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DIVERSITY OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES AMONG EUROPEAN ORGANIC FARMERS “TILMAN-ORG SESSION” Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers for adopting conservation agriculture practices is currently growing. But, there are few technical and scientific references available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices. The main objectives of this study are (1) to explore the diversity of crop management practices using conservation agriculture methods among European farmers, and (2) to identify main farmers’ strategies. We carried out a survey of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a multi factor analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of spring and winter crop managements. Organic farmers in Europe,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23910/1/23910_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Effects of green-manure and organic fertiliser on organic maize (Zea Mays L.) in south Tuscany Organic Eprints
Mazzoncini, Marco; Migliorini, Paola; Antichi, Daniele; Vazzana, Concetta.
Green-manure in Mediterranean stockless organic farms is a useful tool to improve nitrogen availability, reduce production cost and conserve soil fertility. A 2-year on farm research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy) to evaluate the effect of 3 different green manures (Hordeum v. + Avena s. mixture, Trifolium s. + Avena s. mixture, Vicia faba var. minor) and 2 levels of organic N fertilization (0 and 120 Kg N ha-1) on maize in 2004 and 2005. Green manures were ploughed into the soil in April 2004 and organic fertiliser was applied before sowing; neither green manure nor fertilizers were applied in 2005 to evaluate the residual effect of the treatments. The effect of the distribution of organic fertilizer was not efficient in comparison to green-manure....
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/12010/1/Mazzonchini_12010_ed.doc
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Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Assemblages and Slug Abundance in Agricultural Fields Under Organic and Low-Input Conventional Management Within a Long-Term Agronomic Trial in Central Italy Organic Eprints
Rossi, Elisabetta; Antichi, Daniele; Loni, Augusto; Canovai, Roberto; Sbrana, Massimo; Mazzoncini, Marco.
Inside a long-term agronomic trial aimed at evaluating the effects of organic and low-input conventional management systems on soil fertility and arable crop production, we selected six fields bordered by hedgerows, three under each management system. Here, we analyzed the carabid assemblages and the slug abundance. Samplings took place in five different periods, across 1 yr of observations. The carabid abundances were similar in organic and conventional fields. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H’) showed a higher value in the conventional fields, although in the organic fields, a higher number of species were observed. The multivariate analysis described similar carabid communities, but excluding the period factor, it showed a significant influence of...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil biology; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36582/1/Rossi%20et%20al.%2C%202019.pdf
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Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Assemblages and Slug Abundance in Agricultural Fields Under Organic and Low-Input Conventional Management Within a Long-Term Agronomic Trial in Central Italy Organic Eprints
Rossi, Elisabetta; Antichi, Daniele; Loni, Augusto; Canovai, Roberto; Sbrana, Massimo; Mazzoncini, Marco.
Inside a long-term agronomic trial aimed at evaluating the effects of organic and low-input conventional management systems on soil fertility and arable crop production, we selected six fields bordered by hedgerows, three under each management system. Here, we analyzed the carabid assemblages and the slug abundance. Samplings took place in five different periods, across 1 yr of observations. The carabid abundances were similar in organic and conventional fields. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H’) showed a higher value in the conventional fields, although in the organic fields, a higher number of species were observed. The multivariate analysis described similar carabid communities, but excluding the period factor, it showed a significant influence of...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil biology; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36581/1/Rossi%20et%20al.%2C%202019.pdf
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Hairy vetch cover crop affects weed diversity and composition in no-till sunflower Organic Eprints
Carlesi, Stefano; Antichi, Daniele; Sbrana, Massimo; Barberi, Paolo.
Vicia villosa Roth, or hairy vetch, is one of the most productive cover crops (CC) in Mediterranean dry areas, with an interesting potential as dead mulch in no-tillage cropping systems. In low-input cropping systems, mechanical termination of hairy vetch could replace a glyphosate application to control weeds. Mechanical termination (e.g. with a roller crimper) of hairy vetch is ineffective until the late growing stages of vetch, leading to delayed sowing and yield reduction in the following crop. To find the best compromise in timing between effective termination of vetch and reasonable yield of no-till sunflower, an on-farm experiment was carried out in Pisa (Italy) in 2012/13 and 2013/14 to compare three termination techniques (roller crimper with no,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/29702/1/Carlesi%20et%20al.%202014.pdf
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How organic farmers practice conservation agriculture in Europe Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; Payet, Vincent; David, Christophe; Sans, F. Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José M.; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beechman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers in adopting conservation agriculture principles, including minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotation has been growing since the early 2000s. However, currently there is no network for organic farmers practicing conservation agriculture, and a lack of knowledge on how organic farmers implement conservation agriculture in practice. Consequently, few technical references are available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices, in particular on controlling weeds without the use of herbicides. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to explore the diversity of conservation agriculture techniques (i.e., reduced tillage, no-tillage and green manures) practiced among...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality; Environmental aspects; Europe.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/31244/1/peigne-etal-2015-Howorganicfarmerspractice-RAaFS-31-1-p72-85.pdf
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Long term effects of cover crops on weeds in Mediterranean low input arable management systems Organic Eprints
Carlesi, Stefano; Antichi, Daniele; Bigongiali, Federica; Mazzoncini, Marco; Barberi, Paolo.
The introduction of cover crops (CC) in crop rotations is a key tool to control weed and ameliorate soil conditions in low input arable systems. In 1992 a long term experiment (LTE) was set up at Centre for Agri-environmental Research “E. Avanzi (CIRAA), University of Pisa to determine the combined effect of tillage intensity, nitrogen fertilization levels and CC types on soil quality, crop yield and weed communities. The LTE is based on 4-year crop rotation (maize, durum wheat, sunflower, durum wheat) with cover crops grown twice, in between wheat and summer crops. Two tillage systems were compared: i) a conventional system (CS), with annual ploughing (30 cm depth); ii) a low input system (LIS), with chiseling (30 cm depth) for summer crops and no...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29700/1/carlesi%20et%20a.2015.pdf
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ORGANIC FARMERS IN EUROPE: MOTIVATIONS AND PROBLEMS FOR USING CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES. "TILMAN-ORG Session" Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Peigne, Joséphine; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Peetsmann, Elen; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
As conservation agriculture and organic farming are currently considered as environmentally friendly options for producing food, this study explores the motivations and problems of organic European farmers that apply at least two of the following techniques: (i) no-tillage, (ii) reduced tillage and/or (iii) green manures conservation practices. We carried out a survey about motivations and problems of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a principal component analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of motivations and problems. The most important motivations are related to soil preservation concerns and problems are mainly linked...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Social aspects; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23939/1/23939_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Organic farmers’ motivations and challenges for adopting conservation agriculture in Europe Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Peigne, Joséphine; Payet, Vincent; Mäder, Paul; Sans, F. Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Antichi, Daniele; Barberi, Paolo; Beeckmann, Annelies; Bigongiali, Federica; Cooper, Julia; Dierauer, Hansueli; Gascoyne, Kate; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Kranzler, Andreas; Luik, Anne; Peetsmann, Elen; Surböck, Andreas; Willekens, Koen; David, Christophe.
Conservation agriculture and organic farming are considered as promising sustainable agricultural system for producing food, while minimizing environmental impacts. Despite an increasing number of experimental data on organic conservation practices and various studies dealing with the adoption of conservation agriculture by farmers, none of those studies have specifically addressed conservation agriculture adoption under organic conditions in Europe. We carried out a survey with 159 farmers located in 10 European countries. These farmers had applied at least two of the following conservation practices: (i) no-tillage, (ii) reduced tillage and (iii) green manures. Each farmer assessed socio-economic, agronomic and environmental motivations and problems for...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil tillage; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29478/1/casagrande-etal-2015-OrganicAgriculture-p1-15-OrgFarmersMotivations.pdf
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Organic Vs Conventional Winter Wheat Quality and Organoleptic Bread Test Organic Eprints
Mazzoncini, Marco; Belloni, Paola; Risaliti, Rosalba; Antichi, Daniele.
In the frame of a long-term experiment carried out in Central Italy, conventional and organic winter wheat cropping systems were compared in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effect of system management on wheat grain yield and quality. The organic system showed grain and straw yield about 50% lower than the conventional system. Organic grain samples resulted 20% lower in protein content and exhibited poor bread production qualities. Despite that, organic bread, did not show differences in crust thickness, crumb volume and in crumb alveolus structure in a visual evaluation. Differences were, however, appreciated by panellists who found organic bread harder and more flavourful than conventional.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/9753/1/Mazzoncini%2Detal%2D2007%2DWheatBreadQuality.pdf
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REDUCED TILLAGE AND COVER CROPS IN ORGANIC ARABLE SYSTEMS PRESERVES WEED DIVERSITY WITHOUT JEOPARDISING CROP YIELD Organic Eprints
Barberi, Paolo; Aendekerk, Raymond; Antichi, Daniele; Armengot, Laura; Berner, Alfred; Bigongiali, Federica; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Carlesi, Stefano; Celette, Florian; Chamorro, Lourdes; Crowley, Oliver; Döring, Thomas; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Hess, Jürgen; Huiting, Hilfred; José-Maria, Laura; Klaedtke , Stéphanie; Kranzler, Andreas; Luik, Anne; Peigne, Joséphine; Sukkel, Wijnand; Surböck, Andreas; Talgre, Liina; Sans, Francesc Xavier.
One of the objectives of the TILMAN-ORG Project is to improve weed management under conservation agriculture (reduced tillage and/or cover crops) in organic arable systems. The shift from ploughing to conservation agriculture should not only maintain crop yield but possibly improve weed community diversity. This paper summarises the results on (1) weed abundance, (2) weed diversity and (3) crop yield obtained in the first year of the project (2012) in 13 trials scattered across Europe.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24158/1/24158_MM.pdf
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SIMBIO-VEG: an interdisciplinary project for improvement of organic systems and meth-ods in arable and vegetable cropping Organic Eprints
Bàrberi, Prof Dr Paolo; Mazzoncini, Prof Marco; Bigongiali, Federica; Antichi, Daniele.
SIMBIO-VEG is the first large interdisciplinary research project on organic farming ever being funded in Italy. The project partnership is composed of eight Working Units including Universities as well as public and private research centres and associa-tions, with a high degree of interaction among them. SIMBIO-VEG aims to acquire knowledge on the func-tioning of organic arable and vegetable cropping systems, as to (1) optimise systems management and the cultural practices (methods) therein, and improve the understanding of how organic systems and meth-ods influence produce quality and environmental impact. SIMBIO-VEG activities are structured in four strongly integrated research lines. Line 1 aims to understand the functioning of organically-managed...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Systems research and participatory research Soil quality.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/7862/1/B%C3%A0rberi_et_al.pdf
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Soil quality changes in field trials comparing organic reduced tillage to plough systems across Europe (TILMAN-ORG Session) Organic Eprints
Fliessbach, Andreas; Hammerl, Verena; Antichi, Daniele; Barberi, Paolo; Berner, Alfred; Bufe, Cornelia; Delfosse, Philippe; Gattinger, Andreas; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Heß, Jürgen; Hissler, Christophe; Koal, Phillip; Kranzler, Andreas; Krauss, Maike; Mäder, Paul; Peigné, Joséphine; Pritsch, Karin; Reintam, Endla; Surböck, Andreas; Vian, Jean François; Schloter, Michael.
Field trials on reduced soil tillage under organic farming conditions across Europe were used to compare the soil quality changes over time. Soil organic carbon fractions, soil carbon stocks and microbial community structure were analysed. Most severe differences between plough and reduced tillage were found in the top ten cm of the soil profile. Differences became less or not significant in deeper layers. Analyses are still ongoing and will only be ready to be presented at the conference.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil biology; Soil tillage; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24293/1/24293%20TILMAN%20Fliessbach_revised_MM.pdf
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