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不同廠牌及種類之膠體化物質對水稻花藥培養之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
高小玲; 葉常青; 許家言; 蔡新聲; S.L. Gau; C.C. Yeh; J.Y. Hsu; H.S. Tsay.
[[abstract]]將水稻花藥培養於五種不同品牌之agar時,結果顯示以Difco-Bacto agar(No. 0140─01)對水稻花藥癒合組織的形成及分化較優,而惠光出品之agar表現最差。 不同固體化介質以agarose最好,可以顯著提高水稻癒合組織形成率及綠苗分化率,其次為starch, gelrite雖可提高癒合組織形成率及綠苗分化率但與agar差異不大。增加corn starch濃度或以rice starch培養水稻花藥,均可提高癒合組織形成率及分化率。在agar的培養基內以不同比例之corn starch取代,隨著corn starch取代量的增加,癒合組織形成率及分化率均有漸增的趨勢。 A series of experiments were taken to compare the effects of five agar brands (Sigma, Difco-Bacto No. 0140-01, Difco-Bitek No. 0138-01-4, BBL and Huey-Guang) and different gelling agents and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in rice anther culture. In the comparison of the five agar brands, the best results on callus and plant differentiation was obtained with Difco-Bacto agars while the addition of Huey-Guang agar to the medium...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1990
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不同接種季節對水稻花藥培養的影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
葉常青; 蔡新聲; C.C. Yeh; H.S. Tsay.
[[abstract]]以週年栽培方式種植水稻臺農67號,探討水稻母株生育環境對花藥培養形成癒合組織及分化成植株的影響,結果發現4至12月份所接種的花藥癒合組織形成率約在27~42%之間;由於低溫造成水稻植株的生長遲滯,因而錯失了1月及3月份的資料,而在2月份低溫下產生的花藥,則完全無癒合組織的形成。以水稻母株生育環境的溫度而言,低溫較高溫對花藥癒合組織的形成能力有較為不利的影響。就水稻母株的生育過程而言,生殖生長期對溫度變化的反應比營養生長期敏感,尤其以花粉母細胞減數分裂期為最。經切片觀察,低溫會造成絨氈層細胞的異常增殖,及產生多核性巨大小孢子,而阻止小孢子發育。癒合組織的分化率並不隨著癒合組織形成率的高低而變化,亦無法找出其與外界溫度的關係。 Rice plants (cv Tainung 67) were transplanted year round and anthers were collected and inoculated in different months of the year in order to investigate the effect of environmental factors, especially temperature, on the efficiency of rice anther culture. Results showed that the rate of callus formation for anthers inoculated between April and December ranged between 27 and 42%. Anthers collected in February failed to produce any...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1987
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低溫處理對水稻花藥接種適期之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡新聲; 陳駿季; 葉常青; 許家言; H.S. Tsay; J.J. Chen; C.C. Yeh; J.Y. Hsu.
[[abstract]]水稻稻穗經不同時間之低溫(10°C)處理後,選取含四分子期至晚單核期小孢子之花藥進行培養,探討低溫處理對花藥接種適期之影響。結果發現,各時期小孢子對低溫處理的反應差異極大。經七天之低溫處理,以中單核期小孢子之花藥最易形成癒合組織,且其誘導率較經低溫處理一天者提高一倍左右。低溫處理14天,可提高晚單核期小孢子之花藥形成癒合組織之能力,但對中單核期之花藥癒合組織誘導率則無提高之效果,過長之低溫處理(超過21天)反會抑制癒合組織之產生。 七天之低溫處理,會導致由四分子期小孢子之花藥所誘導的癒合組織喪失分化能力,短期(1─7天)之低溫處理,由中、晚單核期小孢子之花藥所形成的癒合組織,分化率有提高之現象,但較容易分化成白苗。超過14天之低溫處理,綠苗分化能力則顯著降低。 就育種效率而言,低溫處理七天以內,接種中單核期小孢子之花藥可得較高之育種效率;低溫處理14天則以接種晚單核期小孢子之花藥為佳,但其所分化綠株多為單倍體。超過21天之低溫處理,任何時期小孢子之花藥育種效率皆低於3%,而不適合進行培養。本試驗同時以二種貯存方式進行低溫處理,結果顯示,定期更換包裹於葉鞘基部之衛生紙,有助於花藥在長期低溫處理下維持較佳的活力。 The base of rice panicles with microspores at different developmental stages were wrapped with moist tissue paper and kept at 10°C for various durations to test the effect of cold shock on callus formation, organ regeneration and chromosome...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1988
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薑花組織培養之大量繁殖 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
許家言; 葉常青; 蔡新聲; J.Y. Hsu;C.C. Yeh;H.S. Tsay.
[[abstract]]利用組織培養技術,進行薑花大量繁殖的研究,以期在短時間內獲得較多的栽培苗供推廣是本試驗之目的。結果顯示,液體培養的效果比固體培養好,保留頂芽處理的分蘗芽數較切除頂芽者為多,基本培養基則以全量MS(Murashige and Skoog,1962)基本鹽類配合4 mg/1 BA所得的分蘗芽數最多,在培養六星期後每一個芽可繁殖4.78個芽體,若以液體培養配合保留頂芽處理的繁殖法,試管苗在培養二星期後即可全部發根。利用本試驗推薦的方法繁殖薑花,一個芽可在一年中產生8×105株幼苗。
Palavras-chave: 薑花 大量繁殖 Ginger flower; Mass propagation [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1991
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蘆筍花葯培養之全雄育種Ⅰ.品種及單株間花葯培養效率之研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
賴本智; 許家言; 葉常青; 蔡新聲; P.C. Lai;J.Y. Hsu;C.C. Yeh;H.S. Tsay.
[[abstract]]本研究之目的在以花药培養進行蘆筍之品種改良過程中,檢討品種及單株間之花药培養效率,不同分化培養基之效果,癒合組織之日齡與分化能力之關係及花药來源植株染色體之倍數性,以為育種之參考,其結果摘錄如下: 1. 花药癒合組織自含有2 mg/1 NAA,1 mg/1 BA及6% sucrose之1/2 MS基本鹽類培養基(Na─Fe─EDTA全量)誘得後,先繼代培養於含有1 mg/1 NAA及0.5 mg/1 BA之Murashige et al.(1972)基本鹽類培養基進行植株分化之誘導,二個月後未分化之癒合組織,再繼代培養於MS之基本鹽類培養基之處理方式,可獲得最佳之分化效果。 2. 品種及單株間之花药培養效率差異極大,在80棵受測之蘆筍雄株中,以UC500 W─20單株之育種效率14.6%最高。造成品種及單株間差異之主要原因可能為,各單株之遺傳組成相異所致。花药來源植株根端細胞染色體之檢定發現,單倍體佔8.2%,雙倍體佔60.6%,三倍體佔5.3%,四倍體佔24.3%及混雜體佔1.3%。 3. 花药癒合組織約在花药培養30~60天間形成,50日齡癒合組織之分化能力最強。
Palavras-chave: 蘆筍 花葯培養 全雄育種 Asparagus; Anther culture; All-male breeding [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1991
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蘆筍花葯培養之全雄育種Ⅱ.花葯來源單倍體植株染色體之倍加 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
許家言; 賴本智; 葉常青; 蔡新聲; J.Y. Hsu;P.C. Lai;C.C. Yeh;H.S. Tsay.
[[abstract]]本研究之目的在探討蘆筍花药來源單倍體染色體倍加的方法,所得結果摘錄如下: 1. 單倍體莖頂培養之繁殖苗,經五次繼代培養後,約有6.0%可自然倍加成二倍體。 2. 秋水仙鹼處理法:在溫室中使用羊毛脂塗抹法與棉花點滴法之倍加成功率為21.2~97.0%之間,其中以1.2%秋水仙鹼之羊毛脂塗抹法處理之效果最佳,連續處理六天每天一次,倍加率可達97.0%。試管內之培養基法及浸漬法的倍加效果均較液體振盪法為高。其中以0.4%秋水仙鹼之培養基法或0.4%秋水仙鹼浸漬2小時兩個處理的倍加率較高,各為41.4%及45.0%。經倍加處理後所產生之高倍數體(polyploid)、異數體(aneuploid)、混雜體(mixaploid)及細胞嵌合體(cytochimeras)的現象極少。但染色體之倍加效果易受外界環境影響而呈現不穩定的現象,且倍加效果因單倍體的來源不同而異。 3. 利用單倍體莖頂培養於含有2 mg/1 2,4─D(2,4─dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)之MS(Murashige and Skoog,1962)培養基中誘導之癒合組織,再繼代培養於分化培養基上,所獲得植株中有7.7%~50.0%的二倍體。且所獲得的二倍體發根有改善之現象。因此可解決部份超雄株發根困難之問題。 利用以上所述之方法,已可由花药培養所得之單倍體經染色體倍加後育成蘆筍之超雄株個體。
Palavras-chave: 蘆筍 花葯培養 全雄育種 染色體倍加 Asparagus; Anther culture; All-male breeding; Chromosome doubling [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1991
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金線連大量繁殖與栽培後之生育性狀、種間比較及營養成分研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
劉新裕; 蔡新聲; 黃漢津; 胡敏夫; 葉常青; S.Y. Liu; H.S. Tsay; H.C. Huang; M.F. Hu; C.C. Yeh.
[[abstract]]金線連之無菌培殖體培養於含5ppmBA及0.3%活性碳之基本固體培養基上,可誘導8倍芽體之生成及根系之正常發展,金線連之無菌小芽於液體震盪培養後,亦能得到大量繁殖的結果。 金線連組織培養瓶苗於馴化、假植及擇健株定植於1100m之霧社地區,其成活率達90%以上。臺灣金線連在18個月之生長期中,平均每個月植株增高、增重及莖徑加粗之速率為0.5cm、0.2g及0.2mm。產量增加較大的三個生育期,即第10、12及18個月,應為採收的較佳時期。生長15個月後,臺灣金線連比高雄金線連有較小的株高及節間距離,但其莖徑較粗且葉長、葉寬、葉重及葉面積較佔優勢,所以有較大的鮮重。 臺灣金線連之營養成分中除含水率達87%,尚含甚高量之脂質、維生素C及礦物質。脂質及維生素C之含量遠高於一般之果蔬類食品。兩種金線連在C、P、K、Na及Mg五種重要礦物元素之含量亦甚高,每1OOg中分別含有Ca279mg、P193mg、K806mg;Na188mg及Mg270mg。此外,尚含有Fe 51.7mg、Mnl3.8mg、Zn9.3mg及Cu2.6mg。 Shoot tips of pearl orchid (Anoectochilus sp.) plants were cultured in vitro and node segments of the derived plants were subcultured in either liquid or solid medium aimed to develop a method of mass propagation of this rare medicinal herb. Results showed a multiplication rate of 8.5...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1987
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高溫處理及培養基成分對水稻花藥培養之效果 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
葉常青; 蔡新聲; C.C. Yeh; H.S. Tsay.
[[abstract]]水稻花藥培養初期以35±1°C的高溫處理1~2天,再移至25±1°C恆溫培養,可提高癒合組織的誘導率,且不影響其分化率。培養後期的高溫處理則無效。 1 mg/l NAA及4 mg/l kinetin之植物生長素能提高花藥癒合組織之綠苗形成率,但不利於形成後綠苗之生長。 N6無機鹽較MS無機鹽更能抑制花藥癒合組織的褐化,且癒合組織有較旺盛之生長勢。 Rice anthers at uninucleate stage were cultured in medium and incubated at 25°C under darkness for heat trea tment and medium composition studies. It was found that heat treatment of 35°C to the cultured anthers for 1-2 days at the initial culture stage incr eased the percentage of callus inducti on. Nevertheless, no effect was found to the subsequent differentiation of anther-derived callus. There was no beneficial effect either on callus induction or plant regeneration when heat trea tment was given to anthers which have been cultured for 20 days. The plant growth...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1988
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