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Technology on Reducing Post-harvest and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in Kenya Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Severino Kinge Manene.
Palavras-chave: Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables: Proceedings of 2010 AARDO Workshop; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2010
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Technology on Reducing Postharvest Losses and Maintaining Quality Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Abdul Hamid Al Imam.
[[abstract]]The Syrian working paper includes three chapters. The first Chapter contains general information about the Syrian Arab Republic (where the site - the border - the most important cities – population). It also includes the agriculture in Syria (where importance - the distribution of land use - agricultural settlement zones – the important agricultural products, value of agricultural commodities for commercial exchange). The second chapter contains a presentation of postharvest techniques (Harvest - Pre cooling - Quality Control in the field – Packaging – Transport) and the best practices to be followed to reduce the loss and maintain the quality of fruits and vegetables. The third Chapter contains the recommendations for marketing chain and...
Palavras-chave: Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables: Proceedings of 2010 AARDO Workshop; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2010
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Technology on Reducing Postharvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruit and Vegetables (Philippines) Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Perlita Aquino-Nuevo; Arnel Ramir Apaga.
[[abstract]]The Philippines is predominantly agriculture which covers 47% or 30 million hectares. However, the landholdings are small and non-contiguous. Fruits and vegetables grow well with the least inputs except when typhoons and drought hit the country. The bountiful harvest are wasted during the distribution process due to a number of reasons: use of inappropriate containers, poor road conditions, high temperatures, and rough handling. Postharvest losses could be up to 50%. While postharvest technologies are continuously being developed, transferred and adopted by the target sectors, the need for cooperation and coordination among the stakeholders is very critical. Information dissemination on the proper handling of fruits and vegetables through print...
Palavras-chave: Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables: Proceedings of 2010 AARDO Workshop; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2010
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Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in Bangladesh Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Md. Feroz Hossain.
[[abstract]]The post-harvest handlings of fruits and vegetables scenario is quiet unsatisfactory and mostly comprise of traditional techniques practiced by the growers, traders and processors, owing to which considerable deterioration in physical and nutritional qualities of the harvested produced in Bangladesh. It is estimated that the post-harvest loss of fruits and vegetables in the country is about 25-35% (Mia and et-al, 2008). Therefore, improvement of these indigenous practices and development of low cost new technologies through precise research efforts has now become essential to prevent the huge post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables in view of ever increasing, demand for food and nutrition. In the development plans, considered...
Palavras-chave: Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables: Proceedings of 2010 AARDO Workshop; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2010
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Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in India Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Sita Ram Jat.
[[abstract]]Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable in nature. A considerable amount of these commodities produced in India is lost due to improper postharvest operations; as a result there is considerable gap between gross production and net availability. Post harvest loss reduction is essential to make available more food from the existing level of production. The losses can be minimized by following simple management practices, such as, sorting and grading, pre-cooling, suitable packaging, proper handling, storage and supply chain management. Therefore, to achieve the target of feeding the growing population as well as meeting the requirements of the processing industry and export trade, only increasing the production and productivity will not be...
Palavras-chave: Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables: Proceedings of 2010 AARDO Workshop; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2010
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The Agricultural Survey and Postharvest Handling Research of Avocado in Taiwan Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Min-Chi Hsu.
[[abstract]]The technology for improving postharvest handling from growing field to consumers has been the major subject of detailed research for over a century. The cost for harvest and postharvest up to 30% to 60% of all production and marketing system during horticultural produce, and significant quality loss due to improper processing. Technologies involved in handling, packaging, precooling, transportation, which would minimize losses, maintain high quality, and enhance value-added for horticultural crops that had been extensively applied in Taiwan. For example, precooling is the most common practice, and forced air cooling and vacuum cooling are widely adapted. In this article, information of current postharvest technology in Taiwan, including value,...
Palavras-chave: Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables: Proceedings of 2010 AARDO Workshop; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2010
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The microspore development and haploid embryogenesis of anther culture with five nitrogen doses to the donor tobacco plants Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Hsin-Sheng Tsay; 蔡新聲.
[[abstract]]By growing N. tabacurn plants (Wisconsin 38) with different levels of nitrogen in basic Hoagland water solution, it was found that the amount of nitrogen supply can strongly influence the physiological status of the donor plants and thus the embryogenic ability of cultured anthers. Highest embryogenic ability was obtained when donor plants were grown in culture solution containing 15 mM nitrogen. Lower nitrogen concentration reduced the rate of embryo formation, whereas anthers produced from culture solution without nitrogen supply showed the poorest embryogenesis. Histological examination indicated that anthers derived from low nitrogen solution contained more highly-vacuolate and abortive microspores. The duration neeeded for the formation of...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1982
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THE VARIATIONS AND GENETIC PATTERNS OF FOUR QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS OF RICE UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
S.T. Yen; 嚴盛添.
[[abstract]]In order to obtain the information on the variations and genetic patterns of four quantitative characters of a rice cross in different environmental conditions, a cross of IG-65-1 × Pai-kan-kan-tao was used in this study. The data on plant height, panicle number, panicle length and panicle weight per plant showed that the responses of these four characters in parents and F2 populations were different under different environmental conditions. Monogenic or digenic mode of inheritance differentiating the four characters respectively, were found in most of the cases, indicating that the environment did not affect the genetic patterns but shift the dividing points. It was found that the heritability value was highest at S1N2 for all three characters...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1969
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Variance Component Analysis of Unbalanced Diallel Crosses Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Ching Liu; 劉清.
[[abstract]]This paper presents an efficient and stable method for estimating variance components from an unbalanced diallel crosses. The method follows the general procedure for computing the sums of squares in a random model by formulating testable hypotheses as if all effects were fixed and then compute the corresponding sums of squares. Expected sums of squares are derived from the expectations of quadratic forms of the observations. Estimable functions for effects in the model are generated by using the Cholesky decomposition of the reduced X'X matrix on the grounds that the sequential reduction is suitable in obtaining the sums of squares of general combining abilities, specific combining abilities, maternal effects and reciprocal effects in an...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1986
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Vegetable Marketing Channels, Post-harvest and Adjustment in Taiwan Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
Yi-Tan Fang.
[[abstract]]The vegetable production in Taiwan has been unstable in rainy spring, summer and winter seasons. To maintain the balance between production and consumption demand, planned production based on the amounts of domestic production/consumption and imports trade is important, especially when the production and price is fluctuated. Those sensitive for production and marketing vegetables include garlic, onion, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and Welsh onion. Most vegetables especially leafy vegetables are highly perishable. Cold chain system for vegetable storage is an advanced operation compared to other traditional operations in postharvest handling and marketing channels, which can reduce postharvest loss and maintain quality. To establish a high...
Palavras-chave: Technology on Reducing Post-harvest Losses and Maintaining Quality of Fruits and Vegetables: Proceedings of 2010 AARDO Workshop; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2010
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X-Ray induced Semisterility of Rice Not Involving Chromosome Aberrations Easily Detectable by Cytological Means Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
C.S. Huang; N.T. Chuang; 黃真生; 莊南田.
[[abstract]]Among the 87 X3 lines of rice segregated for seed fertility, 22 were found normal in chromosome behavior at diakinesis or metaphase-I in both fertile and semisterile plants. The frequencies of the individual seedset percentages in most of these 22 lines distributed in continuous manners, otherwise in a ratio of 1:1. Semisterile plants of 1:1 segregating X3 lines tended to produce progenies segregated in 1:1, while those of the continuously segregating lines showed relatively unstable breeding behavior. The fertile plants in the stable X4 lines were testcrossed on the original variety, Taichung 65, and 12 homozygotes that set seed normally and bred true were isolated. The similar segregation for seed fertility re-occurred in the respective...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1973
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一突變矮稻之顏色性狀及其他性狀之遺傳稻之遺傳因子分析第十報 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
嚴盛添; 謝順景; S.T.Yen; S.C.Hsieh.
[[abstract]]D-155-8是臺中155號放射線誘變而得之突變矮稻,稃尖無色、葉細、深綠色、有葉舌、矮(高約 70cm)。謝(1962)將此矮性因子訂為d9,Chang和Jodon(1963)統一改定為d31。在D-155-8×T201等7組合之分析中,得知此D-155-8親本稃尖和柱頭顏色之因子為CBPa P Ps1 Ps2 I-Ps1。同時得知,柱頭著色為稃尖著色因子之下位,此點和Nagao及Takahashi等之報告相同。同時柱頭色之分離,較稃尖色複什。除與前人報告相同者外,並發現一新的分離現象(13有色:3無色)。 至於矮性因子(d31)、細葉(nal)、石炭酸反應因子(Ph)、無葉舌因子(lg)、密穗因子(Dn)、向地性(la)、莖葉脆性(bc)、等性狀本研究中發現均受一對遺傳因子所支配。而另在連鎖研究中發現,矮性因子(d31)、紫穎色因子(Pr)、紫色柱頭因子(PS2)、石炭酸反應因子(Ph)及無葉舌因子(lg)與細葉因子(nal)間等均有明顯的連鎖關係。且這些因子均屬於Nagao之第二染色體連鎖羣。但細葉因子(nal)卻和稃尖因子(C)、矮性因子(7245-d)、密穗因子(Dn)、莖葉脆性(bc)及向地性因子(lg)等因子相互獨立。 D-155-8, an X-ray induced dwarf mutant from Taichung no. 155, is measured about 70 cm in height at maturity, and the leaves being narrow and dark green in color. This strain was crossed with three gene markers of rice and five...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1968
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三島柴胡臺農1號之育式 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
劉新裕; 徐原田; 胡敏夫; 邱善美; S.Y. Liu; Y.T. Shyu; M.F. Hu; S.M. Chiu.
[[abstract]]三島柴胡臺農1號之親本源自日本之三島柴胡,為常異交作物,自交純化不易。本所自民國57年引入三島柴胡種子後,即利用混合選種法,淘汰生產力顯著低落及品質較劣植株,並選拔生長勢旺盛及高saponin含量之植株,混合其飽滿種子,共經七年選種而成。並依序進行品種觀察試驗、品種比較試驗、產量調查及三次區域試驗,綜合上述試驗結果可知,新品種具有產量穩定、品質優越及適應力大之優點。在乾根平均公頃產量方面,新品種高出三島柴胡約27.7%,在saponin含量方面,新品種為三島柴胡之1.12倍高,此外新品種之適應能力大增,已能在較高溫之平地栽培,且植株間之變異程度已經減小。因此獲得審查通過,命名為三島柴胡臺農1號。 三島柴胡臺農1號之植株生育強健,一年生株高可達80cm,莖直立質堅,葉互生,植株下半部葉形較大,葉長約15cm,寬約1.5cm,花為複繖形花序,果實為分裂果,種子長橢圓形,千粒重1.23─1.68g。由歷年各地區試驗根產量之綜合比較可知,栽培於中高海拔山坡地一年生根產量都在l , 000 kg/ha以上,平地一年生產量約為690 kg/ha,一年半生為1,168 kg/ha,根中saponin平均含量為2.75%,變域為1.05─7.43%。 Bupleurum falcatum L. cv. TARI No. 1 was developed through mass selection from three sources of Bupleurum falcatum L. imported from Japan in 1968. Stable yielding potential, high quality, and wide adaptability of the new...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1989
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上帝和宇宙玩骰子?-談統計在生物資訊上所扮演的角色 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
呂秀英; 呂椿棠; 魏夢麗.
Palavras-chave: 生物質訊; 統計; [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2003
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不同型間落花生產量及其構成因素之比較 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
盧煌勝; 楊金興; 曹文隆; H.S. Lu; J.H. Yang; W.L. Tsaur.
[[abstract]]本研究採用臺彎省農業試驗所保存之1,297個落花生種源為試驗材料,其中Spanish type 542品種,Valencia type 219品種,Virginia Runner type 239品種及Virginia Bunch type 297品種。成熟收穫時調查產量及其構成性狀,共計十項,並經統計分析,以探討不同類型落花生品種之差異。試驗結果摘要如下: (一)不同類型品種之落花生性狀差異頗大,Spanish type及Valencia type植株呈直立性,主莖與分枝長相近,分枝較少。Spanish type莢果小,籽粒亦小,Valencia type 莢果狹長,籽粒亦較狹小,但多為多粒型。Virginia Runner type植株呈匍伏性,Virginia Bunch type呈半立性,兩者主莖均短,分枝多,且較主莖長,莢果、籽粒及百粒重較大,單株籽粒數則較少。單株莢數、粒數、莢果產量及籽粒產量以Virginia Bunch type最低,其餘三種類型則相差無幾。 (二)不同類型間之變異係數互有差異,其中莢果大小、籽粒大小及百粒重三個性狀之變異係數在四個類型均相近,其他七個性狀之變異係數則為Virginia Runner type 及Virginia Bunch type大於Spanish type及Valencia type。性狀間相比較,則以單株莢數、單株粒數、單株莢果及籽粒產量四性狀之變異係數最大。...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1988
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不同季節生長下母株菸草花葯培養植物體之形成 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡新聲; Hsin-Sheng Tsay.
[[abstract]]利用Hoagland 液體培養配合不同氮素濃度栽培菸草,以為花葯培養植物體形成的材料,發現盛夏季節所栽培之菸草,其花葯培養植物體形成能力極差,若再配合過量或不足的氮素量則情形更嚴重;將夏日生長下的菸草花物以石蠟切片法觀察其內部詼育,發現此時期所形成的花葯,有許多是發育不正常的,其花粉囊均為不正常細胞所佔滿,以至無法形成正常的小胞子,部份花葯雖有小胞子形成,但小胞子數少或許多均屬無功能者,這種情形可能是夏季生長的菸草花葯,培養後植物體形成低下的主要原因。此外,夏日配合過量氮素肥有剌敵產生一花多葯的情形,反之缺氮則有形成一花少葯的趨勢。 The anthers of N. tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38 which were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution with different nitrogen levels were collected during the period of May-November. The collected anthers were cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium (1962) to produce haploid plants. It was found that the embryogenic ability of anthers collected from the plants grown under the high temperature and long photoperiod condition (August-September) was extremely lower than those collected from the...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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不同容器貯藏蔬菜種子壽命之研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
李伯年; 諶靜吾; P.N Lee; C.W. Shen.
[[abstract]]蔬菜種子在自然氣溫下貯藏,很易失去生命,因此關於各種貯藏方法之研究,國內外以住研究頗多,低溫乾燥貯藏,可保持壽命最久,卻因設備不易,為民間一般農戶和零售種子商,難以採用。作者有鑒及此,研究普遍能合實用的方法,於民國四十六年開始,至五十二年止,前後共計六年,獲得生石灰白鐵罐貯藏,可保持壽命數年不失。 1. In this experiment, the seed storage effect of a tin can and a glass desicca-tor with caustic lime or calcium chloride was studied. 2. From the data of this experiment, a tin can with caustic lime and a glass desiccator with calcium chloride showed good results. 3. Although glass desiccator is a common container for the use of seed storage, yet it has some faults. Those are expensive, difficult to convey, and easy to break. In view of these facts, we consider that the tin can is a more practical container to most of the local seed merchants or farmers in Taiwan. 4. When we store a large...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1964
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不同廠牌及種類之膠體化物質對水稻花藥培養之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
高小玲; 葉常青; 許家言; 蔡新聲; S.L. Gau; C.C. Yeh; J.Y. Hsu; H.S. Tsay.
[[abstract]]將水稻花藥培養於五種不同品牌之agar時,結果顯示以Difco-Bacto agar(No. 0140─01)對水稻花藥癒合組織的形成及分化較優,而惠光出品之agar表現最差。 不同固體化介質以agarose最好,可以顯著提高水稻癒合組織形成率及綠苗分化率,其次為starch, gelrite雖可提高癒合組織形成率及綠苗分化率但與agar差異不大。增加corn starch濃度或以rice starch培養水稻花藥,均可提高癒合組織形成率及分化率。在agar的培養基內以不同比例之corn starch取代,隨著corn starch取代量的增加,癒合組織形成率及分化率均有漸增的趨勢。 A series of experiments were taken to compare the effects of five agar brands (Sigma, Difco-Bacto No. 0140-01, Difco-Bitek No. 0138-01-4, BBL and Huey-Guang) and different gelling agents and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in rice anther culture. In the comparison of the five agar brands, the best results on callus and plant differentiation was obtained with Difco-Bacto agars while the addition of Huey-Guang agar to the medium...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1990
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不同形式及濃度鐵源對水稻花藥培養之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
陳駿季; 許家言; 蔡新聲; Junne-Jih Chen; Jia-Yan Hsu; Hsin-Sheng Tsay.
[[abstract]]將水稻花藥培養於含不同形式及濃度鐵源的培養基,探討對水稻花藥癒合組織形成及分化能力的影響,及瞭解葉綠素含量與鐵源濃度及移值成活率的關係。試驗結果顯示添加0.1 mM 之Na2FeEDTA(二價鐵)或NaFeEDTA(三價鐵)於誘導癒合組織的培養基,有助於花藥癒合組織的形成,但提高濃度至0.2mM,反而產生毒害。 癒合組織於含0.05mM Na2FeEDTA或0.lmM NaFeEDTA或0.05mM Na2FeEDTA混合0.05mM NaFeEDTA 之培養基形成後,移至含相同鐵源之分化培養基,能分化較多的綠株;提高Na2FeEDTA的濃度至0.1 mM或0.2mM時,綠株分化率顯著降低。NaFeEDTA 在受測的三種濃度中,對綠株分化影響不大。在本試驗受測的濃度與形式範圍內,白苗的分化,不受鐵源影響。 分化綠株葉片之葉綠素含量與培養基內鐵源的形式及濃度有很大的關係,此種關係受到植株根系大小影響。約有85%之分化綠株,移植前具有發育中等之根系,其植株葉綠素含量與培養基內鐵源濃度呈正相關,同時葉綠素含量高的植株,具有較高的移植成活率。 Experiments were conducted to identify iron requirement in rice anther culture for callus induction, plant regeneration, chlorophyll content of anther-derived green plants and its survival ability. It was found that rice anther cultured on a callus-inducing medium containing...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1986
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不同採收期與貯藏法對柴胡種子發芽之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
胡敏夫; 黃漢津; 劉新裕; M.F. Ru; H.C. Huang; S.Y. Liu.
[[abstract]]柴胡種子於開花後55.62.69及76天分別採收,經充分陰乾後貯藏於冰箱(0-5℃)、乾燥器、定溫箱(36℃)及室溫下,並按貯藏後第3、6、9及12個月等4期,測定其發芽率及發芽速度。發現(1)新鮮種子之發芽率及發芽速度,以開花後69天採收者比其他採收期表現優異,其發芽率高達71%,發芽率達50%所需日數為21天。(2)乾燥種子之發芽率及發芽速度,則因貯藏法及貯藏時間不同而表現互異,一般以採用定溫箱貯藏法者較佳,其種子之平均發芽率達71%,平均發芽率達50%所需日數為14天,依次為採用乾燥器及冰箱貯藏法,而室溫貯藏者最差。(3)採用冰箱、乾燥器及室溫等貯藏法之乾燥種子,最高發芽率表現皆於貯藏後第6個月,而定溫箱貯藏者於第9個月。(4)不同貯藏法下之乾燥種子最佳採收期之研究結果顯示,則於開花後69天採收者,其種子發芽率較高,發芽速度亦較快。 The seeds of Chia-hu (B. falcatum L.) were harvested at weekly intervals from 55 to 76 days after flowering (DAF), They were dried and sealed in plastic bags with calcium chloride, and then stored (1) in a refrigertor at 0-5°C, (2) in a desiccator under room temperature, (3) in a incubator at 36°C, (4) on the bench of this laboratory under room temperature. Germination rate...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1987
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