainers of Trade Liberalization in Kenya's Maize Sector? AgEcon
Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Sarker, Rakhal.
In Kenya, trade policy reforms in the cereals sector were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) during the mid 1980s. The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya’s commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. However, the welfare effects of these trade policy reforms remain controversial. This paper to quantifies the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization in Kenya’s maize sector using a partial equilibrium model with market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. The model is calibrated to simulate a 24 percent reduction in maize import tariffs and a complete abolition of tariffs. The simulations results suggest that tariff reductions yield price...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade liberalization; Maize; Partial equilibrium analysis; Welfare effects; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; F14; F16; I32; C68; O24; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95972
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