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Registros recuperados: 172
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A Classification Framework for Running Adaptive Management Rapids Ecology and Society
Harm Benson, Melinda; University of New Mexico; mhbenson@unm.edu; Morrison, Ryan R.; University of New Mexico; rmorriso@unm.edu; Stone, Mark C.; University of New Mexico; stone@unm.edu.
While adaptive management (AM) is becoming a preferred natural resource management approach, the conditions necessary to engage in AM are not always present. In order for AM to work, there must be an ability to engage in experimentation and then incorporate what is learned. Just as few rivers are unequivocally either “runnable” or “unrunnable” by a whitewater boater, successful AM depends on a number of factors, including legal frameworks and requirements, resource allocation regimes, and existing infrastructure. We provide a classification framework for assessing the physical and institutional capacity necessary for AM using the international classification for whitewater. We then apply this classification framework...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Conceptual model; Rio Chama; River restoration.
Ano: 2013
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A Collaborative Research Process Studying Fruit Availability and Seed Dispersal within an Indigenous Community in the Middle Caqueta River Region, Colombian Amazon Ecology and Society
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight
Ano: 2007
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A cultural landscape approach to community-based conservation in Solomon Islands Ecology and Society
Walter, Richard K; University of Otago; richard.walter@otago.ac.nz; Hamilton, Richard J; The Nature Conservancy, Asia Pacific Division; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University; rhamilton@tnc.org.
International environmental organizations have an increasing commitment to the development of conservation programs in high-diversity regions where indigenous communities maintain customary rights to their lands and seas. A major challenge that these programs face is the alignment of international conservation values with those of the indigenous communities whose cooperation and support are vital. International environmental organizations are focused on biodiversity conservation, but local communities often have a different range of concerns and interests, only some of which relate to biodiversity. One solution to this problem involves adoption of a cultural landscape approach as the ethical and organizational foundation of the conservation program. In our...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Archaeology; Biodiversity; Climate change; Coral Triangle; Heritage; Solomon Islands.
Ano: 2014
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A guideline to improve qualitative social science publishing in ecology and conservation journals Ecology and Society
Moon, Katie; Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra; School of Business, University of New South Wales; katieamoon@gmail.com; Brewer, Tom D.; Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia; Australian Institute of Marine Science, Arafura Timor Research Facility, Brinkin, Northern Territory, Australia; tomdbrewer@gmail.com; Adams, Vanessa M.; University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; v.adams@uq.edu.au; Blackman, Deborah A.; School of Business, University of New South Wales; d.blackman@adfa.edu.au.
A rise in qualitative social science manuscripts published in ecology and conservation journals speaks to the growing awareness of the importance of the human dimension in maintaining and improving Earth’s ecosystems. Given the rise in the quantity of qualitative social science research published in ecology and conservation journals, it is worthwhile quantifying the extent to which this research is meeting established criteria for research design, conduct, and interpretation. Through a comprehensive review of this literature, we aimed to gather and assess data on the nature and extent of information presented on research design published qualitative research articles, which could be used to judge research quality. Our review was based on 146...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Case study; Confirmability; Credibility; Dependability; Methods; Transferability.
Ano: 2016
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A message from magic to science: seeing how the brain can be tricked may strengthen our thinking Ecology and Society
Scheffer, Marten; Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University; Marten.Scheffer@wur.nl; Westley, Frances R; Waterloo Institute for Social Innovation and Resilience, University of Waterloo; fwestley@uwaterloo.ca; van Esso, Miguel L.; College of Agriculture, Buenos Aires University; vanesso@agro.uba.ar; Miller, John; Gray Jay Graphics, Wisconsin; grayjayart@charter.net; Bascompte, Jordi; Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich; jordi.bascompte@ieu.uzh.ch.
Scientific discoveries rely on creative thinking, and several authors have explored similarities in and differences between creativity in the sciences and that in the arts. Here we explore possible ways in which science can learn from the arts, focusing specifically on experiences derived from the art of magic and on the limitations of human cognition. Generations of stage magicians or “illusionists” have made sophisticated use of the weaknesses in human systems of perception and interpretation. We highlight three important principles of magic tricks, including: (1) the audience see what it expects, (2) it is blind to all but the focus of attention, and (3) ideas spring predictably from a primed mind. These principles highlight a number...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Art; Cognitive capacity; Cognitive limitations; Conclusion errors; Confirmation bias; Creative thinking; Illusion; Illusionist; Inattentive blindness; Magic; Magician; Priming; Science; Scientific discovery; Selective attention.
Ano: 2015
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A mixed-methods analysis of social-ecological feedbacks between urbanization and forest persistence Ecology and Society
BenDor, Todd; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; bendor@unc.edu; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; North Carolina State University; douglas.shoemaker@gmail.com; Thill, Jean-Claude; University of North Carolina at Charlotte; Jean-Claude.Thill@uncc.edu; Dorning, Monica A.; North Carolina State University; madorning@gmail.com; Meentemeyer, Ross K.; North Carolina State University; ross_meentemeyer@ncsu.edu.
We examined how social-ecological factors in the land-change decision-making process influenced neighboring decisions and trajectories of alternative landscape ecologies. We decomposed individual landowner decisions to conserve or develop forests in the rapidly growing Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S. region, exposing and quantifying the effects of forest quality, and social and cultural dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic value of forest resources, e.g., cultural attachment to land, influence woodland owners’ propensity to sell. Data were collected from a sample of urban, nonindustrial private forest (U-NIPF) owners using an individualized survey design that spatially matched land-owner responses to the ecological and timber...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Forest persistence; Land-use change; Social-ecological feedbacks; Tax policy; Urban forests; Urbanization.
Ano: 2014
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A Multisector Framework for Assessing Community-Based Forest Management: Lessons from Madagascar Ecology and Society
Raik, Daniela B; Cornell University; dbr23@cornell.edu; Decker, Daniel J; Cornell University; djd6@cornell.edu.
Community-based forest management has proliferated throughout Africa as national governments have decentralized the administration of public forestry. Community-based forestry has taken multiple forms, depending on the assortment of land-tenure systems, forest-use norms, wood demand, and social organization, among others factors. Nature, Wealth, and Power is an analytical framework that has been developed from experiences in natural resource management in Africa. In this paper, we amend the framework to People, Nature, Wealth, and Power (PNWP), and propose it as an analytical lens for community-based forest management initiatives. We use the PNWP framework to assess the responsiveness of contractual forest management in the Menabe region of Madagascar to...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Community-based forest management; Decentralization; Forestry; Madagascar.
Ano: 2007
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A New Paradigm for Adaptive Management Ecology and Society
Felton, Adam; Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; adam.felton@slu.se; Rosvall, Ola; Rosvall Forest Consulting AB; Ola.rosvall@gmail.com.
Uncertainty is a pervasive feature in natural resource management. Adaptive management, an approach that focuses on identifying critical uncertainties to be reduced via diagnostic management experiments, is one favored approach for tackling this reality. While adaptive management is identified as a key method in the environmental management toolbox, there remains a lack of clarity over when its use is appropriate or feasible. Its implementation is often viewed as suitable only in a limited set of circumstances. Here we restructure some of the ideas supporting this view, and show why much of the pessimism around AM may be unwarranted. We present a new framework for deciding when AM is appropriate, feasible, and subsequently successful. We thus present a new...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Experimental management; Experimentation; Management; Natural resource; Participation; Stakeholder; Uncertainty.
Ano: 2013
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A pedagogical model for integrative training in conservation and sustainability Ecology and Society
Welch-Devine, Meredith; Center for Integrative Conservation Research, University of Georgia; Graduate School, University of Georgia; mwdevine@uga.edu; Hardy, Dean; Center for Integrative Conservation Research, University of Georgia; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; rdhardy@uga.edu; Brosius, J. Peter; Center for Integrative Conservation Research, University of Georgia; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; pbrosius@uga.edu; Heynen, Nik; Center for Integrative Conservation Research, University of Georgia; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; nheynen@uga.edu.
The benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary training are well documented, and several reviews have discussed the particular importance of interdisciplinary training for conservation scholars and practitioners. We discuss the progress within one university program to implement specific training models, elements, and tools designed to move beyond remaining barriers to graduate-level, interdisciplinary conservation education.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Conservation; Graduate education; Integrative; Interdisciplinary; Sustainability.
Ano: 2014
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A Policy Analysis Perspective on Ecological Restoration Ecology and Society
Baker, Susan; Cardiff School of Social Sciences/Sustainable Places Institute, Cardiff University; BakerSCM@cardiff.ac.uk.
Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Ecological restoration; Interests and values; Policy cycle; Stages model.
Ano: 2013
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A Portfolio Approach to Analyzing Complex Human-Environment Interactions: Institutions and Land Change Ecology and Society
Young, Oran R.; University of California at Santa Barbara, Bren School; young@bren.ucsb.edu; Lambin, Eric F.; University of Louvain; lambin@geog.ucl.ac.be; Alcock, Frank; New College of Florida; falcock@ncf.edu; Haberl, Helmut; Institute of Social Ecology; Helmut.Haberl@uni-klu.ac.at; Karlsson, Sylvia I.; Finland Futures Research Centre; sylvia.karlsson@tukkk.fi; McConnell, William J.; LUCC Focus 1 Office; wjmcconn@indiana.edu; Myint, Tun; CIPEC; tmyint@indiana.edu; Polsky, Colin; Clark University; cpolsky@clarku.edu; Ramakrishnan, P. S.; Jawaharlal Nehru University; psrama@jnuniv.ernet.in; Schroeder, Heike; University of California at Santa Barbara; schroeder@bren.ucsb.edu; Scouvart, Marie; University of Louvain; scouvart@geog.ucl.ac.be; Verburg, Peter H; Wageningen University; Peter.Verburg@wur.nl.
The challenge confronting those seeking to understand the institutional dimensions of global environmental change and patterns of land-use and land-cover change is to find effective methods for analyzing the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. Such systems exhibit a number of characteristics that pose problems for the most commonly used statistical techniques and may require additional and innovative analytic tools. This article explores options available to researchers working in this field and recommends a strategy for achieving scientific progress. Statistical procedures developed in other fields of study are often helpful in addressing challenges arising in research into global change. Accordingly, we start with an assessment of some of the enhanced...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Land change; Institutions; Methodology; Analysis; Socio-ecological systems; Statistical techniques.
Ano: 2006
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A Revised Conceptual Framework for Payments for Environmental Services Ecology and Society
Sommerville, Matthew M.; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London; m.sommerville06@imperial.ac.uk; Jones, Julia P. G.; School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Bangor; julia.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London; e.j.milner-gulland@imperial.ac.uk.
Over the past decade, “Payments for Environmental Services” (PES) have received a great deal of attention as a natural-resource management approach. We propose a revised definition and framework for PES implementation that focuses on the use of positive incentives as the philosophy behind PES and conditionality as the method for influencing behaviors. We note the importance of additionality of PES interventions to justify their value in a wider context. Finally, we highlight the need to understand the local institutional context in terms of the characteristics of buyers, sellers, and their relationship for implementation to be effective. Our framework acts as a platform to begin examining how the variety of options for structuring PES...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Additionality; Conditional; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Incentives; Institutions; Monitoring; Transactions.
Ano: 2009
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A sustainability framework for assessing trade-offs in ecosystem services Ecology and Society
Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota; Institute on Environment, University of Minnesota; cavender@umn.edu; Polasky, Stephen; Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota; Institute on Environment, University of Minnesota; polasky@umn.edu; King, Elizabeth; Biological Sciences, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia; egking@uga.edu.
Achieving sustainability, i.e., meeting the needs of current populations without compromising the needs of future generations, is the major challenge facing global society in the 21st century. Navigating the inherent trade-offs between provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting ecosystem services, and doing so in a way that does not compromise natural capital needed to provide services in the future, is critical for sustainable resource management. Here we build upon existing literature, primarily from economics and ecology, to present an analytical framework that integrates (1) the ecological mechanisms that underpin ecosystem services, (2) biophysical trade-offs and inherent limits that constrain management options, (3) preferences and values...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Dynamics; Ecosystem services; Efficiency frontier; Management constraints; Preferences; Stakeholders; Time lags; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2015
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A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones Ecology and Society
Hopkins , Tom S; Institute for Marine Coastal Environment-CNR, Naples, Italy; tom_hopkins@ncsu.edu; Bailly, Denis; University of Brest, Brest, France; Denis.Bailly@univ-brest.fr.
This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Coastal zones; Simulation analysis; Sustainable development; Systems approach.
Ano: 2011
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Access and Resilience: Analyzing the Construction of Social Resilience to the Threat of Water Scarcity Ecology and Society
Langridge, Ruth; University of California, Santa Cruz; rlangrid@ucsc.edu; Christian-Smith, Juliet; University of California, Berkeley; jchristi2001@gmail.com; Lohse, Kathleen A.; Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University; Kathleen.Lohse@asu.edu.
Resilience is a vital attribute that characterizes a system’s capacity to cope with stress. Researchers have examined the measurement of resilience in ecosystems and in social–ecological systems, and the comparative vulnerability of social groups. Our paper refocuses attention on the processes and relations that create social resilience. Our central proposition is that the creation of social resilience is linked to a community’s ability to access critical resources. We explore this proposition through an analysis of how community resilience to the stress of water scarcity is influenced by historically contingent mechanisms to gain, control, and maintain access to water. Access is defined broadly as the ability of a community...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Access; Resilience; Vulnerability; Water.
Ano: 2006
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Achieving Success under Pressure in the Conservation of Intensely Used Coastal Areas Ecology and Society
Micheli, Fiorenza; Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, California, USA; micheli@stanford.edu; Niccolini, Federico; Department of Economics, University of Macerata, Macerata, Italy; fniccolini@unimc.it.
Understanding how biological conservation and socioeconomic development can be harmonized in social-ecological systems is at the core of sustainability science. We present the case of a Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA), the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA, that exhibits high ecological performance under intense pressure from fishing, tourism, and coastal development. This case study illustrates how socioeconomic development and significant conservation benefits can coexist, even in a challenging context. Based on this case study, we present a framework for what elements and interactions have determined the high ecological performance of this MPA, and highlight the key leverages that have enabled ecosystem recovery. In particular, the most critical...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Conservation performance; Marine protected areas; Mediterranean; Social-ecological systems; Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA; Visionary Organization.
Ano: 2013
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Adaptation or Manipulation? Unpacking Climate Change Response Strategies Ecology and Society
Thomsen, Dana C; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast; dthomsen@usc.edu.au; Smith, Timothy F; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast; tim.smith@usc.edu.au; Keys, Noni; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast; nkeys@usc.edu.au.
Adaptation is a key feature of sustainable social–ecological systems. As societies traverse various temporal and spatial scales, they are exposed to differing contexts and precursors for adaptation. A cursory view of the response to these differing contexts and precursors suggests the particular ability of persistent societies to adapt to changing circumstances. Yet a closer examination into the meaning of adaptation and its relationship to concepts of resilience, vulnerability, and sustainability illustrates that, in many cases, societies actually manipulate their social–ecological contexts rather than adapt to them. It could be argued that manipulative behaviors are a subset of a broader suite of adaptive behaviors; however, this...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Adaptive capacity; Climate change; Learning; Manipulation; Path dependency; Resilience.
Ano: 2012
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Adaptive Capacity and Traps Ecology and Society
Carpenter, Stephen R; University of Wisconsin-Madison; srcarpen@wisc.edu; Brock, William A.; University of Wisconsin-Madison; WBrock@ssc.wisc.edu.
Adaptive capacity is the ability of a living system, such as a social–ecological system, to adjust responses to changing internal demands and external drivers. Although adaptive capacity is a frequent topic of study in the resilience literature, there are few formal models. This paper introduces such a model and uses it to explore adaptive capacity by contrast with the opposite condition, or traps. In a social–ecological rigidity trap, strong self-reinforcing controls prevent the flexibility needed for adaptation. In the model, too much control erodes adaptive capacity and thereby increases the risk of catastrophic breakdown. In a social–ecological poverty trap, loose connections prevent the mobilization of ideas and resources...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Allostasis; Model; Poverty trap; Resilience; Rigidity trap; Transformation.
Ano: 2008
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Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds Ecology and Society
Porzecanski, Ignacio; School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida.; igna@ufl.edu; Saunders, Lynn V. ; H. T. Odum Center for Wetlands Phelps Lab, University of Florida, Gainesville.; saunderslv@gmail.com; Brown, Mark T.; H. T. Odum Center for Wetlands Phelps Lab, University of Florida; mtb@ufl.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptive Management; Decision-making; Environmental condition; Indicators; Management prescriptions; Watersheds.
Ano: 2012
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Addressing surprise and uncertain futures in marine science, marine governance, and society Ecology and Society
Thrush, Simon F; Institute of Marine Science, The University of Auckland; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; simon.thrush@auckland.ac.nz; Lewis, Nick; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; n.lewis@auckland.ac.nz; Le Heron, Richard; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; r.leheron@auckland.ac.nz; Fisher, Karen T; School of Environment, The University of Auckland; k.fisher@auckland.ac.nz; Lundquist, Carolyn J; Institute of Marine Science, The University of Auckland; National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand; carolyn.lundquist@niwa.co.nz; Hewitt, Judi; National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand; Judi.Hewitt@niwa.co.nz.
On an increasingly populated planet, with decreasing biodiversity and limited new opportunities to tap unexploited natural resources, there is a clear need to adjust aspects of marine management and governance. Although sectarian management has succeeded in addressing and managing some important threats to marine ecosystems, unintended consequences are often associated with overlooking nonlinear interactions and cumulative impacts that increase the risk of surprises in social-ecological systems. In this paper, we begin to untangle science-governance-society (SGS) interdependencies in marine systems by considering how to recognize the risk of surprise in social and ecological dynamics. Equally important is drawing attention to our state of preparedness,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Governance; Management; Marine ecosystems; Regime shift; Resilience; Science; Society.
Ano: 2016
Registros recuperados: 172
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