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Beikrautsamenvorrat im Vergleich reduzierter und konventioneller Bodenbearbeitung unter Biobedingungen Organic Eprints
Geißler, M.; Armengot, Laura; Mäder, Paul; Krauss, Maike.
Armengot L, Berner A, Blanco-Moreno J, Mäder P & Sans FX (2014) Long-term feasibility of reduced tillage in organic farming. Agron Sustain Dev 35(1): 339-346. Cooper J et al. (2016) Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks: a meta-analysis. Agron Sustain Dev 36: 1-20. Gruber S & Claupein W (2009) Effect of tillage intensity on weed infestation in organic farming. Soil and Tillage Research 105(1): 104-111. Montgomery DR (2007) Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations. University of California Press, California. Moonen AC & Barberi P (2004) Size and composition of the weed seedbank after 7 years of different cover-crop-maize management systems. Weed Research 44(3): 163-177.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil tillage Crop health; Quality; Protection Weed management.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31576/1/Beikrautsamenvorrat%20im%20Vergleich%20reduzierter%20und.pdf
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Below- and aboveground production in cocoa monocultures and agroforestry systems Organic Eprints
Niether, Wiebke; Schneidewind, Ulf; Fuchs, Michael; Schneider, Monika; Armengot, Laura.
Farmers expect yield reduction of cash crops like cocoa when growing in agroforestry systems compared to monocultures, due to competition for resources, e.g. nutrients and water. However, complementarities between species in the use of resources may improve resource use efficiency and result in higher system performance. Cocoa trees have a shallow rooting system while the rooting characteristics of the associated trees are mainly unknown. This work investigates fine root distribution and production in five cocoa production systems: two monocultures and two agroforestry systems under conventional and organic farming, and a successional agroforestry system. In the organic systems a perennial leguminous cover crop was planted and compost was added, while...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/34492/1/niether-etal2019_ScienceTotalEnvironment-Vol657-p558-567.pdf
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Biodiversity as a prerequisite of sustainable organic farming Organic Eprints
Pfiffner, Lukas; Armengot, Laura.
Over the last century, the intensification of agriculture with high inputs of synthetic pesticides and fertilisers combined with monocrop specialisation has been detrimental to the diversity of genetic resources of crop varieties and livestock breeds, to the wild flora and fauna species and to the diversity of ecosystems. Higher levels of biodiversity can strengthen farming systems and its resilience under changing environmental conditions. This chapter gives an overview of the impact of organic farming on biodiversity. The chapter considers land-use intensity, the impact of organic farming on biodiversity, biodiversity at different spatial scales and the impact of organic farming on selected functional groups. Finally, the chapter discusses some examples...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34334/1/Book-%20Improving%20organic%20crop%20cultivation.pdf
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Cacao agroforestry systems have higher return on labor compared to full-sun monocultures Organic Eprints
Armengot, Laura; Barbieri, Pietro; Andres, Christian; Milz, Joachim; Schneider, Monika.
The global demand for cacao has recently increased. To meet this demand, the cultivated area has been expanded in tropical forest areas and production has intensified by replacing traditional agroforestry systems with monocultures. This has led to a loss of biodiversity in cacao-growing areas. More sustainable production systems such as agroforestry and organic managed systems are expected to yield less cacao, but by-crops and premium prices, respectively, might economically compensate for the lower yields. Here, we compared the productivity and the return on labor, that is the return per working day, of four different cacao production systems: agroforestry and monocultures under organic and conventional management. Cacao and by-crop yields, costs,...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Bolivia.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/30968/1/Armengot_at_al_2016_ASD_art_10.1007_s13593-016-0406-6.pdf
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Carbon stocks, litterfall and pruning residues in monoculture and agroforestry cacao production systems Organic Eprints
Schneidewind, Ulf; Niether, Wiebke; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Sauer, Daniela; Heitkamp, Felix; Gerold, Gerhard.
Agroforestry systems (AFS) can serve to decrease ecosystem carbon (C) losses caused by deforestation and inadequate soil management. Because of their shade tolerance, cacao plants are suitable to be grown in AFS, since they can be combined with other kinds of trees and shrubs. The potential for C sequestration in cacao farming systems depends on various factors, such as management practices, stand structure and plantation age. We compared conventionally and organically managed cacao monoculture systems (MCS) and AFS in Sara Ana (Bolivia) with respect to C stocks in plant biomass and to amounts of litterfall and pruning residues. The total aboveground C stocks of the AFS (26 Mg C ha−1) considerably exceeded those of the MCS (~7 Mg C ha−1), although the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Soil.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34494/1/schneidewind-etal-2018-ExperimentalAgri-online-p1-19.pdf
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Comparison of Methods to Assess Dry Bean Yield of Different Cocoa Cultivars Organic Eprints
Wurtz, Marion; Armengot, Laura; Andres, Christian; Milz, Joachim; Alcon, Freddy; Schneider, Monika.
To estimate the cocoa dry bean weight from the fresh weight a standard dry bean factor (DBF) ranging from 32% to 40% is usually applied. This factor, i.e. the relation between the dry bean weight (fermented and dried) and the fresh weight at pod opening, is used by cooperatives and factories that buy the fresh beans of the farmers. However, this factor is subjected to seasonal fluctuations and can be highly influenced by rainfall. Therefore, for instance, higher values are expected during the dry season compared with the rainy season. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the use of a standard fix DBF value compared with the use of actual DBF values periodically collected over the season for assessing the performance of 12 cocoa...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Systems research and participatory research; Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29760/1/Schneider-etal-2015-LIFKkoTS-tropentag.pdf
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Complex agroforestry systems against biotic homogenization: The case of plants in the herbaceous stratum of cocoa production systems Organic Eprints
Marconi, Luis; Armengot, Laura.
In addition to their potential against deforestation and climate change, agroforestry systems may have a relevant role in biodiversity conservation. In this sense, not only species richness per se, but also community composition, including the distribution range of the species, should be considered. The latter is especially relevant in the current context of biotic homogenization, where the presence of geographically widely distributed species is increasingly frequent in detriment of native species. By studying plant species of the herbaceous stratum of cacao production systems, we can evaluate, at a narrow local scale (>10 ha), the potential role of agroforestry systems and management intensity in diversity conservation and against biotic...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://orgprints.org/36701/1/Marconi_Armengot-2019-AgricultureEcosysEnvi-Vol287-106664-p1-9.pdf
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Crop yield, weed infestation and soil fertility responses to contrasted ploughing intensity and manure additions in a Mediterranean organic crop rotation Organic Eprints
Baldivieso-Freitas, P.; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Armengot, Laura; Chamorro, Lourdes; Romanyà, Joan; Sans, F. Xavier.
Conservation agriculture and organic farming are two alternative strategies that aim to improve soil quality and fertility in arable cropping systems through the deployment of different practices, that are rarely combined. While conservation agriculture practices include reducing tillage intensity and maintaining soil cover all year round to prevent soil erosion, organic farming focuses on nutrient recycling, using farmyard manure and green manure to enhance soil quality. However, these practices are not free from side-effects, such as increasing weed infestation or limited nutrient availability. Therefore it is necessary to explore the sustainability of their combination under local environmental constraints. The objectives of this study were to evaluate...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality Crop combinations and interactions Soil biology Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Composting and manuring Soil tillage Weed management.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32378/1/STILL-17-515R3.pdf
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Crop-diversification and organic management increase the energy efficiency of cacao plantations Organic Eprints
Pérez-Neira, David; Schneider, Monika; Armengot, Laura.
The increasing global demand for chocolate and related products has intensified their production systems by both replacing traditional agroforestry systems with monocultures and increasing the use of synthetic external inputs and machinery. High dependence on non-renewable energy is a clear symptom of unsustainability in food production systems. Consequently, more sustainable agricultural practices should be promoted. With a special focus on non-renewable energy, this work compares: i) the cumulate energy demand (CED), ii) energy return on investment (EROI), and iii) energy return on labour of four different cacao production systems: two agroforestry systems and two monocultures under organic and conventional management. Cacao and subproduct yields and the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://orgprints.org/36703/1/neira-etal-2020-AgriculturalSystems-Vol177-102711-p1-7.pdf
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Efecto del laboreo mínimo (chisel), la fertilización y los abonos verdes sobre la flora arvense y los rendimientos en una rotación de cultivos de cereales y leguminosas ecológicos Organic Eprints
Chamorro, Lourdes; Baldivieso-Freitas, P.; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Armengot, Laura; Sans, F. Xavier.
Effects of reduced tillage, fertilization and green manures on the weeds and crop yields in a cereal-legume crop rotation under organic farming. On 2011, we established a long-term experiment to evaluate the effects of reduced tillage (chisel vs mouldboard plough), fertilization with semicomposted manure and sowing of green manures before spring crops, on the crop yields and weed abundance in a 5-year rotation (spelt, chickpea, wheat, lentil and spelt). After five years, there was not noticeable increment in weed abundance or richness. Reduced tillage caused a significant increase of weeds compared with mouldboard plough, but it this increase did not cause significant yield loss in cereal crops compared with mouldboard plough. Green manures exerted a...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Soil tillage Buildings and machinery Crop health; Quality; Protection Weed management Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/32379/1/Chamorro%20et%20al%20XVI_congreso_SEMH_2017_ACTAS.pdf
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EFFECT OF CONSERVATION PRACTICES ON FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY AND ASSEMBLY OF WEED COMMUNITIES: A DATABASE OF FUNCTIONAL TRAITS Organic Eprints
Sans, F. Xavier; Armengot, Laura; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Bocci, Gionata; Carlesi, Stefano; Barberi, Paolo.
The incorporation of conservation agriculture techniques (e.g. reduced tillage and green manures) in organic farming systems brings many benefits to the environment and reduces energy use (Holland, 2004). One of the main drawbacks of the use of reduced tillage is the potential increase in weed infestation and shifts in the weed community composition, sometimes to the benefit of more difficult-to-control species (Bàrberi, 2002; Peigné et al., 2007; Sans et al., 2011). However, weeds have an important role in maintaining farmland functional biodiversity (Bàrberi et al, 2010; Caballero et al., 2010), and this should be balanced with their potential negative impact on crop yield and quality. Within the frame of the European project “Reduced tillage and green...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23834/1/23834_MM.pdf
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Effects of landscape agricultural intensification and management on weed species richness in the edges of dryland cereal fields. Organic Eprints
Romero, Albert; Chamorro, Lourdes; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Armengot, Laura; Jose María, Laura; Sans, Francesc Xavier.
An extensive survey of weed vegetation was conducted in the crop edges of 180 organic and conventional dryland cereal fields in nine localities of NE Iberian Peninsula to assess the effect of landscape agricultural intensification and management on weed diversity. This preliminary results show that averaged weed species richness per edge (alpha-diversity) and floristic homogeneity among edges are higher in organic than conventional fields. Only in conventionally managed fields, elevated landscape intensification is associated to higher weed alpha-diversities and floristic homogeneity among crop edges. The expression of high-quality weed flora is higher in organic than in conventional crop edges but, conversely, it is only sensitive to landscape...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/12302/1/Romero_12302_ed.doc
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Effects of rehabilitation pruning and agroforestry on cacao tree development and yield in an older full-sun plantation Organic Eprints
Riedel, Judith; Kägi, Nora; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika.
Overaged full-sun cacao plantations and the need for sustainable production systems call for combining rehabilitation of plantations with the establishment of agroforestry. We tested the effect of drastic rehabilitation pruning of old cacao tree stock and the introduction of both high- and low-diversity agroforestry on survival, growth and yield of T. cacao in a commercial plantation in peninsular Malaysia over a period of 5 years. We further determined the incidence of pests and diseases of cacao pods and assessed the performance of the whole system for smallholder farmers, including yields of by-crops. Rehabilitation pruning negatively affected cacao tree development and short-term yield. No more effects of pruning on cacao yield were observed starting...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/34484/1/Riedel_etal_2019_cacaoPruningAgroforestry_supp.pdf
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Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans Organic Eprints
Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke.
Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/34495/1/niether-etal-2018-JAgricFoodChem-Vol65-Issue47-pp10165%E2%80%9310173.pdf
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Labour Demand in Five Different Cocoa Production Systems in Bolivia Organic Eprints
Armengot, Laura; Barbieri, Pietro; Andres, Christian; Milz, Joachim; Alcon, Freddy; Trujillo, German; Schneider, Monika.
Cocoa cropping systems vary from full-sun monocrops to highly diversified agroforestry systems, which combine the cocoa production with by-crop such as bananas or plantains and trees with different functions. Additionally, these systems can be organically or conventionally managed. Although labour demand is one of the main activities contributing to the total production costs of the plantations and it may highly differ between production systems, there are still scarce data and information available. In this study we present the labour demands of five different production systems in a newly established cocoa plantation in Alto Beni, Bolivia. The trial was established in 2008 within the framework of the SysCom programme (www.systems-comparison.fibl.org)...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Systems research and participatory research; Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29761/1/Armengot-etal-2015-Tropentag2015-abstract-313.pdf
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Long-term feasibility of reduced tillage in organic farming Organic Eprints
Armengot, Laura; Berner, Alfred; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Mäder, Paul; Sans, F.Xavier.
Agricultural practices, and mainly soil tillage, highly contribute to the emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and N2O. Reducing the tillage improves the quality of the soil and may help mitigating the greenhouse emissions. In Europe, approximately 25 % of the arable land is managed under reduced tillage practices, including both notill and reduced tillage. However, they have been developed mainly in herbicidemanaged systems. The potential increase in weed infestation caused by the lack of soil inversion may threaten crop yields, and is one of the major drawbacks for the adoption of reduced tillage among organic farmers. We report the results from a field experiment comparing the reduced tillage with respect to the conventional tillage in the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil tillage.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/26861/1/E_Armengotetal_ASD_red_tillage_2014.pdf
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Long-Term Management Affects the Community Composition of Arable Soil Seedbanks Organic Eprints
Rotchés-Ribalta, Roser; Armengot, Laura; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Sans, Francesc Xavier.
The intensification of farming practices has reduced weed infestations, but it has also led to a reduction in weed diversity and changes in species composition. These effects are well described for aboveground flora; however, it is less clear how these effects might be expressed in the soil weed seedbank. We evaluated the effects of different long-term farm management strategies on the weed seedbank abundance, diversity, and community composition in the DOK (bioDynamic, bioOrganic, and Konventionell) field trial established in 1978 at Therwil, Switzerland. The trial compares biodynamic, organic, and conventional farming systems, which mainly differ in fertilization, weed control strategies, and pest control. The species richness and seed abundance of the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Weed management.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31248/1/rotches-ribalta-etal-2017-WeedScience-Vol65-p73-82.pdf
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ORGANIC FARMING ENHANCES THE RECOVERY OF ANCIENT CROPS AND SEGETAL WEEDS IN CATALONIA (NE OF SPAIN) Organic Eprints
Chamorro, Lourdes; Armengot, Laura; José-María, Laura; Sans, F. Xavier.
The Area of Natural Interest of Gallecs (ANIG) is one of the largest areas of arable land managed organically in Catalonia. In 2005 a project was launched to convert fields to organic farming and recuperate traditional crop varieties. The aim of this work is to analyse the changes in diversity of the weed flora, including segetal and rare species, and of crops in 20 fields (ca. 50 ha) after the conversion to organic farming during 5 cropping periods (2005-2010). Number of cultivated crops has increased from 1 to 17 including ancient and local varieties of cereal and legumes. Weed biodiversity increased by a 50% in five years at field and regional scale. Crop rotations and sowing organic seeds from other farmers can contribute to the increase and the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farming Systems; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Spain.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23844/1/23844_MM.pdf
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REDUCED TILLAGE AND COVER CROPS IN ORGANIC ARABLE SYSTEMS PRESERVES WEED DIVERSITY WITHOUT JEOPARDISING CROP YIELD Organic Eprints
Barberi, Paolo; Aendekerk, Raymond; Antichi, Daniele; Armengot, Laura; Berner, Alfred; Bigongiali, Federica; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Carlesi, Stefano; Celette, Florian; Chamorro, Lourdes; Crowley, Oliver; Döring, Thomas; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Hess, Jürgen; Huiting, Hilfred; José-Maria, Laura; Klaedtke , Stéphanie; Kranzler, Andreas; Luik, Anne; Peigne, Joséphine; Sukkel, Wijnand; Surböck, Andreas; Talgre, Liina; Sans, Francesc Xavier.
One of the objectives of the TILMAN-ORG Project is to improve weed management under conservation agriculture (reduced tillage and/or cover crops) in organic arable systems. The shift from ploughing to conservation agriculture should not only maintain crop yield but possibly improve weed community diversity. This paper summarises the results on (1) weed abundance, (2) weed diversity and (3) crop yield obtained in the first year of the project (2012) in 13 trials scattered across Europe.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24158/1/24158_MM.pdf
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Shade trees and tree pruning alter throughfall and microclimate in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) production systems Organic Eprints
Niether, Wiebke; Armengot, Laura; Andres, Christian; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhrad.
Shade trees in agroforestry systems protect the understory cocoa from climate extremes. Shade tree pruning manages microclimatic conditions in favor of cocoa production while tree diversity is maintained. Adaptation of pruning has to consider seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation to protect the understory cocoa. Context Structural characteristics of tree stands such as species diversity, tree density, and stratification can affect throughfall and microclimate. Pruning changes the canopy and may therefore modulate internal conditions. Aims The aim of this study is to assess the environmental growing conditions of cocoa trees. Methods We monitored canopy openness and the impact of stand structure on throughfall and microclimate in three...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/34493/1/niether-etal-2018-AnnalsForrestScience-Vol75-38.pdf
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