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A General Approximation-Optimization Approach to Large Margin Estimation of HMMs InTech
Hui Jiang; Xinwei Li.
In this paper, we have proposed a general Approximation-optiMization (AM) approach for large margin estimation (LME) of Gaussian mixture HMMs in speech recognition. Each iteration of the AM method consists of A-step and M-step. In A-step, the original LME problem is approximated by a simple convex optimization problem in a close proximity of initial model parameters. In M-step, the approximate convex optimization problem is solved by using efficient convex optimization algorithms. The AM method is a general approach which can be easily applied for discriminative training of statistical models with hidden variables. In this paper, we introduce two examples to apply the AM approach to LME of Gaussian mixture HMMs. The first method uses V-approx and is...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Robust Speech Recognition and Understanding.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_general_approximation-optimization_approach_to_large_margin_estimation_of_hmms
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A NeuroGenetic Approach for Multiprocessor Scheduling InTech
Anurag Agarwal.
In this study we combine two metaheuristic search techniques, the Augmented Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms approach to create a hybrid metaheuristic called the NeuroGenetic approach. We apply this hybrid approach to a multiprocessor scheduling problem, the job-shop scheduling problem to test if the hybridization helps improve the solution. The hybridization of AugNN and GA is achieved by interleaving the two approaches. Since the GA approach is better at diversification or global search whereas AugNN is better at intensification or local search, the combination provides improved solutions than either GA or AugNN search with the same number of iterations. Computational results showed that such hybridization provided improvements in the solutions,...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Multiprocessor Scheduling; Theory and Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_neurogenetic_approach_for_multiprocessor_scheduling
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Accuracy and Calibration Issues of Industrial Manipulators InTech
Mohamed Abderrahim; Alla Khamis; Santiago Garrido; Luis Moreno.
This chapter discussed the accuracy issues of robot manipulators and the importance of searching for absolute accuracy for industrial manipulators. It shows how there is an increased need to use off-line programming and robotic and manufacturing simulation
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Industrial Robotics: Programming; Simulation and Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/accuracy_and_calibration_issues_of_industrial_manipulators
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Analytical Criterions for the Generation of Highly Dynamic Gaits for Humanoid Robots: Dynamic Propulsion Criterion and Dynamic Propulsion Potential InTech
Olivier Bruneau; Anthony David.
In this paper, we presented an analytical approach for the generation of walking gaits with a high dynamic behavior. This approach, using the dynamic equations, is based on two dynamic criterions: the dynamic propulsion criterion and the dynamic propulsion potential. Furthermore, in this method, the intrinsic dynamics of the robot as well as the capability of its joint torques are taken into account at each sample time. In this paper, in order to satisfy the locomotion constraints, for instance the no-contact between the tip of the swing's leg and the ground, we selected joint actuators, for instance the knee to avoid this contact during the single contact phase. Our future work will consist in determining the optimal contribution of each joint actuator by...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Humanoid Robots: New Developments.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/analytical_criterions_for_the_generation_of_highly_dynamic_gaits_for_humanoid_robots__dynamic_propul
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Applications of Petri Nets to Human-in-the-Loop Control for Discrete Automation Systems InTech
Jin-Shyan Lee; Pau-Lo Hsu.
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Manufacturing the Future.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/applications_of_petri_nets_to_human-in-the-loop_control_for_discrete_automation_systems
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Bilinear Time Series in Signal Analysis InTech
Bielinska Ewa.
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Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: New Approaches in Automation and Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bilinear_time_series_in_signal_analysis
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Comparison of Demosaicking Methods for Color Information Extraction InTech
Flore Faille.
After an overview over state of the art and recent demosaicking methods, selected algorithms were compared using images with various content. To verify if demosaicked images are suitable for computer or robot vision tasks, the average MSE in typical color spaces (RGB, YUV, HSI and Irb) was measured. While the high inter-channel correlation model improves interpolation results significantly, it was also shown to be inaccurate in colored areas. WACPI and MBP (+WACPI) provide the best results. WACPI performs better in colored and in homogeneous areas. MBP better reconstructs texture and reduces wrong color artifacts. The choice between both algorithms should depend on the application, according to the most relevant information and to the image type...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Cutting Edge Robotics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/comparison_of_demosaicking_methods_for_color_information_extraction
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Compliant Actuation of Exoskeletons InTech
H. van der Kooij; J.F. Veneman; R. Ekkelenkamp.
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/compliant_actuation_of_exoskeletons
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Design and Implementation of a Control Architecture for Rehabilitation Robotic Systems InTech
Duygun Erol; Nilanjan Sarkar.
In this work we present a new control approach to offer robotic assistance for stroke patients that include the coordination between a high-level controller and a low-level controller. The control architecture presented here is an example of a hybrid control system. There has been no work to our knowledge on designing similar type of control architecture for rehabilitation purposes. We have initially designed a movement tracking task where the participants not only make repetitive movement but also pay attention to the desired speed of motion from visual feedback. The task was designed in such a manner that it required cognitive processing. Including cognitive processing in the task design is an important criterion because it had been previously shown that...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Rehabilitation Robotics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/design_and_implementation_of_a_control_architecture_for_rehabilitation_robotic_systems
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Developing Supply Chain Management System Evaluation Attributes Based on the Supply Chain Strategy InTech
Chun-Chin Wei; Liang-Tu Chen.
In this chapter, we proposed a framework to select an adequate SCM system based on the decision-analysis process. By the proposed procedures, the company can identify the elements of SCM project selection problem and formulate the fundamental objectives hierarchy and means objectives network, which are aligned with the goals and strategies of the company. The pertinent attributes for evaluating a variety of SCM systems and vendors can be derived according to these objectives structures. Some suggested attributes also were introduced. The development process of the SCM fundamental objectives and means objectives are the most critical step in a SCM system selection project. The objective development method can fit to any quantitative and qualitative...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Supply Chain.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/developing_supply_chain_management_system_evaluation_attributes_based_on_the_supply_chain_strategy
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Differential Meta-model and Particle Swarm Optimization InTech
Jianchao Zeng; Zhihua Cui.
This chapter introduces one uniform differential meta-model, and a new variant development for PSO combined with PID controller is proposed. The current results show it is an interesting area with the control theory to improve the performance. The future research includes incorporating some other controllers into the PSO methodology.
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Swarm Intelligence; Focus on Ant and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/differential_meta-model_and_particle_swarm_optimization
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Evolving Humanoids: Using Artificial Evolution as an Aid in the Design of Humanoid Robots InTech
Malachy Eaton.
Following an initial introduction to the twin topics of evolutionary robotics and humanoid robotics, we discussed their recent convergence in the new field of evolutionary humanoid robotics. After presenting a survey of recent work in this field by other researchers, we introduced our own work in the area of evolving bipedal locomotion in a simulated highDOF humanoid. After a brief discussion on the important topic of benchmarking future mobile robot performances we introduced our current hardware platform, and the implementation of locomotion, evolved in simulation using the Webots simulator, on the Bioloid platform for an 18-DOF humanoid robot. Advantages of our approach include its adaptability and the ability to generate life-like behaviours without...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Frontiers in Evolutionary Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/evolving_humanoids__using_artificial_evolution_as_an_aid_in_the_design_of_humanoid_robots
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Extraction of Roads From Out Door Images InTech
Alejandro Forero Guzman; Carlos Parra.
Even when there has been an extensive development of works on road detection and road following during the last two decades, most of them are focused on well structured roads, making difficult its use for humanitarian demining activities. The present work shows a way to use the natural information in outdoor environment to extract the roads or paths characteristics, which can be used as landmarks for the navigation process. Other important observation is that the information combines of two colors, (i.e. the projection R B, Cb or Cr channels) hence reducing the harmful effect of the changing illumination in natural environment. Good results were also achieved in the path planning process. The robot executes a 2? D trajectory planning, which facilitates the...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/extraction_of_roads_from_out_door_images
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Gauging Intelligence of Mobile Robots InTech
Ka C. Cheok.
The paper illustrates three means for gauging the intelligence of mobile robots: The qualitative perception of intelligence based on extending Turing test to the systems at hand; the quantitative measure that gauges task-specific intelligence from its performance in uncertain environments; the comparative measure that calibrates difficulty levels of what the system has to do against levels of human skills. The framework of an agent, an environment and a goal was applied to two case studies was helpful in gauging the intelligence of the mobile robots. An important field experiment reveals that the autonomous obstacle course challenge in the IGVC requires the sensory-motor-decision skill of at least a four-year old. As frontiers of and education efforts on...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robotics; Moving Intelligence.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/gauging_intelligence_of_mobile_robots
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Indoor Air Pollution in the Romanian Homes InTech
Anca Maria Moldoveanu.
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Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Environmental Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/indoor_air_pollution_in_the_romanian_homes
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Multi-View Face Recognition with Min-Max Modular Support Vector Machines InTech
Zhi-Gang Fan; Bao-Liang Lu.
We have applied the min-max modular support vector machine and the part-versus-part task decomposition method to dealing with multi-view face recognition problems. We have demonstrated that face pose information can be easily incorporated into the procedure of dividing a multi-view face recognition problem into a series of relatively easier two-class subproblems. We have performed some experiments on the UMIST database and compared with the standard support vector machines. The experimental results indicate that the minmax modular support vector machine can improve the accuracy of multi-view face recognition and reduce the training time. As a future work, we will perform experiments on large-scale face databases with various face poses. We believe that the...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Face Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/multi-view_face_recognition_with_min-max_modular_support_vector_machines
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Optimizing Mathematical Morphology for Image Segmentation and Vision-based Path Planning in Robotic Environments InTech
Francisco A. Pujol; Mar Pujol; Ramon Rizo.
In general terms, the path planning process for suitable morphological gradient threshold. To do this, global morphological operators have been used to compute the gradient and the Laplacian and, after a proper binarization, the distance between the ideal segmentation and the MGT segmentation has been computed. As a consequence, the gradient threshold with the lowest distance has been selected as the optimal threshold value. Experimental results show that our model is fast and robust and could be applied for real-time imaging. As a future work, to fully appreciate the implications of incorporating a path planner into a robot system it is necessary to consider a real robot system. The use of simulations can give a good idea of the ability to solve the basic...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Segmentation and Pattern Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/optimizing_mathematical_morphology_for_image_segmentation_and_vision-based_path_planning_in_robotic_
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Photorealistic 3D Model Reconstruction based on the Consistency of Object Surface Reflectance Measured by the Voxel Mask InTech
K. K. Chiang; K. L. Chan; H. Y. Ip.
SFSPC works well to model objects with more color inhomogeneity or sufficient texture information. It can quite accurately carve the concave regions. However, if the object contains a large, flat area in homogeneous color, partial surface estimation may not truly identify the real surface voxels. Besides, the computational time is still a problem. The higher the resolution is set, the more accurate and finer reconstructed model is generated. However, as the number of voxels in the volumetric model increases, more computation is needed to process the entire model. As for SFSPC, most of the time is spent on the partial surface estimation process. The computational time is directly proportional to the number of remaining voxels after the voting-based SFS. It...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Scene Reconstruction Pose Estimation and Tracking.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/photorealistic_3d_model_reconstruction_based_on_the_consistency_of_object_surface_reflectance_measur
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Reinforcement Learning Embedded in Brains and Robots InTech
Cornelius Weber; Mark Elshaw; Stefan Wermter; Jochen Triesch; Christopher Willmot.
This work has been funded partially by the EU project MirrorBot, grant IST-2001-35282, and NEST-043374 coordinated by SW. CW, JT and AF are supported by the Hertie Foundation, and the EU projects PLICON, grant MEXT-CT-2006-042484, and Daisy, grant FP6-2005015803. Urs Bergmann provided feedback on the manuscript.
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Reinforcement Learning.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/reinforcement_learning_embedded_in_brains_and_robots
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Robotic Foregut Surgery InTech
Daniel T. McKenna; Jon C. Gould.
Robotic-assisted foregut surgery is an evolving field with an exciting future. There are many potential advantages to robotic foregut surgery when compared to the conventional laparoscopic approach. The magnified, 3-dimensional image allows for a better view of the operative field and may facilitate the identification and dissection of anatomy. The full range of motion, tremor filtration, and motion scaling afforded by the robotic surgical system can enhance a surgeon’s skill, possibly leading to better clinical outcomes and less fatigue. As demonstrated, these relatively new techniques may provide a clinical advantage to surgeons performing esophagectomy, esophageal myotomies, or bariatric procedures. In addition, robotic assistance may in the future...
Tipo: 7 Palavras-chave: Medical Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/robotic_foregut_surgery
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