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A FUNCTIONAL AGROBIODIVERSITY APPROACH TO IMPROVE ORGANIC WHEAT PRODUCTION Organic Eprints
Costanzo, Ambrogio; Bàrberi, Paolo.
Crop agrobiodiversity is an asset to improve organic and low-input wheat production, but a clear framework is necessary to translate scientific evidences into practice. Here we present results from a field experiment on common wheat, focusing of cultivar identity, genetic heterogeneity and on the inclusion of a legume living mulch. This experiment provided us insights on how to improve yield, yield stability and weed reduction through adequate cultivar choice and diversification of the crop stand.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23988/1/23988%20Organic%20World%20Congress%202014_MM.pdf
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Can weed management in vegetable systems be improved by cover crop species mixtures? Step 2: field implementation Organic Eprints
Ranaldo, Marzia; Carlesi, Stefano; Costanzo, Ambrogio; Bàrberi, Paolo.
Cover crops are a fundamental tool for weed control, especially in organic and low input farming. Species with different functional traits can be combined in mixtures to enhance weed suppression. Our aim was to test the relative importance of functional diversity and functional composition (i.e. complementarity) in improving and stabilising the agroecosystem services expected from cover crops. Following a preliminary screening on cover crop functional traits (Step 1), we identified 8 species belonging to 4 functional groups: large seeded legumes, characterized by higher height (Pisum sativum L., Vicia sativa L.), small seeded legumes, able to cover quickly the soil (Trifolium incarnatum L., T. squarrosum L.), highly competitive grasses (Hordeum vulgare...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Production systems; Farming Systems; Soil tillage; Vegetables; Weed management.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/31546/1/Ranaldo%20et%20al%20%282016%29_IWSS%20Prague.pdf
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Designing cover crop mixtures to enhance potential weed suppression in organic no-till vegetable systems Organic Eprints
Ranaldo, Marzia; Carlesi, Stefano; Costanzo, Ambrogio; Bàrberi, Paolo.
Cover crops play a key role in weed management strategy in no-till organic and low input vegetable systems. The ability of cover crops to reduce weed pressure can be linked to the amount of biomass produced at the time of cover crop devitalisation. Cover crop mixtures, in particular functional diversity in cover crop mixtures, can be managed to improve biomass production and weed suppressive ability of cover crops. We tested eight cover crop species pure stands and designed nine cover crop mixtures at increasing levels of functional diversity. The aim of this study was to highlight the effect of cover crops' functional diversity in controlling weeds before aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) transplanting. We showed that the functional composition (i.e. the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Composting and manuring; Weed management.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/32798/1/esa14_abstract_Ranaldo.pdf
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DIVERSITY OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES AMONG EUROPEAN ORGANIC FARMERS “TILMAN-ORG SESSION” Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers for adopting conservation agriculture practices is currently growing. But, there are few technical and scientific references available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices. The main objectives of this study are (1) to explore the diversity of crop management practices using conservation agriculture methods among European farmers, and (2) to identify main farmers’ strategies. We carried out a survey of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a multi factor analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of spring and winter crop managements. Organic farmers in Europe,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23910/1/23910_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Functional agrobiodiversity and agroecosystem services in sustainable wheat production. A review Organic Eprints
Costanzo, Ambrogio; Bàrberi, Paolo.
Agrobiodiversity can improve the sustainability of cropping systems in a context of low external inputs and unpredictable climate change. Agrobiodiversity strategies to grow wheat are breeding ad hoc cultivars for organic and low-input systems, wheat–legume intercrops and living mulches, cultivar mixtures, and the use of genetically heterogeneous populations. However, applying those strategies can fail due the lack of a well-focused framework. Therefore, we need a better integration between breeding and management and a clear focus on crop traits related to key agroecosystem services. Here, we review the use of agrobiodiversity in wheat production, focusing on breeding and management. We discuss five agroecosystem services: (1) weed reduction, (2) nitrogen...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24146/1/Costanzo-and-Barberi-2013-AgronSustainDev-online.pdf
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How organic farmers practice conservation agriculture in Europe Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; Payet, Vincent; David, Christophe; Sans, F. Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José M.; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beechman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers in adopting conservation agriculture principles, including minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotation has been growing since the early 2000s. However, currently there is no network for organic farmers practicing conservation agriculture, and a lack of knowledge on how organic farmers implement conservation agriculture in practice. Consequently, few technical references are available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices, in particular on controlling weeds without the use of herbicides. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to explore the diversity of conservation agriculture techniques (i.e., reduced tillage, no-tillage and green manures) practiced among...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality; Environmental aspects; Europe.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/31244/1/peigne-etal-2015-Howorganicfarmerspractice-RAaFS-31-1-p72-85.pdf
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Is agroecology the most sustainable approach for all organic farming systems? Organic Eprints
Bàrberi, Paolo.
Analysis of very diverse Italian organic production systems through dedicated research projects revealed that all of them have ample margins of improvement in sustainability. The ‘multifunctional organic system’ (small-scale farms, produce sold on local or regional markets, agroecologically-based management) must seek optimisation of production, cost reduction, and a better access/distribution of labour in peak times. The ‘specialised organic system’ (medium-large farms, produce sold on supermarkets or abroad, input substitution-based management) should seek viable, more ecologically-based alternatives to input substitution to mitigate its high environmental impact. Literature suggests that this divergence between organic production systems is occurring in...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farm economics; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24436/1/24436.pdf
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ORGANIC FARMERS IN EUROPE: MOTIVATIONS AND PROBLEMS FOR USING CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES. "TILMAN-ORG Session" Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Peigne, Joséphine; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Peetsmann, Elen; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
As conservation agriculture and organic farming are currently considered as environmentally friendly options for producing food, this study explores the motivations and problems of organic European farmers that apply at least two of the following techniques: (i) no-tillage, (ii) reduced tillage and/or (iii) green manures conservation practices. We carried out a survey about motivations and problems of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a principal component analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of motivations and problems. The most important motivations are related to soil preservation concerns and problems are mainly linked...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Social aspects; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23939/1/23939_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Soil arthropod diversity in organic, integrated and conventional olive orchards in Crete Organic Eprints
Gkisakis, Vasileios; Kollaros, Dimitrios; Bàrberi, Paolo; Livierattos, Ioannis; Kampourakis , Emmanouil.
Soil fauna biodiversity and its functional counterpart were monitored in 24 olive orchards under conventional, organic and integrated management located in eight different locations for a year in Messara valley, in southern Crete. In each location three neighbouring orchards under different management were monitored. Pitfall traps were used as trapping method and fixed data collection points were used in each olive orchard for arthropod fauna monitoring. Counter groups of functional taxa were defined, with respect to services of biological pest control and of nutrient cycling in the olive agroecosystem, Monitoring took place weekly for 5 weeks per season, all year around. Comparison of the different management systems in terms of abundance and diversity of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/24037/1/24037_MM.pdf
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