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A Factored Language Model for Prosody Dependent Speech Recognition InTech
Ken Chen; Mark A. Hasegawa-Johnson; Jennifer S. Cole.
In this chapter, we proposed a novel approach that improves the robustness of prosody dependent language modeling by leveraging the dependence between prosody and syntax. In our experiments on Radio News Corpus, a factorial prosody dependent language model estimated using our proposed approach has achieved as much as 31% reduction of the joint perplexity over a prosody dependent language model estimated using the standard Maximum Likelihood approach. In recognition experiments, our approach results in a 1% improvement in word recognition accuracy, 0.7% improvement in accent recognition accuracy and 1.5% improvement in intonational phrase boundary (IPB) recognition accuracy over the baseline prosody dependent recognizer. The study in the chapter shows that
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Robust Speech Recognition and Understanding.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_factored_language_model_for_prosody_dependent_speech_recognition
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A Heuristic Rule-Based Approach for Dynamic Scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing Systems InTech
Gonca Tuncel.
In this study, a new and simple alternate routing heuristics, which would be superior to the conventional routing strategies in terms of various system performance measures and easier to apply practically, was presented. Because of the high investment costs of FMSs, it is also definitely worth choosing the best operating policy and system configuration by analyzing the system model, and adapting to changes over time. In future research, the heuristic rule base will be extended to include other supplementary constraints such as dynamic tool allocation and sequence dependent setup times. For practical implementation of the proposed decision support system, additional research in the area of human interfaces could be useful to develop more user friendly...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Multiprocessor Scheduling; Theory and Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_heuristic_rule-based_approach_for_dynamic_scheduling_of_flexible_manufacturing_systems
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Action Selection and Obstacle Avoidance Using Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors InTech
Fernando Montes-Gonzalez; Daniel Flandes-Eusebio; Luis Pellegrin- Zazueta.
This work has been sponsored by CONACyT-MEXICO grant SEP-2004-C01-45726.
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Frontiers in Evolutionary Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/action_selection_and_obstacle_avoidance_using_ultrasonic_and_infrared_sensors
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An Active Contour and Kalman Filter for Underwater Target Tracking and Navigation InTech
Muhammad Asif; Mohd Rizal Arshad.
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/an_active_contour_and_kalman_filter_for_underwater_target_tracking_and_navigation
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Architecture Design and Optimization of an On-the-Fly Reconfigurable Parallel Robot InTech
Allan Daniel Finistauri; Fengfeng (Jeff) Xi; Brian Petz.
A novel method for the architecture design of a reconfigurable parallel robot is presented based on common actuation devices. System design techniques are used to classify parallel robot modules and enumeration rules are established to determine the feasible robot architectures. Branch kinematics are developed and a workspace analysis is performed. An optimal design is selected from the remaining discrete robot configurations. The final design is a self-reconfigurable parallel robot that has the ability to perform on-the-fly reconfiguration. The proposed reconfigurable parallel robot not only provides innovation in reconfigurable system design but also stimulates new research into parallel robot kinematics.
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Parallel Manipulators; Towards New Applications.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/architecture_design_and_optimization_of_an_on-the-fly_reconfigurable_parallel_robot
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Autonomous Navigation of Unmanned Vehicles: A Fuzzy Logic Perspective InTech
Nikos C. Tsourveloudis; Lefteris Doitsidis; Kimon P. Valavanis.
The technology of unmanned vehicles, in all its aspects, is an exciting one, especially since it holds the promise of saving human lives by letting machines do dull, dirty or dangerous missions into high-threat environments or just unknown environments
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Cutting Edge Robotics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/autonomous_navigation_of_unmanned_vehicles__a_fuzzy_logic_perspective
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City-Climber: A New Generation Wall-Climbing Robots InTech
Jizhong Xiao; Ali Sadegh.
This chapter highlights some accomplishments of CCNY robotics team in developing novel wall-climbing robots that overcome the limitations of existing technologies, and surpass them in terms of robot capability, modularity, and payload. The performance of several City-Climber prototypes are demonstrated by the experimental results recorded in video. By integrating modular design, high-performance onboard processing unit, the City-Climber robots are expected to exhibit superior intelligence to other small robot in similar caliber. The next step of the project is to optimize the adhesion mechanism to further increase suction force and robot payload, and to improve the modularity and transition mechanism to allow the robot re-configure its shape to adapt to...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Climbing and Walking Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/city-climber__a_new_generation_wall-climbing_robots
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Comprehensive Omni-Directional Soccer Player Robots InTech
Mehdi DaneshPanah; Amir Abdollahi; Hossein Ostadi; Hooman Aghaebrahimi Samani.
1. In this study, we propose PID and PD controllers for position and orientation controls respectively. Then, the controller parameters were estimated using a simplified model by taking into account the effect of noise. By using these parameters in the real robot, it was shown that the strategy was appropriate for an omni directional robot. Self-localization method utilized in this study used a combination of the odometry system (using a shaft encoder) and vision-based localization. Using the geometrical properties of circles, we managed to calculate the exact position of the robot in the field. Next, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the inaccurate points in the field. For those regions, we used the flags as our landmarks in the corners...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Robotic Soccer.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/comprehensive_omni-directional_soccer_player_robots
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Concurrent Process Tolerancing Based on Manufacturing Cost And Quality Loss InTech
M. F. Huang; Y. R. Zhong.
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Manufacturing the Future.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/concurrent_process_tolerancing_based_on_manufacturing_cost_and_quality_loss
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Control of Redundant Robotic Manipulators with State Constraints InTech
Miroslaw Galicki.
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Industrial Robotics: Theory; Modelling and Control.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/control_of_redundant_robotic_manipulators_with_state_constraints
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Copycat Hand - Robot Hand Generating Imitative Behaviour at High Speed and with High Accuracy InTech
Kiyoshi Hoshino.
To realize a robot hand capable of instantly imitating human actions, high speed, high accuracy and uniform processing time in the hand posture estimation are essential. Therefore, in the present study, we have developed a method that enables the searching of similar images at high speeds and with high accuracy and the search involves uniform processing time, even in the case where a large-scale database is used. This is achieved by (1) clustering databases having approximately uniform amounts of data using selforganization, including self-multiplication and self-extinction and (2) by collating the input images with the data in the database by means of the low-order image characteristics, while narrowing the search space in accordance with the past...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots: New Developments.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/copycat_hand_-_robot_hand_generating_imitative_behaviour_at_high_speed_and_with_high_accuracy
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Distance Feedback Travel Aid Haptic Display Design InTech
Hideyasu Sumiya.
This chapter aims at the user-friendly ETA design. As a preliminary information, several tactile characteristics including sensing range, sensitivity, dynamic factors are introduced, which are critical to design tactile/haptic device. In the latter half of this chapter, an example model of recent ETA design is introduced along the user-friendly real-time operation. Current ETA system are still on the process to gives satisfactory level of environmental reconstruction for user. Even under restriction of tactile charcterists, this design concept will give some hint to create new device to activate human's sensitivity. (e.g. magnification of sensing resolution, extending human sense). Recent studies of sensory substitution system has another aspect to extend...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: Perception & Navigation.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/distance_feedback_travel_aid_haptic_display_design
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Dynamic 3D-Vision InTech
K.-D. Kuhnert; M. Langer; M. Stommel; A. Kolb.
Common state of the art mechanisms for the measurement of the surrounding environment in real time usually pose a trade off between high speed, robustness and accuracy. With applications for mobile robots in mind, this work focuses on the faster methods stereo analysis and PMD camera. Our research aims at the computation of robust and dense depth maps in real time. First, the performance of three standard stereo algorithms is examined with regard to two different measurements of similarity. The subsequent optimisation of the standard methods by using modern SIMD instructions and programming techniques like e.g. recursive subdivision leads to an increase of speed by a factor of four. As a result, for the WinnerTakes-It-All algorithm we achieve a computation...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/dynamic_3d-vision
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Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human Motion InTech
Daisuke Matsui; Takashi Minato; Karl F. MacDorman; Hiroshi Ishiguro.
This paper has proposed a method of implementing humanlike motions by mapping their three-dimensional appearance to the android using a motion capture system. By measuring the android's posture and comparing it to the posture of a human subject, we propose a new method to evaluate motion sequences along bodily surfaces. Unlike other approaches that focus on reducing joint angle errors, we consider how to evaluate differences in the android's apparent motion, that is, motion at its visible surfaces. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the evaluation: the method can transfer human motion. However, the method is restricted by the speed of the motion. We have to introduce a method to deal with the dynamic characteristics (Ben=Amor et al., 2007)...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots; Human-like Machines.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/generating_natural_motion_in_an_android_by_mapping_human_motion
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Haptic Device System For Upper Limb Motor Impairment Patients: Developing And Handling In Healthy Subjects InTech
Tasuku Miyoshi; Yoshiyuki Takahashi; Hokyoo Lee; Takafumi Terada; Yuko Ito; Kaoru Inoue; Takashi Komeda.
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Rehabilitation Robotics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/haptic_device_system_for_upper_limb_motor_impairment_patients__developing_and_handling_in_healthy_su
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Humanoid Robot Balancing InTech
Youngjin Choi; Doik Kim.
This work was supported by IT R & D program of MIC & IITA (2006-S-028-01, Development of Cooperative Network-based Humanoids Technology), Republic of Korea.
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Advances in Robotics; Automation and Control.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/humanoid_robot_balancing
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Hybrid Optimisation Method for the Facility Layout Problem InTech
Yasmina Hani; Lionel Amodeo; Farouk Yalaoui; Haoxun Chen.
We have proposed a robust meta-heuristic algorithm for the layout problem modelled as a QAP. The algorithm is based on ant colony algorithm combined with a guided local search, and it uses an augmented cost function in order to guide the local search out of a local optimum. The performance of the proposed algorithm was also evaluated on a number of benchmark problems selected from the literature and compared with other heuristics developed for the facility layout problem as well as other algorithms recently developed for the QAP. The experimental results reveal that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for the facility layout problem considered. Other heuristic algorithms for the FLP shall be devised, tested, and compared with our algorithm in...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Swarm Intelligence; Focus on Ant and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/hybrid_optimisation_method_for_the_facility_layout_problem
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Incremental Integer Linear Programming Models for Petri Nets Reachability Problems InTech
Thomas Bourdeaud'huy; Said Hanafi; Pascal Yim.
In this chapter, we present techniques for solving reachability problems in PN and TPN based on mathematical programming. The approach is based on an incremental search using step sequences that represent parallel and reentrant firings of transitions. The mathematical model used allows the formulation and verification of reachability-based analysis problems. Concerning PNs, we have proposed two formulations of the reachability problem, leading to integer and/or binary programming models. For each of them, we have developped some additional procedures, relaxation techniques and objective functions in order to improve the computational efficiency of the resolution. Numerical experiments have demonstrated the efficiency of our approach compared to standard...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Petri Net; Theory and Applications.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/incremental_integer_linear_programming_models_for_petri_nets_reachability_problems
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Inductive Approaches Based on Trial/Error Paradigm for Communications Network InTech
Abdelhamid Mellouk.
Due to the growing needs in telecommunications (VoD, Video-Conference, VoIP, etc.) and the diversity of transported flows, communication networks does not meet the requirements of the future integrated-service networks that carry multimedia data traffic with a high QoS. The main drivers of this evolution are the continuous growth of the bandwidth requests, the promise of cost improvements and finally the possibility of increasing profits by offering new services. First, it does not support resource reservation which is primordial to guarantee an end-to-end Qos (bounded delay, bounded delay jitter, and/or bounded loss ratio). Second, data packets may be subjected to unpredictable delays and thus may arrive at their destination after the expiration time,...
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Reinforcement Learning.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/inductive_approaches_based_on_trial_error_paradigm_for_communications_network
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Moving Segmentation Up the Supply-Chain: Supply Chain Segmentation and Artificial Neural Networks InTech
Sunil Erevelles; Nobuyuki Fukawa.
This paper explained the concept of supply-side segmentation and transvectional alignment, and applies these concepts in the artificial neural network (ANN). To the best of our knowledge, no research has applied ANN in explaining the heterogeneity of both the supply-side and demand-side of a market in forming relational entity that consists of firms at all levels of the supply chain and the demand chain. The ANN offers a way of operationalizing the concept of supply-side segmentation. In today's business environment, where competition occurs more among the networks that consist of sets of firms rather than simply among firms, researchers and practitioners need to understand the heterogeneity of the supply side of a market at all levels in the supply chain....
Tipo: 18 Palavras-chave: Supply Chain.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/moving_segmentation_up_the_supply-chain__supply_chain_segmentation_and_artificial_neural_networks
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