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Condensed Tannin Concentrations of Three Lotus Species Grown in Different Environments Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Acuña,Hernán; Concha,Alex; Figueroa,Marcos.
Condensed tannins (CT) present in Lotus spp., depending on their concentration in the plant, can prevent bloating and improve protein absorption in ruminants. With the objective to know the variability of this characteristic, the CT concentration (% dry matter basis) was determined by the butanol-HCl procedure in 13 cultivars of Lotus corniculatus L. (Lc) introduced from North and South America and Oceania, 11 accessions of Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. (Lt), and 22 accessions of Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr (Lu) collected in Chile, from 32° to 38° S and 36° to 46° S, respectively. The field experiments, with two randomized complete blocks, were established in autumn 1998, in five different environments in the central-southern zone of Chile...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Condensed tannins.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392008000100004
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Genetic Parameters and Predictive Genetic Gain in Maize with Modified Recurrent Selection Method Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Afonso Doná,Anderson; Vieira Miranda,Glauco; Oliveira DeLima,Rodrigo; Gonçalves Chaves,Luciana; Gomes e Gama,Elto Eugênio.
The modified recurrent selection method suggests a less productive population to test the other population more productive and itself aiming to have more genetic gains than tradition recurrent selection method that uses one population to test the other one. The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic components, to predict and to evaluate the genetic gains of the SynFlint and Syndent populations of maize (Zea mays L.), applying a modified recurrent selection method. Two recombination cycles were carried out, with 144 Si progeny per cycle. These progenies were test crossed with SynFlint, generating a SynFlint x Syndent inter-population and a SynFlint x SynFlint intra-population. The progenies were evaluated in five environments in the first...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Breeding methods; Genetic variability.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000100006
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Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Compounds of Twelve Selected Potato Landrace Clones Grown in Southern Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Ah-Hen,Kong; Fuenzalida,Carolina; Hess,Susan; Contreras,Andrés; Vega-Gálvez,Antonio; Lemus-Mondaca,Roberto.
Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) provide a natural source of phytochemicals that help reduce the risk of diseases. However, there is a lack of information on the degree of variation of the antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of these native potatoes. Thus, the antioxidant activity (AA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of native Chilean potatoes were determined. Twelve potato landrace clones collected from established cultivations on Chiloe Island and Valdivia were selected. Total phenolic content and AA were compared with two commercial varieties, Shepody and Desirée. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and β-carotene bleaching was used to compare AA. The TPC varied in the peeled potato samples...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chilean potatoes antioxidant activity total phenolics Folin-Ciocalteu β -carotene.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000100001
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Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Losses in a Grazing System with Different Stocking Rates in a Volcanic Soil Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Alfaro,Marta; Salazar,Francisco; Iraira,Sergio; Teuber,Nolberto; Villarroel,Dagoberto; Ramírez,Luis.
In Chile there is little information on nutrient losses in livestock systems. The experiment was carried out between 2004 and 2006. Two stocking rates (3.5 and 5.0 steers ha-1) were tested under rotational grazing with Black and White Friesian steers on a permanent pasture (67.5 kg N and 40 kg P ha-1 yr-1). To quantify surface runoff losses (N, P, K), three surface lysimeters (5 x 5 m) per treatment were established. N and K leaching losses were estimated with ceramic cups. Runoff and leachate samples were individually analyzed for available and total N, reactive (RP) and total P, and K. Dissolved organic N (DON) and organic P (OP) were estimated as the difference between total and available forms. The stocking rate did not increase total N, P and K losses...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Eutrofication; Water quality; Grazing; Andisol; Beef production.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392008000200004
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Effect of nitrogen on achene protein, oil, fatty acid profile, and yield of sunflower hybrids Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Ali,Amjed; Ullah,Sami.
Seed yield and achene oil yield are the main determinants for N application rates rather than seed composition. Nitrogen plays a critical role in producing unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids), which are the main factors determining sunflower oil quality (Helianthus annuus L.). Studies were conducted on the effect of N fertilization on seed yield, achene oil yield, and quality parameters of sunflower hybrids for two successive years (2010 and 2011) in a split plot arrangement under a randomized complete block design. The hybrids (Hysun-33 & S-278) and N levels (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg ha-1) were allotted in main and sub-plots, respectively. Increasing N levels resulted in steady increases in yield, protein contents and linoleic acid,...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Fertilization; Linoleic acid; Oleic acid; Palmitic acid; Helianthus annuus.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000400016
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Determination of Quality Chemical Parameters of Honey from Chubut (Argentinean Patagonia) Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Aloisi,Pia Valeria.
This study was intended to evaluate the quality chemical parameters of 62 Apis mellifera L. honey samples, from the Province of Chubut, Argentine. Samples were obtained from the three melliferous areas of this province: Andean region, lower Chubut River valley and plains of Senguerr River. The average values obtained for electrical conductivity (0.33 mS cm-1) and pH (4.17) indicate that the analyzed honeys came mainly from nectar. Electrical conductivity was higher in honeys from the Andean region than in honeys from the other two regions. Moisture (water content) was low, with an average value of 14.67%. The hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was very low and ranged between 0.0 and 14.70 mg kg-1. Moisture, HMF and free acidity values show good maturity...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Honey characterization; Argentinean honeys; Patagonian honeys; Quality parameters.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000400015
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Prediction of the Composition of Fresh Pastures by Near Infrared Reflectance or Interactance-Reflectance Spectroscopy Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Alomar,Daniel; Fuchslocher,Rita; Cuevas,José; Mardones,Rodrigo; Cuevas,Emilio.
Fast and precise analytical tools can contribute to optimize pasture management decisions. This work was carried out to evaluate the potential of one such technique, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), to predict the nutritional value of pastures without previous drying of the samples, comparing two forms of collecting the spectra: reflectance, or interactance-reflectance (fiber optic probe). Samples (n = 107) from different swards were taken across the humid and temperate regions (Los Ríos and Los Lagos) of southern Chile. Once their spectra were collected, dry matter (DM) and several chemical constituents, such as crude protein (CP), metabolizable energy (ME), neutral (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), soluble carbohydrates (SC), soluble crude protein...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Pasture composition; NIR prediction; Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy; Fresh pastures; Fiber optics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000200009
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Effect of Including Extruded, Rolled or Ground Corn in Dairy Cow Diets Based on Direct Cut Grass Silage Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Alvarado G,Christian; Anrique G,René; Navarrete Q,Soledad.
A study was conducted to determine the effect of corn (Zea mays L.) grain processing on intake, digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition. The effect of extrusion on nutrient digestibility was evaluated in trial 1, using ground corn as a control. In trial 2, the effect of extrusion on intake was evaluated, comparing extruded corn of two densities (357 and 308 g L-1) with rolled corn (507 g L-1) as a control. In trial 3, the effects of extrusion on milk production, digestibility and intake were evaluated; using steam rolled corn and ground corn as controls. No effects on dry matter and metabolizable energy intakes due to differences in the extruded corn grains were observed. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein,...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Extruded corn; Intake; Digestibility; Milk production.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000300008
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Estimating Monthly Solar Radiation in South-Central Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Álvarez,José; Mitasova,Helena; Allen,H. Lee.
Solar radiation is a key component in process-based models. The amount of this energy depends on the location, time of the year, and atmospheric conditions. Several equations and models have been developed for different conditions using historical data from weather station networks or satellite measurements. However, solar radiation estimates are too local since they rely on weather stations or have a resolution that is too coarse when working with satellites. In this study, we estimated monthly global solar radiation for the south-central region of Chile using the r.sun model and validated it with observations from automatic weather stations. We analyzed the performance of global radiation results with the Hargreaves-Samani (HS) and Bristow-Campbell (BC)...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Solar radiation; R. sun model.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000400016
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Interference Interactions of Two Species of Echinochloa Genus with Rice Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Aminpanah,Hashem; Sharifi,Peyman; Firouzi,Saeed.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative competitive ability of barnyardgrass (BYG, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.) compared to rice barnyardgrass (ECPH, E. oryzicola (Vasinger) Vasinger) against rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Hashemi in a replacement series study. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates using a factorial treatment arrangement. Factors were two species of Echinochloa genus (BYG and ECPH) and five rice:BYG or rice:ECPH mixture proportions (8:0, 6:2, 4:4, 2:6, and 0:8). Relative yield total of aboveground dry weight, root dry weight and leaf area indicated that BYG or ECPH were competing for the same resources with 'Hashemi'. In general, replacement series curves and relative crowding...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Echinochloa crus-galli; Competitiveness; Interference; Oryza sativa; Echinochloa oryzicola.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000300010
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Modeling Isosteric Heat of Soya Bean for Desorption Energy Estimation Using Neural Network Approach Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Amiri Chayjan,Reza; Esna-Ashari,Mahmood.
Sorption isotherm of soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was obtained by the dynamic experimental method. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were used for modeling soya bean equilibrium moisture content (EMC). Thermodynamic equations and trained ANN for prediction of two thermodynamic properties of net isosteric heat and entropy of soya bean were utilized. The ANN models were better compared with mathematical models. In this study, the isosteric heat and entropy of sorption of soya bean were separately predicted by two power models as a EMC function. Predictive power of the models was high (R² ≈ 0.99). At the moisture content above 11% (dry basis, db), isosteric heat and entropy of sorption of soya bean were smoothly decreased, while they were...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Back propagation; Entropy; Isosteric heat; Sorption isotherm; Soya bean.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000400012
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Increased Growth and Changes in Wheat Mineral Composition through Calcium Silicate Fertilization under Normal and Saline Field Conditions Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Anser,Ali; Basra,Shahzad M.A; Hussain,Safdar; Iqbal,Javaid.
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Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Salt stress; Silicon; Wheat growth; K+:Na+; Water potential; Stomatal conductance.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000100016
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Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.)Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L.) Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Araneda Durán,Ximena; Breve Ulloa,Rodrigo; Aguilera Carrillo,José; Lavín Contreras,Jorge; Toneatti Bastidas,Marcelo.
Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L.) contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1), partial exclusion (T2) and free pollination (T0) with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bee hives; Pollination.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000200014
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Chemical Composition and Allelopathyc Activity of Essential Oil of Lippia sidoides Cham Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Araújo Marco,Cláudia; Teixeira,Erlan; Simplício,Antonio; Oliveira,Carlos; Costa,José; Feitosa,José.
The allelopathy is a process for which products of the secondary metabolism, as terpenes phenolic, of a certain vegetal intervene significantly, generally of antagonistic form, in the development of other species of plants. The objective of this work was to chemically characterize the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. growing in the Cariri cearense region, Brazil, and evaluate the allelopathyc effect of this oil on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.), and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.), in pre-plantation application. The monoterpene thymol (84.90%) has been identified as the principal constituent in the essential oil. The experiment was done in randomized complete block, in 4 x 3 factorial; being used four...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Allelopathy; Plant oil.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392012000100025
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Symptom severity and viral protein or RNA accumulation in lettuce affected by big-vein disease Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Araya,Carolina; Peña,Elizabeth; Salazar,Erika; Román,Lisset; Medina,Claudia; Mora,Roxana; Aljaro,Agustín; Rosales,Inés-Marlene.
Big-vein disease (BVD) is a widespread and economically damaging disease in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Typical symptoms are chlorotic clearing around leaf veins, leaf deformations, and impaired head development. In this research, we studied the relationship between symptom intensity and protein and viral RNA accumulation in infected plants. Naturally infected lettuce plants, from the field or greenhouse, were classified according to their symptomatology: mild, moderate, severe, and symptomless. Coat protein accumulation was evaluated by a double antibody sandwich/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), and RNA levels were studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR. Virus coat...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Lettuce big-vein disease; Symptom expression.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000100008
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Effects of some Insecticides Applied in Sublethal Concentrations on the Survival and Longevity of Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) Adults Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Araya,Jaime E.; Araya,Manuel; Guerrero,María Angélica.
The effects of four insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, and spinosad) applied in an ST4 Potter tower at sublethal concentrations (50% of those recommended commercially for aphid control) were studied in the laboratory on aphidiid Aphidius ervi (Haliday) adults, an important parasitoid of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). The most selective treatment on the hymenopteran was imidacloprid, followed in decreasing order by spinosad, pirimicarb, and finally dimethoate, which quickly eliminated the parasitoid and thus its capacity to produce progeny. Three toxicity groups were distinguished in the study. The least damaging treatment to adults of A. ervi was imidacloprid, followed by a group of medium toxicity made up of spinosad and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Dimethoate; Green pea aphid; Imidacloprid; Pirimicarb; Spinosad.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000200005
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Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Arismendi S,Nolberto; Andrade S,Nancy; Riegel Sch,Ricardo; Carrillo Ll,Roberto.
Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer) are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Native shrubs; Witches’ broom; Phytoplasma; Microscopic and molecular tools.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000100003
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Evaluation of Top-Cross Popcorn Hybrids Using Mixed Linear Model Methodology Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Arnhold,Emmanuel; Mora,Freddy; G. Silva,Ricardo; I.V. Good-God,Pedro; Rodovalho,Marcos A.
The market for popcorn (Zea mays L.) has been continuously growing in Brazil fact has required the development of cultivars adapted to local environmental conditions. For this reason, the analytical objectives of this study were to evaluate top-cross popcorn hybrids in relation to popping expansion and grain yield in three different eco-geographic regions of Brazil, in order to estimate variance components using Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) and predict breeding values using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). Genetic evaluation considered a linear model with heterogeneous residual (environmental) variances. The Restricted Likelihood Ratio Test (RLRT) evidenced significant differences (p < 0.01) for the genotypic effect. Grain yield showed a...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Popping expansion; REML; BLUP; Improvement.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000100006
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Evaluation of the ORYZA2000 Rice Growth Model under Nitrogen-Limited Conditions in an Irrigated Mediterranean Environment Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Artacho,Pamela; Meza,Francisco; Alcalde,José Antonio.
ORYZA2000 is a growth model for tropical lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) developed by the International Rice Research Institute and Wageningen University. This model has been evaluated extensively in a wide range of environments. However, reports examining japonica cultivars growing in temperate climates are scarce. In this study, ORYZA2000 was calibrated and evaluated using data from experiments carried out in the South-Central area of Chile. These experiments were performed on a japonica rice cultivar growing under an irrigated Mediterranean environment at various N rates. ORYZA2000 was then applied to explore potential yield and grain yield response to N fertilization under likely weather conditions in the major rice-producing area in Chile. ORYZA2000...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: ORYZA2000 model; Irrigated rice; Nitrogen; Mediterranean environment; Chile.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000100003
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Effect of the Irrigation Canal Network on Surface and Groundwater Interactions in the Lower Valley of the Cachapoal River, Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Arumí,José Luis; Rivera,Diego; Holzapfel,Eduardo; Boochs,Peter; Billib,Max; Fernald,Alexander.
Agricultural production of high value crops in Chile's Central Valley is highly dependent on surface and groundwater resources. They are connected and together form an integrated hydrological system, the individual components of which have to be studied. This research is addressed to answering two questions: 1) to what extent do irrigation and canal seepage contribute to groundwater recharge and 2) what is the influence of the interactions between the Cachapoal River and ground water. The study was carried out from 2003 to 2007 in Peumo Valley (34.3° S, 71.3° W). In winter, the irrigation canal network intercepts and diverts surface runoff, which flows to flat areas and recharges groundwater. In summer, infiltration from the canals recharges the aquifer...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Chile; Groundwater; Irrigation seepage; MODFLOW; Surface water-groundwater interactions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392009000100002
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