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Registros recuperados: 31
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ASSESSMENT OF YIELD LOSSES DUE TO RICE SHEATH BILGHT AT DIFFERENT INOCULATION STAGES Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
W.H. Tsai; 蔡武雄.
[[abstract]]Yield losses in IR 833-6-2-14 (an early maturing variety) clue to sheath blight were studied at six stages of inoculation. A reduction in yield was 7.95, 7.15, 6.05, 10.78, 11.73, and 1.85% at 15, 30, 45, 60 days after seeding, at booting stage, and milk stage, respectively. The yield and yield loss were compatible with disease index at 15, 30, 45, 60 days after seeding and at booting stage. The reduction in yield was highly significant. 本報告為水稻品種IR 833-6-2-1-1(早熟品種)在六個不同接種時期對紋枯病的產量損失估計之研究,水稻在移植後15天,30天,45天,60天,孕穗期及乳熟期接種的減產各為7.95, 7.15, 6.05, 10.78, 11.73及1.85%,其產量、產量損失與發病率的關係,除乳熟期接種者外,其餘在移植後15天,30天,45天,60天及孕穗期接種者均頗一致。水稻由紋枯病而引起的產量損失為極顯著。
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1974
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Studies on the Papaya Damping-off Disease Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
W.H. Tsai; 蔡武雄.
[[abstract]]Among the varieties of papaya plants to damping-off indicated that the variety of “Line 1” Solo is the most susceptible to this disease, the percentage of its infestation reached about 26.6%. Some new varieties of papaya plants introduced were Costa Rica and A4 (H. P.) which have been proven to be the most resistant to this disease. The percentage of its infestation ranged from 2.3 to 4.7% in these varieties. Up to now, the “Solo 1” variety is widely cultivated in southern Taiwan. The damage of this variety frequently causes heavily injury under favorable conditions. The damping-off is rapidly developed in the seedling stage, particularly in raining season, because the weather frequently changes high humidity at fine days and the temperature is...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1970
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台灣玉米新病害-Exserohilum rostratum 引起之葉斑病 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; 蔡志濃.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1993
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台灣省政府農林廳與美國夏威夷州農業廳農業科技合作計畫執行現況 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
林俊義; 蔡武雄.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1997
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台灣省政府農林廳與美國夏威夷州農業廳農業科技合作計畫執行現況-有關果樹及花卉採後處理 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
林俊義; 蔡武雄.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1997
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國際玉米及小麥研究所(CIMMYT)簡介 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1991
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安全清潔的葉菜甘藷,自己在家輕鬆DIY Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
利幸貞; 蔡武雄.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]29.
Ano: 2008
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旱田病圃稻熱病的發生與氣象 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; Wu-hsiung Tsai.
[[abstract]]在旱田病圃臺南五號稻熱病的發生不受每月平均溫度變化的影響,從四月到十月均可發病,但嘉農秈八號的發病受每月平均溫度變化的影響,在高溫時期的六月到十月中旬病斑數越多,此期間病斑數也較臺南五號多。利用Kramar-Collins胞子採集器採集胞子時,一般從下午八時到翌日早晨八時胞子數最多,但空氣中胞子數亦受下雨的影響而減少,細雨不影響胞子採集教。下雨日數多,病斑數亦多。嘉農秈八號R, M及S型的病斑數比例受溫度的影響,在高溫時R型的比例較少,但溫度較低時R型的比例增多。 In an upland rice blast nursery, blast on Tainan 5 was not affected by the monthly temperature fluctuation. This disease occurred on Tainan 5 from April to October. But blast on Chia-nung-shen 8 was influenced obviously by the monthly temperature changes. This disease occurred on Chia-nung-shen 8 with much more lesions at the highly temperature month, from June to the middle of October. During this period, the lesions on Chia-nung-shen 8 were abundant than that of Tainan 5. Conidia were trapped with a...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1977
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木爪炭疽病生態生理之研究及防治 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; W.H. Tsai.
[[abstract]]1.木瓜炭疽病為木瓜果實最重要之病害,影響品質,外觀甚巨。 2.本病為潛伏感染,當果實未成熟時,病原菌已經潛伏,但並不顯出病徵,直至果實成熟時,才顯出水浸狀,圓形向下凹之病斑,病斑表面產生粉紅色同心輪紋之孢子。 3.從木瓜植株各部份均可分離出病原菌,但以成熟果,未成熟,幼果果梗最多,莖葉、葉柄亦可分離得到。 4.本病最適發生溫度在25o~30℃,濕度越高越易發生,全年均可發生。 5.收穫後的果實以溫水45 o~49℃經10分鐘處理可抑制病斑之擴大,即可將潛伏果肉內之菌絲致死,在田間以 Orthocide . Piomycin. Dithane M45可以防治之。 1. Papaya anthroanose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the most important fruit-rotting diseases,which affected the appearance and quality of papaya fruits greatly. 2. The disease was called “latent infection”, because infection took place in immature fruit, and remained dormant in the fruit. When the fruit ripened, it formed small, water-soaked spots which gradually enlarge into circular sunken lesions. In these lesions produced concentric...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1969
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枇杷白紋羽病之傳播及防治 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
段中漢; 蔡武雄; 杜金池; C. H. Duan; W. H. Tsai; C. C. Tu.
[[abstract]]白紋羽病菌(Rosellinia necatrix)在本省已發現能感染枇杷、葡萄、梨、桃、蘋果及茶樹等作物。將這些不同寄主來源的白紋羽病菌製成麥粒菌種接種枇杷,於二至四個月內皆能使其萎凋、死亡。枇杷白紋羽病菌在田間之存活與傳播主要是依靠罹病的枇杷根,病原菌藉埋置土中的罹病根至少可存活三年以上。而田間雜草「香附子」在受到病原菌拓殖後亦可能有利於病原菌之傳播與存活。本病之防治首要挖除罹病植株的根部。經室內藥劑篩選及盆砵試驗得知,罹病跡地灌以貝芬替(Bavistin 50%WP)、免賴得(Benlate 50% WP)或邁隆(Basamid 85% WP)等藥劑之500倍液,再於土表覆以透明之塑膠布可得良好的殺菌效果。 White root rot disease caused by Rosellinia necatrix can make many plants wilt and die, particularly on fruit trees. Based on our survey, the fungus had been found to infect loquat, grape, pear, peach, apple and tea plants in Taiwan. The pathogens collected from these six host plants can all infect loquat seedlings and make them appear the same wilting symptom within two to four months. The pathogen harbouring in the natural infected roots...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1990
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楊桃炭疽病菌之病原性及感染源 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
段中漢; 蔡武雄; 杜金池; C.H. Duan;W.H. Tasi;C.C. Tu.
[[abstract]]楊桃炭疽病(病原菌:Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)為臺灣地區楊桃栽培上最常見的病害。本病之病徵、病原菌形態、病原性及影響病害發生之因子,如溫度、感染源之來源等為本研究探討的重點。C. gloeosporioides係以分生孢子為感染源,分生孢子之發芽及附著器形成的最適溫度分別為16~36C及16~24C。病原菌以果實為主要為害對象,除造成果腐外,並於罹病部位大量產孢,成為次生感染源的主要來源。本菌可感染各齡期的果實;此外,亦可感染葉片,但無病徵顯現,呈潛伏狀態。田間楊桃葉片及其所著生之中軸常有病原菌存活其上,其帶菌率可達8~36%。至於存活在楊桃枯枝、落葉上的病原菌,亦有可能成為本病之感染源。如將這些帶菌的枝、葉置於田間,則其上的病原菌可存活約20日;但若置於有遮蔽之乾燥處,則其上的病原菌可有四至五個月的存活期。接種來自番石榴、檬果、木瓜、蓮霧、葡萄及香蕉等六種作物之炭疽病菌於楊桃,亦能使其果實罹病,故其亦可能為本病之感染源。
Palavras-chave: 楊桃炭疽病 病原性 感染源 殘存 carambola anthracnose; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides; Inoculum source; Pathogenicity; Survival [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1991
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氣溫及降雨日數對葉稻熱病的影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; Wu-hsiung Tsai.
[[abstract]]67、66 及65 年第一期作葉稻熱病在插秧後50、63 及60天開始發病,在插秧後62、72 及69 天發病開始增加,在插秧後90、81 及90 天發病達到最高峰。溫度及降雨日數為影響稻熱病發生最主要的因子,水稻生育前期的日平均溫度在20℃ 以上適宜發病,發病前七天的日平均溫度在19~25℃ 之問。67 年從發病開始30 天內的降雨日數為16 天,發病率達93.5 % , 66 年降雨日數為2 天,肢病率為40.1 % ,65 年降雨日數為3 天,發病率為58.2 %。 The rice leaf blast occurred at 50, 63 and 60 days after transplanting (DAT) in the first crop of 1978, 1977 and 1976 under the field condition. The level of disease started to rise at 62, 72 and 69 DAT, reaching a peak at 90, 81 and 90 DAT, respectively. The major factors which affected the disease were air temperature and number of rainy days. An average air temperature above 20°C at early rice growing stage was found favorable for the disease occurrence, and the daily average of air temperature during the...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1980
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水田雜草與水稻病害關係之研究-I.水稻紋枯病在水田雜草寄主之考察 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; W.H. Tsai.
[[abstract]]水稻紋枯病在雜草上之寄主,據本試驗結果,已有20種之多,其中以禾本科及莎草科最重要,其他有非禾本科之雜草,亦為本病之媒介寄主。 以雜草上所形成之紋枯病核或病組織接種在水稻植株,均可使水稻致病,以水稻稻藁上形成之菌核接種在雜草上亦可使雜草致病,故紋枯病可由水稻傳到雜草,再由雜草傳到水稻。 In this experiment it wan found that the host range of rice sheath blight fungus on weeds including 11 families 20 species. Among them, Gramineae and Cyperaceae were the most important ones. The sclerotia or diseased tissues obtained from weeds produced typical symptoms of rice sheath blight on rice plants, whereas those sclerotia from rice straw developed typical sheath blight symptoms on Gramineae or diseased lesions on other weeds when inoculation was made. These results clearly demonstrated that the pathogen of rice sheath blight can disseminate from rice plants to weeds and vice versa.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1970
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水稻葉稻熱病預測 II.氣象變數、分生胞子數與病斑數進展之關係 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; 蘇鴻基; W.H. Tsai; H.J. Su.
[[abstract]]利用逐步迴歸分析氣象變數、分生胞子數與水稻臺南5 號及臺農67 號葉稻熱病之關係,建立十個預測方程式,以預測葉稻熱病S 型病斑數之進展。這些預測方程式係將不同年度之氣象變數、分生胞子數及發病資料綜合分析而得到的,若將不同年度之資料個別分析時則未能得到較佳之預測方程式。綜合分析第一組氣象變數所得之預測方程式所包含之變數有最低氣溫、平均氣溫、最低相對濕度、相對濕度大於90 %以上之小時數,雨量及分生胞子數等六個變數。由第二組氣象變數所得之預測方程式所包含之變數有氣溫15.1-18.0℃, 18.1-21.0℃ , 21.1-24.0℃ , 24.1-27.0℃ 之小時數,相對濕度75.1-85.0%,85.1-90.0%之小時數,雨量及分生胞子數等八個變數。在十個預測方程式有五個方程式包含3 個變數,四個方程式包含4 個變數,僅一個方程式包含5 個變數。預測方程式之決定係數均達極顯著,同時不同之預則方程式預測不同年度之預測值時,均與實測值甚為接近,故預測方程式具有可靠性。 The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships among meteorological variables, conidial numbers, and leaf blast incidence of rice cultivars, Tainan 5 and Tainung 67. The data were analyzed by stepwise regression. The results showed that ten predicting equations for predicting the development of the...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1985
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溫濕度對百合白絹病發生之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
謝廷芳; 杜金池; 蔡武雄; T.F. Hsieh;C.C. Tu;W.H. Tsai.
[[abstract]]百合白絹病係由Sclertium rolfsii Sacc.所引起,以人工接種風乾菌核於種球周圍1公分內之土壤,得知5粒菌核(接種源密度為2.6個菌核/100立方公分土壤)即可致使百合出現黃化病徵,且被害度會隨著菌核接種數目的增加而增加。一般而言,自接種之日起二個星期內病害即可發生。八種受測試之百合品種中以Polyanna和Cote d´Azur較罹病,被害度分別為0.56和0.50。百合全生長時期皆可遭受白絹病之為害,被害度以露蕾期最高。本菌菌核於土壤平板上適合發芽溫度為20~28°C,如先經乾燥低溫(20°C)處理三天再加水並移置於28°C下可提高發芽率。百合先經20°C處理一星期再移置於28°C下,最易遭受白絹病之為害,與28°C之處理呈顯著差異(ρ=0.05)。最適合本菌菌核發芽和菌絲生長之水分潛勢為─1~─10 bars,低於─20 bars時會降低其發芽率和生長速率。遞減土壤含水量會促進病害之發生,在土壤含水量先30%(W/W)後15%變化處理時被害程度為0.75,與15%含水量處理者呈顯著差異(ρ=0.05)。當由20°C提高至28°C時,無論土壤含水量為15或30%,在接種四星期後,百合被害度均達0.81,唯一不同只是在15%土壤含水量下病勢進展較快速。
Palavras-chave: 百合 白絹病 接種源密度 溫度 土壤濕度 被害度 lily; Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc; Inoculum density; Temperature; Soil moisture; Disease severity [[classification]]13.
Ano: 1990
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玉米普通型及南方型銹病抗病族群之評估 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
盧煌勝; 蔡武雄; 謝光照; 何千里; H.S. Lu;W.H. Tsai;G.J. Shieh;C.L. Ho.
[[abstract]]自玉米普通型及南方型銹病抗病族群C0世代,逢機取得580個自交系統,經普通型及南方型銹病抗病性檢定結果,普通型銹病抗病性平均為54.9%,變異係數為31.4%;南方型銹病抗病性平均為50.0%,變異係數為39.0%。在廣義遺傳率方面,普通型銹病抗病性為80.4%;南方型銹病抗病性為52.2%。普通型銹病抗病性與南方型銹病抗病性間為顯著正相關(r=0.3407)。試驗結果顯示:本族群可藉S1自交後裔輪迴選種法,針對普通型及南方型銹病之抗病性與S1系統之產量,同時進行選拔,以逐步集中抗病及高產基因。
Palavras-chave: 玉米 普通型锈病 南方型锈病 抗性 廣義遺傳率 S1自交後裔輪迴選種 族群改良 Maize; Common rust (Puccinia sorghi Schw.); Southern rust (P. polysora Underw.); Resistance Broad sense heritability; S1 progeny recurrent selection; Population improvement [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1990
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玉米莖腐病抗病品種之篩選方法 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; 段中漢; 杜金池; W.H. Tsai;C.H. Duan;C.C. Tu.
[[abstract]]本研究發展之玉米莖腐病(病原菌:Pythium aphanidermatum)抗病品種(系)之篩選方法,是將供試玉米種子播於六吋素燒陶盆中,每盆3株。於溫室中(24~36°C)長至40~45天,株高約1公尺時,進行接種試驗。接種時,以每克土約含30個卵抱子之壤土加水達於飽和含水量後,塗抹在供試玉米植株的莖基部(0~10cm),並以鋁箔包裹之,以防接種病土乾燥。將接種後之玉米置於氣溫25~35°C,相對濕度90%以上的溫室中3天,以促其發病。再經3天,即可記錄其罹病率。判定時,以該品種(系)玉米全部罹病倒伏者為感病;部份罹病倒伏者為中抗;全部未罹病者為抗病。
Palavras-chave: 玉米莖腐病 抗病篩選 Pythium aphanidermatum; Corn; Pythium stalk rot; Resistant cultivar [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1991
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玉米銹病發生與氣象因子之關係 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; W.H. Tsai.
[[abstract]]玉米銹病病勢進展多呈開口向下之二次方曲線,但發病較嚴重時則呈一次方直線。分析銹病和氣象因子之單相關時顯示春作玉米南方型銹病發病前7天之溫度24.1~28.0°C及28.1~32.0°C相關最大,秋作玉米則和8-14天前之溫度20.1~24.0°C,24.1~28.0°C及28.1~32.0。C之相關最大。分析病斑面積率增加和氣象因子之關係得到8個方程式,侵染速率和氣象因子之關係得到11個方程式。這些方程式均得自民國79年嘉義地區秋作玉米,經以不同年代、不同地點之氣象代入方程式得到預測值,預測值與實測值比較甚為接近,可供為預測病斑面積率及侵染速率之用。
Palavras-chave: 玉米锈病 病勢進展 病斑面積率 侵染速率 corn rust; Disease development; Infected leaf area percentage; Infection rate [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1991
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瓜類露菌病室內接種試驗 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; W.H. Tsai.
[[abstract]]於試驗室內利用瓜類之摘葉培養瓜類露菌病菌(Pscudopenospora cubensis),由於摘葉之葉柄可以生出鬚根,吸收水分,延長摘葉之保鮮時間,使病原菌保存在摘葉一個月以上。一般在胡瓜摘葉後7-9天,洋香瓜7-13天即可生出鬚根。瓜類露菌病菌在15℃,2O℃及25℃接種於瓜類葉片4-5天後即可產生病斑,而5-6天後即可產胞。瓜類葉片正背兩面在產生病斑及產胞上無差異。病原菌胞子囊發芽以10℃及 15℃最適,在6小時後發芽率達95.18%及97.52%,高溫時發芽率降低。胞子囊釋放游走子之數目以7個最多,3個及11個者最少,平均為6.7個。室內瓜類露菌病之接種步驟可參考本文圖2方法行之。 Inoculation of downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) on detached leaves of cucurbits were studied. Due to the root formation on the petioles of the detached leaves to absorb water, the detached leaves prolonged the fresh period in the petri dishes. Hence, the pathogen could be maintained on the detached leaves over one month. In general, root formation on the detached leaves was, observed 7-9 days on cucumis sativus L. and 7-13 days on cucumis...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1987
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瓜類露菌病菌胞子囊之存活 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡武雄; 許淑麗; W.H. Tsai; S.L. Hsu.
[[abstract]]瓜類露菌病菌(Pseudoperonospora cubensis)胞子囊在30°C l天後,放同15°C,需經4小時後始可發芽,其發芽率為20.87%,24小時發芽率達63.11%。若在35°C l天後,放同15°C時則需經24小時後始可發芽,其發芽率僅7.01%,48小時後發芽率亦僅22.42%。若將病葉放在30°C l天後,再放同15°C,則其上之胞子囊,需經4小時始可發芽,病葉放在35°C l天後再放回15°C其上之胞子囊亦需經24小時始可發芽。胞子囊之發芽率隨著相對濕度之增加而增加,在相對濕度55、81、95及100%時,其發芽率分別為29.85、66.30、80.02及97.53%。在水瓊脂培養基中瓊脂之含量亦影響胞子囊之發芽率,瓊脂含量2.0時發芽率在15°C 24小時後高達99.30%,瓊脂含量3.0%時發芽率亦達96.91%,但瓊脂之含量高至8.0%時胞子囊不發芽。胞子囊在洋香瓜葉汁不發芽,在V-8汁濃度越高,發芽率越低,當V-8汁濃度達35%時胞子囊不發芽。胞子囊在土壤含水量30%,經24小時尚不發芽,4天後發芽率僅2.66%,其發芽率隨含水量之增加而增加,50%含水量時24小時後之發芽率為20.38%。另胞子囊在30%含水量之土壤中可存活至少14天。胞子囊製成胞子懸浮液後經6及24小時接種,植株均可發病,但存放48小時者不發病。 The sporangia of Pseudoneropospora cubensis were incubated at 30°C for one day, and then transferred to 15°C, additional four hours were necessary to germinate, the...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1989
Registros recuperados: 31
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