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A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for the Re-Entrant Flow-Shop Scheduling Problem InTech
Jen-Shiang Chen; Jason Chao-Hsien Pan; Chien-Min Lin.
This study developed a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) for the RFS problems with makespan as the criterion. The computational experiments have shown that the HGA can favorably improve the results obtained by (NDY, SPT/TWKR) and NEH in RFS problems. GA is inspired by nature phenomena. If it mimics exactly the way nature works, an unexpected long computational time must take. Hence the effect of parameters must be studied thoroughly in order to obtain good solution in a reasonable time. The probability to obtain near-optimal solution increases in the cost of longer computational time when the number of generations or population size enlarges. When dealing with large size problems or large re-entrant times, the probability to obtain near optimal solution...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Multiprocessor Scheduling; Theory and Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/a_hybrid_genetic_algorithm_for_the_re-entrant_flow-shop_scheduling_problem
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Appearance-Based Processes in Multi-Robot Navigation InTech
Luis Paya; Oscar Reinoso; Jose L. Aznar; Arturo Gil; Jose M. Marin.
In this paper, an appearance-based multi-robot following-route scheme is presented. The proposed solution uses low resolution panoramic images obtained through a catadioptric system, and techniques for dimensionality reduction to extract the most relevant information along the environment. To allow a new robot can follow the route that another robot is recording at the same time, an incremental PCA and a Fourier Domain algorithm are presented.
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Recent Advances in Multi Robot Systems.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/appearance-based_processes_in_multi-robot_navigation
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Applying Real-Time Survivability Considerations in Evolutionary Behavior Learning by a Mobile Robot InTech
Wolfgang Freund; Tomas Arredondo V.; Cesar Munoz.
In this work we investigate real-time adaptive extensions of our fuzzy logic based approach for providing biologically based motivations to be used in evolutionary mobile robot learning. We introduce active battery level sensors and recharge zones to improve robot's Survivability in environment exploration. In order to achieve this goal, we propose an improvement of our previously defined model (e.g. SRT), as well as a hybrid controller for a mobile robot (e.g. HRT), combining behavior-based and mission-oriented control mechanisms. These methods are implemented and tested in action sequence based environment exploration tasks in a Khepera mobile robot simulator. Experimental results shows that the hybrid method is in general, the best/safest robot control...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Frontiers in Evolutionary Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/applying_real-time_survivability_considerations_in_evolutionary_behavior_learning_by_a_mobile_robot
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Audio Visual Speech Recognition and Segmentation Based on DBN Models InTech
Dongmei Jiang; Guoyun Lv; Ilse Ravyse; Xiaoyue Jiang; Yanning Zhang; Hichem Sahli; Rongchun Zhao.
In this chapter, we first implement an audio or visual single stream DBN model proposed in [Bilmes 2005], which we demonstrate that it can break through the limitation of the state-ofthe-art `whole-word-state DBN' models and output phone (viseme) segmentation results. Then we expand this model to an audio-visual multi-stream asynchronous DBN (MSADBN) model. In this MSADBN model, the asynchrony between audio and visual speech is allowed to exceed the timing boundaries of phones/visemes, in opposite to the multi-stream hidden markov models (MSHMM) or product HMM (PHMM) which constrain the audio stream and visual stream to be synchronized at the phone/viseme boundaries. In order to evaluate the performances of the proposed DBN models on word recognition and...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Robust Speech Recognition and Understanding.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/audio_visual_speech_recognition_and_segmentation_based_on_dbn_models
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Bearing-Only Vision SLAM with Distinguishable Image Features InTech
Patric Jensfelt; Danica Kragic; John Folkesson.
For enabling the autonomy of robotic systems, we have to equip them with the ability to build a map of the environment using natural landmarks and to be able to use it for localization purposes. Most of the robotic systems capable of SLAM presented so far in the literature have relied on range sensors such as laser scanners and sonar sensors. For large scale, complex environments with natural landmarks the problem of SLAM is still an open research problem. More recently, the use of cameras and machine vision as the only exteroceptive sensor has become one of the most active areas of research in SLAM. The main contributions presented in this chapter are the feature selection and matching mechanisms that allow for real-time performance even with an EKF...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Applications.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/bearing-only_vision_slam_with_distinguishable_image_features
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Calibration of Parallel Kinematic Machines: Theory and Applications InTech
Giovanni Legnani; Diego Tosi; Riccardo Adamini; Irene Fassi.
The paper has presented a complete methodology for the identification of the geometrical parameter set necessary to describe inaccuracy in the kinematic structure of a generic parallel manipulator. The methodology, that can be applied to any existing PKM, supplies a minimum, complete and parametrically continuous model of the manipulators. It can be applied both to intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) calibration. The methodology identifies the parameters describing geometric errors of the manipulator, joint offset errors and errors in the external devices used for calibration (e.g. double ball bar). Furthermore, a general formula to determine the total number of necessary parameters has been presented and discussed. The paper shows how for some...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Industrial Robotics: Programming; Simulation and Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/calibration_of_parallel_kinematic_machines__theory_and_applications
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Certified Solving and Synthesis on Modeling of the Kinematics. Problems of Gough-Type Parallel Manipulators with an Exact Algebraic Method InTech
Luc Rolland.
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Parallel Manipulators; Towards New Applications.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/certified_solving_and_synthesis_on_modeling_of_the_kinematics__problems_of_gough-type_parallel_manip
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Climbing Service Robots for Improving Safety in Building Maintenance Industry InTech
Bing L. Luk; Louis K. P. Liu; Arthur A. Collie.
Climbing robots for building inspection and maintenance have many advantages over traditional manual approaches because the formers are more accurate and efficient. For certain hazardous industries such as nuclear or chemical industry, climbing robots may be the only means for carrying out the inspection and maintenance tasks as the environments are dangerous to human operators. As a result, climbing robots are becoming more and more popular in doing building maintenance industry in the future. In this chapter, several climbing robots including WIC, SADIE and Robug III are discussed. These robots have been used in some practical applications before and have proved their usefulness in building maintenance industry. Currently, most of these robots are...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Bioinspiration and Robotics Walking and Climbing Robots.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/climbing_service_robots_for_improving_safety_in_building_maintenance_industry
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Command, Goal Disambiguation, Introspection, and Instruction in Gesture-Free Spoken Dialogue with a Robotic Office Assistant InTech
Vladimir A. Kulyukin.
Our investigation has several limitations, each of which, in and of itself, suggests a future research venue. First, the experimental results should be taken with care due to the small number of operators. Furthermore, since both operators are CS graduate students, their performance is unlikely to generalize over people with disabilities. Second, our system cannot handle deictic references expressed with pronouns like “here,” “there,” “that,” etc. These references are meaningless unless tied to concrete situations in which they are used. As Perzanowski et al. (1998) point out, phrases like “Go over there” are meaningless if taken outside of the context in which they are spoken. Typically, resolving deictic references is done through gesture recognition...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: towards New Applications.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/command__goal_disambiguation__introspection__and_instruction_in_gesture-free_spoken_dialogue_with_a_
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Configuring Multi-Stage Global Supply Chains with Uncertain Demand InTech
Guoqing Zhang; Behnaz Saboonchi.
In this chapter we presented an integrated optimization model to provide a decision support tool for managers. The logistic decisions consist of the determination of the suppliers and the capacity of each potential manufacturing facility, and also the optimization of the material flow among all the production, distribution and consumer zones in global supply chains with uncertain demand. The model is among the few models to date than can be conveniently customized to capture real world supply chains with different characteristics. A hypothetical example was given to assess whether it is better for a company to go global or to expand its existing facilities and it was shown that outsourcing the whole production to the countries with lowest production costs...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Supply Chain.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/configuring_multi-stage_global_supply_chains_with_uncertain_demand
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Design and Prototyping of a Spherical Parallel Machine Based on 3-CPU Kinematics InTech
Massimo Callegari.
The article has described an innovative spherical parallel wrist developed at the Polytechnic University of Marche in Ancona, revisiting all the main design steps, from kinematic synthesis up to physical prototyping. Machine kinematics has been worked out in closed form and all the singularity surfaces have been analysed: it has been pointed out that the mechanism does not possess inverse kinematics singularities, while direct kinematics singularities and translation singularities lie on the same closed surface. The inner space, where motion paths can be safely planned, has been identified and unfortunately it cannot be enlarged by kinematics optimisation because machine's Jacobian does not depend on geometrical parameters. For this reason, it was decided...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Parallel Manipulators; New Developments.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/design_and_prototyping_of_a_spherical_parallel_machine_based_on_3-cpu_kinematics
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Development of Deminer-Assisting Robotic Tools at Tokyo Institute of Technology InTech
Marc Freese; Paulo Debenest; Edwardo F. Fukushima; Shigeo Hirose.
Gryphon and Mine Hand are complementary tools; while the former was developed to efficiently search for buried landmines, the latter one is meant to be used once a suspect spot was found to assist and protect deminers in the landmine neutralization task. Gryphon and Mine Hand, more than just research prototypes, were conceived from the beginning on to be practical and well integrated systems. Minefields are no laboratories; working conditions are extremely varied and far from ideal, requiring robust systems, and based on the invaluable experience acquired during field tests, trials and discussions with deminers themselves, Gryphon and Mine Hand were continuously improved to come closer to practical and useful tools for humanitarian demining.
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Humanitarian Demining.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/development_of_deminer-assisting_robotic_tools_at_tokyo_institute_of_technology
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Distribution of Trace and Major Elements in Lignite and Products of Its Combustion-Leaching Experiments and Cluster Analysis InTech
Aleksandar Popovic; Dragana Djordjevic.
4.1 Lignite The macro and microelements contained in coal are differently distributed (Tables 1-3, Figure 1). It should be mentioned that during applied sequential extraction process the solid phase is not totally destroyed. As opposed to the organic component dissolved in the fourth phase of extraction, the total mineral component is not dissolved, which means that all the macro elements and some of the microelements may have an additional mineral component, besides the one determined by the extraction. However, it is obvious from the results obtained by extraction that most elements are contained in the inorganic phase of coal, even inside the extractable part. The investigated macro elements can be separated on the basis of their fraction in the organic...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Environmental Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/distribution_of_trace_and_major_elements_in_lignite_and_products_of_its_combustion-leaching_experime
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Face and Gesture Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction InTech
Hasanuzzaman; Haruki Ueno.
This chapter describes a real-time face and hand gesture recognition system using skin color segmentation and subspace method based pattern matching technique. This chapter also describes gesture-based human-robot interaction system using an entertainment robot named ‘Aibo’ and humanoid robot ‘Robovie’. In pose-specific subspace method, training images are grouped based on pose and eigenvectors for each pose are generated separately. In this method, one PCA is used for each pose. From the experimental result we have concluded that performance of pose-specific subspace method is better than general PCA method in the same environment. One of the major constrains of this system is that the background should be non-skin color substrate. If we used infrared...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Face Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/face_and_gesture_recognition_for_human-robot_interaction
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FC Portugal - High-Level Coordination Methodologies in Soccer Robotics InTech
Nuno Lau; Luis Paulo Reis.
FC Portugal research on coordination methodologies enabled the definition a model for the strategy of team for a particular soccer game. This model is then implemented over SBSP and DPRE, enabling the team to perform in a very efficient way, as shown by our controlled experiments and competition results, and also in a real-soccer like manner. The development tools that enabled the tuning of the cooperative team behaviour and individual decision and individual skills mechanisms have been presented. These tools are based on general principles that can be of applied to the development of several types of agent in different domains.
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Robotic Soccer.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/fc_portugal_-_high-level_coordination_methodologies_in_soccer_robotics
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Finite Element Mesh Decomposition Using Evolving Ant Colony Optimization InTech
Ardeshir Bahreininejad.
The application of ant colony optimization using swarm intelligence concepts, in combination with a trained feedforward neural network predictor which estimates the number of elements which will be generated within each element of the (initial) coarse mesh after mesh refinement is carried out, to the recursive bisection of finite elements meshes was described. This algorithm combines the features of the classical ant colony optimization technique with swarm intelligence to form a model which is an artificial system designed to perform a certain task. This model is used to solve the finite elements mesh recursive bisection problem which should ensure the minimum cut-size between bisections while maintaining balanced bisections. A recursive greedy algorithm...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Swarm Intelligence; Focus on Ant and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/finite_element_mesh_decomposition_using_evolving_ant_colony_optimization
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Group Judgement with Ties. Distance-Based Methods InTech
Hanna Bury; Dariusz Wagner.
1
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: New Approaches in Automation and Robotics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/group_judgement_with_ties__distance-based_methods
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Image Matching based on Curvilinear Regions InTech
J. Perez Lorenzo; R. Vazquez Martin; R. Marfil; A. Bandera; F. Sandoval.
This chapter presents a method for image matching which is based on the detection and characterisation of curvilinear regions. In a curvilinear region, the ratio between its average width and its total length should be less than a predefined threshold. Besides, left and right borders should be locally parallel, it should exist a geometric similarity around the region axis and the colour along this axis should be homogeneous. That is, they constitute particular image structures and, therefore, the method is restricted to scenes where these particular items are presented. On the contrary, curvilinear regions automatically deform with changing viewpoint as to keep on covering identical physical parts of a scene. For this reason, they can be used as...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Vision Systems: Segmentation and Pattern Recognition.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/image_matching_based_on_curvilinear_regions
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Intelligent Global Vision for Teams of Mobile Robots InTech
Jacky Baltes; John Anderson.
This chapter has reviewed some of the issues involved in creating pragmatic global vision systems. We have discussed the assumptions on which traditional systems are based, pointed out how these differ with the observed abilities of human vision, and described how these assumptions limit the applicability and generality of existing systems. We then described techniques that allow some of these assumptions to be discarded, and the embodiment of these techniques in our production global vision systems, Doraemon and Ergo. Both Doraemon and Ergo are used in a number of ways. Doraemon has been in use every year by a number of teams from around the world in the F-180 (small-size) league at RoboCup. Ergo is the current global vision system in use in our own...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robots: Perception & Navigation.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/intelligent_global_vision_for_teams_of_mobile_robots
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Intelligent Pose Control of Mobile Robots Using an Uncalibrated Eye-in-Hand Vision System InTech
T. I. James Tsay; Y. F. Lai.
Mobile robots commonly need a guidance control system to navigate the mobile base and a method for performing the pick-and-place operations. The guidance control system and the non-planar ground inevitably cause the position and orientation errors of the mobile base. Therefore, this study proposes a behavior-based control strategy that employs an uncalibrated eye-in-hand vision system to control the end-effector of the manipulator to approach and grasp the target workpiece. All the designed behaviors are defined from the perspective of the camera and are mediated through fuzzy rules with a look-and-move control structure. The presented neural fuzzy controllers map image features in image space to relative motion commands in the camera frame. These motion...
Tipo: 9 Palavras-chave: Mobile Robotics; Moving Intelligence.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/intelligent_pose_control_of_mobile_robots_using_an_uncalibrated_eye-in-hand_vision_system
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