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Nodal Pricing and Transmission Losses: An Application to a Hydroelectric Power System AgEcon
Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Guertin, Chantal.
Since January 1, 1997, the wholesale electricity market in the United States has been open to competition. To satisfy the reciprocity requirements imposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Hydro-Quebec, a Canadian utility, made its transmission grid accessible to third parties. Under the current regulation, transmission losses are taken into account through a single, constant rate; location and time of use play no role. Hydro-Quebec generates most of its electricity from hydro resources. Long high-voltage power lines link production in the North to consumption centers in the South, where there are interconnections with neighboring areas. We develop an optimization model that allows us to calculate nodal prices on the basis of the opportunity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Transmission pricing; Hydropower; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10724
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The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Tipping Points, Uncertainty and Weak Identification AgEcon
Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Gavin, Michael; Khalaf, Lynda; Voia, Marcel.
We consider an empirical estimation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide and sulphur, with a focus on confidence set estimation of the tipping point. Various econometric – parametric and nonparametric – methods are considered, reflecting the implications of persistence, endogeneity, the necessity of breaking down our panel regionally, and the small number of countries within each panel. In particular, we propose an inference method that corrects for potential weak-identification of the tipping point. Weak identification may occur if the true EKC is linear while a quadratic income term is nevertheless imposed into the estimated equation. Relevant literature to date confirms that non-linearity of the EKC is indeed not granted, which...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Kuznets Curve; Fieller method; Delta method; CO2 and SO2 emissions; Confidence set; Tipping point; Climate policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; C52; Q51; Q52; Q56.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119109
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The Measurement of the Energy Intensity of Manufacturing Industries: A Principal Components Analysis AgEcon
Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Cote, Bruno.
Energy intensity is the ratio of energy use to output. Most industries deal with several energy sources and outputs. This leads to the usual difficulties of aggregating heterogeneous inputs and outputs. We apply principal components analysis to assess the information derived from six energy intensity indicators. We use two measures of total energy use (thermal and economic) and three measures of industry output (value added, value of production, and value of shipments). The data comes from manufacturing industries in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia from 1976 to 1996. We find that the variation of the six energy intensity indicators that is accounted for by the first principal component is quite large. However, depending on how variables are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy intensity; Aggregation; Principal components analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q40; C43; L60.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10544
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