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Registros recuperados: 22
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
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Air-sea CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean for the period 1990-2009 ArchiMer
Ishii, M.; Feely, R. A.; Rodgers, K. B.; Park, G. -h.; Wanninkhof, R.; Sasano, D.; Sugimoto, H.; Cosca, C. E.; Nakaoka, S.; Telszewski, M.; Nojiri, Y.; Fletcher, S. E. Mikaloff; Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Valsala, V.; Nakano, H.; Lima, I.; Doney, S. C.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Aumont, Olivier; Dunne, J. P.; Lenton, A.; Takahashi, T..
Air-sea CO2 fluxes over the Pacific Ocean are known to be characterized by coherent large-scale structures that reflect not only ocean subduction and upwelling patterns, but also the combined effects of wind-driven gas exchange and biology. On the largest scales, a large net CO2 influx into the extratropics is associated with a robust seasonal cycle, and a large net CO2 efflux from the tropics is associated with substantial interannual variability. In this work, we have synthesized estimates of the net air-sea CO2 flux from a variety of products, drawing upon a variety of approaches in three sub-basins of the Pacific Ocean, i. e., the North Pacific extratropics (18-66 degrees N), the tropical Pacific (18 degrees S-18 degrees N), and the South Pacific...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00192/30320/28789.pdf
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An Estimate of Thorium 234 Partition Coefficients Through Global Inverse Modeling ArchiMer
Le Gland, Guillaume; Aumont, Olivier; Memery, Laurent.
Thorium-234 (Th-234), an insoluble radioisotope scavenged by marine particles, can be used as a proxy of the biological carbon pump. Thorium-234 observations can constrain biogeochemical models, but a necessary first step is to estimate the poorly known partition coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases. In this study, the Th-234 partition coefficients for five particle types, differing in size and chemical composition, are estimated by fitting a global 3-D Th-234 model based on the coupled ocean general circulation-biogeochemistry model NEMO-PISCES (at a resolution of 2 degrees) to a global Th-234 data set (including GEOTRACES data). Surface partition coefficients are estimated between 0.79 and 16.7x10(6). Biogenic silica has the smallest...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Thorium 234; Inverse modeling; Partition coefficient; Biological carbon pump.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00605/71666/70108.pdf
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Assessing spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton communities' composition in the Iroise Sea ecosystem (Brittany, France): A 3D modeling approach. Part 1: Biophysical control over plankton functional types succession and distribution ArchiMer
Cadier, Mathilde; Gorgues, Thomas; Sourisseau, Marc; Edwards, Christopher A.; Aumont, Olivier; Marie, Louis; Memery, Laurent.
Understanding the dynamic interplay between physical, biogeochemical and biological processes represents a key challenge in oceanography, particularly in shelf seas where complex hydrodynamics are likely to drive nutrient distribution and niche partitioning of phytoplankton communities. The Iroise Sea includes a tidal front called the ‘Ushant Front’ that undergoes a pronounced seasonal cycle, with a marked signal during the summer. These characteristics as well as relatively good observational sampling make it a region of choice to study processes impacting phytoplankton dynamics. This innovative modeling study employs a phytoplankton-diversity model, coupled to a regional circulation model to explore mechanisms that alter biogeography of phytoplankton in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Iroise Sea; Tidal mixing front; Biogeochemical modeling; Phytoplankton; Functional groups; Seasonal cycle.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00352/46367/45986.pdf
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Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 ArchiMer
Dufresne, J-l.; Foujols, M-a.; Denvil, S.; Caubel, A.; Marti, O.; Aumont, Olivier; Balkanski, Y.; Bekki, S.; Bellenger, H.; Benshila, R.; Bony, S.; Bopp, L.; Braconnot, P.; Brockmann, P.; Cadule, P.; Cheruy, F.; Codron, F.; Cozic, A; Cugnet, D.; De Noblet, N.; Duvel, J-p.; Ethe,; Fairhead, L.; Fichefet, T.; Flavoni, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Grandpeix, J-y.; Guez, L.; Guilyardi, E.; Hauglustaine, D.; Hourdin, F.; Idelkadi, A.; Ghattas, J.; Joussaume, S.; Kageyama, M.; Krinner, G.; Labetoulle, S.; Lahellec, A.; Lefebvre, M; Lefevre, F.; Levy, C.; Li, Zhanbin; Lloyd, J.; Lott, F.; Madec, G.; Mancip, M.; Marchand, M; Masson, S.; Meurdesoif, Y.; Mignot, J.; Musat, I.; Parouty, S.; Polcher, J.; Rio, C; Schulz, M.; Swingedouw, D.; Szopa, S.; Talandier, Claude; Terray, P.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N..
We present the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to study the long-term response of the climate system to natural and anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, and a comprehensive representation of aerosols. As it represents the principal dynamical, physical, and bio-geochemical processes relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model may be used in a multitude of configurations associated with different boundary conditions and with a range of complexities in terms of processes and interactions. This paper...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Climate; Climate change; Climate projections; Earth System Model; CMIP5; CMIP3; Greenhouse gases; Aerosols; Carbon cycle; Allowable emissions; RCP scenarios; Land use changes.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00138/24966/23079.pdf
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Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna ArchiMer
Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Dufour, Florence; Kell, Laurence; Merino, Gorka; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; Chust, Guillem; Irigoien, Xabier; Santiago, Jose Luis; Murua, Hilario; Fraile, Igaratza; Chifflet, Marina; Goikoetxea, Nerea; Sagarminaga, Yolanda; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Herrera, Miguel; Fromentin, Jean-marc; Bonhomeau, Sylvain.
In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalized Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Habitat; Tuna fisheries; Catch/effort; Environmental conditions; Quotient analysis; Generalised Additive Models; Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management.
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00201/31190/29589.pdf
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Global impact of tropical cyclones on primary production ArchiMer
Menkes, Christophe E.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Levy, Marina; Ethe, Christian; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Vincent, Emmanuel; Vialard, Jerome; Jullien, Swen.
In this paper, we explore the global responses of surface temperature, chlorophyll and primary production to tropical cyclones (TCs). Those ocean responses are first characterized from the statistical analysis of satellite data under ~1000 TCs over the 1998-2007 period. Besides the cold wake, the vast majority of TCs induce a weak chlorophyll response, with only ~10% of induced blooms exceeding 0.1 mg.m-3. The largest chlorophyll responses mostly occur within coastal regions, in contrast to the strongest cold wakes that generally occur farther offshore. To understand this decoupling, we analyze a coupled dynamical-biogeochemical oceanic simulation forced by realistic wind vortices applied along observed TC tracks. The simulation displays a realistic...
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Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00333/44449/44121.pdf
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Impact of nearshore wind stress curl on coastal circulation and primary productivity in the Peru upwelling system ArchiMer
Albert, A.; Echevin, V.; Levy, M; Aumont, Olivier.
Coastal upwelling dynamics are strongly affected by alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl. A coupled physical-biogeochemical regional model and lagrangian diagnostics are used in the Peru current system to determine how the upwelling of nutrients and the primary productivity are impacted by the spatial structure of the nearshore wind stress. Three wind stress products derived from the ERS and QuikSCAT scatterometers and a smoothed QuikSCAT field, mainly differing in nearshore wind stress curl patterns, were used. Simulations are found to produce significantly different mean surface chlorophyll distributions and show that strong upwelling-favorable nearshore wind stress curl may locally induce a wide coastal productive zone through upwelling...
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Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00025/13648/10882.pdf
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Improving the inverse modeling of a trace isotope: how precisely can radium-228 fluxes toward the ocean and submarine groundwater discharge be estimated? ArchiMer
Le Gland, Guillaume; Memery, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Resplandy, Laure.
Radium-228 (Ra-228), an almost conservative trace isotope in the ocean, supplied from the continental shelves and removed by a known radioactive decay (T-1/2 - 5.75 years), can be used as a proxy to constrain shelf fluxes of other trace elements, such as nutrients, iron, or rare earth elements. In this study, we perform inverse modeling of a global Ra-228 dataset (including GEOSECS, TTO and GEOTRACES programs, and, for the first time, data from the Arctic and around the Kerguelen Islands) to compute the total Ra-228 fluxes toward the ocean, using the ocean circulation obtained from the NEMO 3.6 model with a 2 degrees resolution. We optimized the inverse calculation (source regions, cost function) and find a global estimate of the Ra-228 fluxes of 8.01-8.49...
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Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00616/72811/72571.pdf
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Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean ArchiMer
Currie, J. C.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, Jerome; Kaplan, David; Aumont, Olivier; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Maury, Olivier.
The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are independent climate modes, which frequently co-occur, driving significant interannual changes within the Indian Ocean. We use a four-decade hindcast from a coupled biophysical ocean general circulation model, to disentangle patterns of chlorophyll anomalies driven by these two climate modes. Comparisons with remotely sensed records show that the simulation competently reproduces the chlorophyll seasonal cycle, as well as open-ocean anomalies during the 1997/1998 ENSO and IOD event. Results suggest that anomalous surface and euphotic-layer chlorophyll blooms in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in fall, and southern Bay of Bengal in winter, are primarily related to IOD forcing....
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Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00166/27749/25945.pdf
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Influence of mesoscale eddies on biological production in the Mozambique Channel: Several contrasted examples from a coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model ArchiMer
Jose, Yonss; Aumont, Olivier; Machu, Eric; Penven, Pierrick; Moloney, C. L.; Maury, Olivier.
The impact of mesoscale activity on phytoplankton and nutrient distribution in the Mozambique Channel was simulated by coupling a biogeochemical model (PISCES) with a regional oceanic model (ROMS). Examples of the effects of eddies on the biogeochemistry of the Mozambique Channel are presented to illustrate the complexity of the system. In the model, several cyclonic eddies were found with low concentrations of chlorophyll at their cores, which contrasts with previous studies in the open ocean. In addition, several anticyclonic eddies were simulated with high concentrations of chlorophyll at their cores. Phytoplankton growth within these mesoscale features (both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies) occurred in response to nutrient injection into the euphotic...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ocean physical-biogeochemical coupling; Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies; Chlorophyll; Nutrients; Mozambique Channel.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00162/27320/25549.pdf
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Intraseasonal variability of nearshore productivity in the Northern Humboldt Current System: the role of coastal trapped waves ArchiMer
Echevin, Vincent; Albert, Aurelie; Levy, Marina; Graco, Michelle; Aumont, Olivier; Pietri, Alice; Garric, Gilles.
The impact of intraseasonal coastal-trapped waves on the nearshore Peru ecosystem is investigated using observations and a regional eddy-resolving physical-ecosystem coupled model. Model results show that intraseasonal variability over the period 2000–2006 represents about one fourth of the total surface chlorophyll variance and one third of the carbon export variance on the Peruvian shelf. Evidence is presented that subsurface nutrient and chlorophyll intraseasonal variability are mainly forced by the coastally trapped waves triggered by intraseasonal equatorial Kelvin waves reaching the south american coast, and propagate poleward along the Peru shore at a speed close to that of high order coastal trapped waves modes. The currents associated with the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Coastally trapped waves; Upwelling dynamics; Humboldt system; Intraseasonal variability; Primary productivity.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00166/27692/25885.pdf
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Large Re-emergence of Anthropogenic Carbon Into the Ocean’s Surface Mixed Layer Sustained by the Ocean’s Overturning Circulation ArchiMer
Toyama, Katsuya; Rodgers, Keith B.; Blanke, Bruno; Iudicone, Daniele; Ishii, Masao; Aumont, Olivier; Sarmiento, Jorge L..
We evaluate the output from a widely used ocean carbon cycle model to identify the subduction and obduction (re-emergence) rates of anthropogenic carbon (Cant) for climatological conditions during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) era in 1995 using a new set of Lagrangian diagnostic tools. The principal scientific value of the Lagrangian diagnostics is in providing a new means to connect Cant re-emergence pathways to the relatively rapid renewal timescales of mode waters through the overturning circulation. Our main finding is that for this model with 2.04 PgC/yr of uptake of Cant via gas exchange, the subduction and obduction rates across the base of the mixed layer (MLbase) are 4.96 PgC/yr and 4.50 PgC/yr, respectively, which are twice as...
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Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00395/50610/51323.pdf
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Modelling N2 fixation related to Trichodesmium sp.: driving processes and impacts on primary production in the tropical Pacific Ocean ArchiMer
Dutheil, Cyril; Aumont, Olivier; Gorgues, Thomas; Lorrain, Anne; Bonnet, Sophie; Rodier, Martine; Dupouy, Cecile; Shiozaki, Takuhei; Menkes, Christophe.
Dinitrogen fixation is now recognized as one of the major sources of bio-available nitrogen in the ocean. Thus, N2 fixation sustains a significant part of the global primary production by supplying the most common limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth. The Oligotrophy to UlTra-oligotrophy PACific Experiment (OUTPACE) improved the data coverage of the western tropical South Pacific, an area recently recognized as a hotspot of N2 fixation. This new development leads us to develop and test an explicit N2 fixation formulation based on the Trichodesmium physiology (the most studied nitrogen fixer) within a 3-D coupled dynamical–biogeochemical model (ROMS-PISCES). We performed a climatological numerical simulation that is able to reproduce the main physical...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00419/53042/53979.pdf
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Net primary productivity estimates and environmental variables in the Arctic Ocean: An assessment of coupled physical-biogeochemical models ArchiMer
Lee, Younjoo J.; Matrai, Patricia A.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Aumont, Olivier; Babin, Marcel; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Chevallier, Matthieu; De Mora, Lee; Dessert, Morgane; Dunne, John P.; Ellingsen, Ingrid H.; Feldman, Doron; Frouin, Robert; Gehlen, Marion; Gorgues, Thomas; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jin, Meibing; John, Jasmin G.; Lawrence, Jon; Manizza, Manfredi; Menkes, Christophe E.; Perruche, Coralie; Le Fouest, Vincent; Popova, Ekaterina E.; Romanou, Anastasia; Samuelsen, Annette; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Stock, Charles A.; Tjiputra, Jerry; Tremblay, Bruno; Ueyoshi, Kyozo; Vichi, Marcello; Yool, Andrew; Zhang, Jinlun.
The relative skill of 21 regional and global biogeochemical models was assessed in terms of how well the models reproduced observed net primary productivity (NPP) and environmental variables such as nitrate concentration (NO3), mixed layer depth (MLD), euphotic layer depth (Z(eu)), and sea ice concentration, by comparing results against a newly updated, quality-controlled in situ NPP database for the Arctic Ocean (1959-2011). The models broadly captured the spatial features of integrated NPP (iNPP) on a pan-Arctic scale. Most models underestimated iNPP by varying degrees in spite of overestimating surface NO3, MLD, and Z(eu) throughout the regions. Among the models, iNPP exhibited little difference over sea ice condition (ice-free versus ice-influenced)...
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Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00373/48441/69564.pdf
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Physical control of interannual variations of the winter chlorophyll bloom in the northern Arabian Sea ArchiMer
Keerthi, Madhavan Girijakumari; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Levy, Marina; Vialard, Jerome; Parvathi, Vallivattathillam; De Boyer Montegut, Clement; Ethe, Christian; Aumont, Olivier; Suresh, Iyyappan; Akhil, Valiya Parambil; Muraleedharan, Pillathu Moolayil.
The northern Arabian Sea hosts a winter chlorophyll bloom, triggered by convective overturning in response to cold and dry northeasterly monsoon winds. Previous studies of interannual variations of this bloom only relied on a couple of years of data and reached no consensus on the associated processes. The current study aims at identifying these processes using both similar to 10 years of observations (including remotely sensed chlorophyll data and physical parameters derived from Argo data) and a 20-year-long coupled biophysical ocean model simulation. Despite discrepancies in the estimated bloom amplitude, the six different remotely sensed chlorophyll products analysed in this study display a good phase agreement at seasonal and interannual timescales....
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Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00395/50625/51332.pdf
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Phytoplankton growth formulation in marine ecosystem models: Should we take into account photo-acclimation and variable stoichiometry in oligotrophic areas? ArchiMer
Ayata, S. -d.; Levy, Marina; Aumont, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine; Sainte-marie, J.; Tagliabue, A.; Bernard, Olivier.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the consequences of accounting for variable Chl:C (chlorophyll:carbon) and C:N (carbon:nitrogen) ratios in the formulation of phytoplankton growth in biogeochemical models. We compare the qualitative behavior of a suite of phytoplankton growth formulations with increasing complexity: 1) a Redfield formulation (constant C:N ratio) without photo-acclimation (constant Chl:C ratio), 2) a Redfield formulation with diagnostic chlorophyll (variable and empirical Chl:C ratio), 3) a quota formulation (variable C:N ratio) with diagnostic chlorophyll, and 4) a quota formulation with prognostic chlorophyll (dynamic variable). These phytoplankton growth formulations are embedded in a simple marine ecosystem model in a 1D framework...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Biogeochemical modeling; Phytoplankton; Photo-acclimation; Redfield ratio; Internal quota; BATS; Optimization; Micro-genetic algorithm.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00159/27071/25460.pdf
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Projected decreases in future marine export production: the role of the carbon flux through the upper ocean ecosystem ArchiMer
Laufkotter, Charlotte; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C.; Dunne, John P.; Hauck, Judith; John, Jasmin G.; Lima, Ivan D.; Seferian, Roland; Volker, Christoph.
Accurate projections of marine particle export production (EP) are crucial for predicting the response of the marine carbon cycle to climate change, yet models show a wide range in both global EP and their responses to climate change. This is, in part, due to EP being the net result of a series of processes, starting with net primary production (NPP) in the sunlit upper ocean, followed by the formation of particulate organic matter and the subsequent sinking and remineralisation of these particles, with each of these processes responding differently to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we compare future projections in EP over the 21st century, generated by four marine ecosystem models under the high emission scenario Representative Concentration...
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Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00600/71205/69576.pdf
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Seasonal and intraseasonal biogeochemical variability in the thermocline ridge of the southern tropical Indian Ocean ArchiMer
Resplandy, L.; Vialard, Jerome; Levy, M.; Aumont, Olivier; Dandonneau, Y..
The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) time series shows high variability of surface chlorophyll at seasonal and intraseasonal time scales in the oligotrophic southern tropical Indian Ocean thermocline ridge called the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR). The SCTR is characterized by an open ocean upwelling due to local Ekman pumping, which annually maintains the mixed layer (ML) shallow and is responsive to atmospheric forcing and in particular to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) at an intraseasonal time scale. Here we present an overview of SCTR biogeochemistry and investigate the physical processes driving the response observed at seasonal and intraseasonal time scales. Using satellite observations and biophysical ocean...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Madden julian oscillation; Arabian sea; Rossby waves; Interannual variability; Circulation model; Monsoon; Temperature; Perturbations; Nutrients; Dynamics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00185/29630/27994.pdf
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Simulated changes in the particulate carbon export efficiency due to diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the North Atlantic ArchiMer
Gorgues, Thomas; Aumont, Olivier; Memery, Laurent.
Diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton has been recognized to influence the biological pump by releasing carbon and nutrients at depth. However, uncertainties regarding the magnitude, spatial occurrence and variability of this “active transport”, as well as its impact on the carbon export, remain. To tackle these questions, a cost‐effective parameterization of the DVM is included into a regional biogeochemical model simulating the North Atlantic. In addition to a reference simulation in which no DVM is simulated, two relative biomasses of migrating zooplankton (30% and 60%) have been tested. It leads to an active to passive export ratio in agreement with published estimations and to an increase in the carbon export efficiency at 1000m between 20 and...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00493/60428/63868.pdf
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Strong sensitivity of Southern Ocean carbon uptake and nutrient cycling to wind stirring ArchiMer
Rodgers, K. B.; Aumont, Olivier; Fletcher, S. E. Mikaloff; Plancherel, Y.; Bopp, L.; De Boyer Montegut, Clement; Iudicone, D.; Keeling, R. F.; Madec, Gerard; Wanninkhof, R..
Here we test the hypothesis that winds have an important role in determining the rate of exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and ocean through wind stirring over the Southern Ocean. This is tested with a sensitivity study using an ad hoc parameterization of wind stirring in an ocean carbon cycle model, where the objective is to identify the way in which perturbations to the vertical density structure of the planetary boundary in the ocean impacts the carbon cycle and ocean biogeochemistry. Wind stirring leads to reduced uptake of CO2 by the Southern Ocean over the period 2000-2006, with a relative reduction with wind stirring on the order of 0.9 Pg C yr(-1) over the region south of 45 degrees S. This impacts not only the mean carbon uptake, but also the...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00211/32236/30684.pdf
Registros recuperados: 22
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